Difference between revisions of "Network configuration"

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[[ru:Network configuration]]
 
[[ru:Network configuration]]
 
[[sk:Network configuration]]
 
[[sk:Network configuration]]
[[tr:Ağ Yapılandırması]]
 
 
[[zh-hans:Network configuration]]
 
[[zh-hans:Network configuration]]
 
[[zh-hant:Network configuration]]
 
[[zh-hant:Network configuration]]
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related articles start}}
 +
{{Related|Network Debugging}}
 +
{{Related|Firewalls}}
 
{{Related|Jumbo frames}}
 
{{Related|Jumbo frames}}
{{Related|Firewalls}}
+
{{Related|Internet sharing}}
{{Related|Wireless network configuration}}
+
{{Related|Router}}
{{Related|Network bridge}}
 
{{Related|List of applications/Internet#Network managers}}
 
{{Related|Network Debugging}}
 
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 +
This article explains how to configure a network connection.
 +
 +
== Check the connection ==
 +
 +
To troubleshoot a network connection, go through the following conditions and ensure that you meet them:
  
This page explains how to set up a '''wired''' connection to a network. If you need to set up '''wireless''' networking see the [[Wireless network configuration]] page.
+
# Your [[#Network interfaces|network interface]] is listed and enabled.
 +
# You are connected to the network. The cable is plugged in or you are [[Wireless network configuration|connected to the wireless LAN]].
 +
# Your network interface has an [[#IP addresses|IP address]]
 +
# Your [[#Routing table|routing table]] is correctly set up.
 +
# You can [[#Ping|ping]] a local IP address (e.g. your default gateway).
 +
# You can [[#Ping|ping]] a public IP address (e.g. {{ic|8.8.8.8}}), if you can't it may be related to your default gateway or your internet service provider.
 +
# [[Check if you can resolve domain names]] (e.g. {{ic|archlinux.org}}).
  
== Check the connection ==
+
{{Note|{{ic|8.8.8.8}} is a static address that is easy to remember. It is the address of Google's primary DNS server, therefore it can be considered reliable, and is generally not blocked by content filtering systems and proxies.}}
  
The basic installation procedure typically has a functional network configuration. Use {{man|8|ping}} to check the connection:
+
=== Ping ===
  
{{hc|$ ping www.google.com|2=
+
{{Expansion|Add or link explanation of common ping errors like Unknown hosts / Network is unreachable.}}
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.132.105) 56(84) bytes of data.
 
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
 
...
 
}}
 
  
If the ping is successful (you see 64 bytes messages as above), then the network is configured. Press {{ic|Control-C}} to stop the ping.
+
[[Wikipedia:Ping (networking utility)|ping]] is used to test if you can reach a host.
  
If the ping failed with an ''Unknown hosts'' error, it  means that your machine was unable to resolve this domain name. It may be related to your service provider or your router/gateway. Try pinging a static IP address to prove that your machine has access to the Internet:
+
{{hc|$ ping www.example.com|2=
 +
PING www.example.com (93.184.216.34): 56(84) data bytes
 +
64 bytes from 93.184.216.34: icmp_seq=0 ttl=56 time=11.632 ms
 +
64 bytes from 93.184.216.34: icmp_seq=1 ttl=56 time=11.726 ms
 +
64 bytes from 93.184.216.34: icmp_seq=2 ttl=56 time=10.683 ms
 +
...}}
  
{{hc|$ ping 8.8.8.8|<nowiki>
+
For every reply you receive ping prints a line like above. For more information see the {{man|8|ping}} manual.
PING 8.8.8.8 (8.8.8.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
 
64 bytes from 8.8.8.8: icmp_req=1 ttl=53 time=52.9 ms
 
...
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
If you are able to ping {{ic|8.8.8.8}} but not {{ic|www.google.com}}, check your DNS configuration. See [[resolv.conf]] for details. The {{ic|hosts}} line in {{ic|/etc/nsswitch.conf}} is another place you can check.
+
Note that computers can be configured not to respond to ICMP echo requests.[https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/412446/how-to-disable-ping-response-icmp-echo-in-linux-all-the-time]
  
If not, check for cable issues before diagnosing further.
+
When you receive no reply, you can use a [[Wikipedia:Traceroute|traceroute]] ({{man|8|traceroute}} or {{man|8|tracepath}}) to further diagnose the route to the host.
  
{{Note|
+
{{Note|If you receive an error like {{ic|ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted}} when executing ''ping'', try to re-install the {{Pkg|iputils}} package.}}
* If you receive an error like {{ic|ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted}} when executing ''ping'', try to re-install the {{Pkg|iputils}} package.
 
* The {{ic|-c ''num''}} option can be used to make exactly {{ic|''num''}} pings, otherwise it pings infinitely and has to be terminated manually. See {{man|8|ping}} for more information.
 
* {{ic|8.8.8.8}} is a static address that is easy to remember. It is the address of Google's primary DNS server, therefore it can be considered reliable, and is generally not blocked by content filtering systems and proxies.
 
}}
 
  
 
== Device driver ==
 
== Device driver ==
 +
 +
{{Move|/Wired|Section is Ethernet-specific.|section=Moving Ethernet-specific sections to Wired subpage}}
  
 
=== Check the status ===
 
=== Check the status ===
  
[[udev]] should detect your [[Wikipedia:Network interface controller|network interface controller]] and automatically load the necessary module at start up. Check the "Ethernet controller" entry (or similar) from the {{ic|lspci -v}} output. It should tell you which kernel module contains the driver for your network device. For example:
+
[[udev]] should detect your [[Wikipedia:Network interface controller|network interface controller]] (NIC) and automatically load the necessary [[kernel module]] at startup. Check the "Ethernet controller" entry (or similar) from the {{ic|lspci -v}} output. It should tell you which kernel module contains the driver for your network device. For example:
  
 
{{hc|$ lspci -v|
 
{{hc|$ lspci -v|
Line 68: Line 72:
 
}}
 
}}
  
Next, check that the driver was loaded via {{ic|dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep ''module_name''}}. For example:
+
Next, check that the driver was loaded via {{ic|dmesg {{!}} grep ''module_name''}}. For example:
  
{{hc|<nowiki>$ dmesg | grep atl1</nowiki>|
+
{{hc|$ dmesg {{!}} grep atl1|
 
...
 
...
 
atl1 0000:02:00.0: eth0 link is up 100 Mbps full duplex
 
atl1 0000:02:00.0: eth0 link is up 100 Mbps full duplex
Line 79: Line 83:
 
=== Load the module ===
 
=== Load the module ===
  
Search in the Internet for the right module/driver for the chipset. Some common modules are {{ic|8139too}} for cards with a Realtek chipset, or {{ic|sis900}} for cards with a SiS chipset. Once you know which module to use, try to [[Kernel modules#Manual module handling|load it manually]]. If you get an error saying that the module was not found, it's possible that the driver is not included in Arch kernel. You may search the [[AUR]] for the module name.
+
Search in the Internet for the right module/driver for the chipset. Some common modules are {{ic|8139too}} for cards with a Realtek chipset, or {{ic|sis900}} for cards with a SiS chipset. Once you know which module to use, try to [[Kernel modules#Manual module handling|load it manually]]. If you get an error saying that the module was not found, it is possible that the driver is not included in Arch kernel. You may search the [[AUR]] for the module name.
  
If udev is not detecting and loading the proper module automatically during bootup, see [[Kernel modules#Automatic module handling]].
+
If udev is not detecting and loading the proper module automatically during bootup, see [[Kernel module#Automatic module handling]].
  
 
== Network management ==
 
== Network management ==
  
=== Device names ===
+
To set up a network connection, go through the following steps:
 
 
For computers with multiple NICs, it is important to have fixed device names. Many configuration problems are caused by interface name changing.
 
 
 
[[udev]] is responsible for which device gets which name. Systemd uses [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames Predictable Network Interface Names], which automatically assigns static names to network devices. Interfaces are now prefixed with {{ic|en}} (wired/[[w:Ethernet|Ethernet]]), {{ic|wl}} (wireless/WLAN), or {{ic|ww}} ([[w:Wireless_WAN|WWAN]]) followed by an automatically generated identifier, creating an entry such as {{ic|enp0s25}}.
 
  
{{Tip|This behavior may be disabled by adding {{ic|1=net.ifnames=0}} to the [[kernel parameters]].}}
+
# Ensure your [[#Network interfaces|network interface]] is listed and enabled.
 +
# Connect to the network. Plug in the Ethernet cable or [[Wireless network configuration|connect to the wireless LAN]].
 +
# Configure your network connection:
 +
#* [[#Static IP address|static IP address]]
 +
#* dynamic IP address: use [[#DHCP|DHCP]]
  
{{Note|When changing the interface naming scheme, do not forget to update all network-related configuration files and custom systemd unit files to reflect the change.}}
+
{{Tip|[[#Network managers]] provide automatic network connection and configuration based on network profiles.}}
  
==== Get current device names ====
+
The {{Pkg|iproute2}} package provides the {{man|8|ip}} command-line utility, used to manage [[#Network interfaces|network interfaces]], [[#IP addresses|IP addresses]] and the [[#Routing table|routing table]]. Be aware that configuration made using {{ic|ip}} will be lost after a reboot. You can automate ''ip'' commands using scripts and [[systemd#Writing unit files|systemd units]]. Also note that {{ic|ip}} commands can generally be abbreviated, for clarity they are however spelled out in this article.
  
Both wired and wireless device names can be found via:
+
=== Network interfaces ===
  
$ ls /sys/class/net
+
By default [[udev]] assigns names to your network interfaces using [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames Predictable Network Interface Names], which prefixes interfaces names with {{ic|en}} (wired/[[Wikipedia:Ethernet|Ethernet]]), {{ic|wl}} (wireless/WLAN), or {{ic|ww}} ([[Wikipedia:Wireless WAN|WWAN]]).
  
or
+
{{Tip|To change interface names, see [[#Change interface name]] and [[#Revert to traditional interface names]].}}
  
$ ip link
+
==== Listing network interfaces ====
  
Note that {{ic|lo}} is the [[W:Loop_device]] and not used in making network connections.
+
Both wired and wireless interface names can be found via {{ic|ls /sys/class/net}} or {{ic|ip link}}. Note that {{ic|lo}} is the [[Wikipedia:loop device|loop device]] and not used in making network connections.
  
 
Wireless device names can also be retrieved using {{ic|iw dev}}. See also [[Wireless network configuration#Get the name of the interface]].
 
Wireless device names can also be retrieved using {{ic|iw dev}}. See also [[Wireless network configuration#Get the name of the interface]].
  
{{Tip|To change the device names, see [[#Change device name]] and [[#Revert to traditional device names]].}}
+
If your network interface is not listed, make sure your [[#Device driver|device driver]] was loaded successfully.
  
 
==== Enabling and disabling network interfaces ====
 
==== Enabling and disabling network interfaces ====
  
You can activate a network interface using:
+
Network interfaces can be enabled / disabled using {{ic|ip link set ''interface'' up{{!}}down}}, see {{man|8|ip-link}}.
  
# ip link set ''interface'' up
+
To check the status of the interface {{ic|eth0}}:
  
To deactivate it do:
+
{{hc|$ ip link show dev eth0|
 +
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
 +
...
 +
}}
  
# ip link set ''interface'' down
+
The {{ic|UP}} in {{ic|<BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP>}} is what indicates the interface is up, not the later {{ic|state DOWN}}.
  
To check the result for the interface {{ic|eth0}}:
+
{{Note|If your default route is through interface {{ic|eth0}}, taking it down will also remove the route, and bringing it back up will not automatically reestablish the default route.  See [[#Routing table]] for reestablishing it.}}
  
{{hc|$ ip link show dev eth0|
+
=== Static IP address ===
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,PROMISC,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
 
...
 
}}
 
  
{{Note| If your default route is through interface {{ic|eth0}}, taking it down will also remove the route, and bringing it back up will not automatically reestablish the default route.  See [[#Manual assignment]] for reestablishing it.}}
+
A static IP address can be configured with most standard [[#Network managers|network managers]] and also [[dhcpcd]].
  
=== Dynamic IP address ===
+
To manually configure a static IP address, add an IP address as described in [[#IP addresses]], set up your [[#Routing table|routing table]] and [[Domain name resolution|configure your DNS servers]].
  
See [[#Network managers]] for a list of options in setting a dynamic IP address.
+
=== IP addresses ===
  
=== Static IP address ===
+
[[Wikipedia:IP address|IP addresses]] are managed using {{man|8|ip-address}}.
  
A static IP address can be configured with most standard [[#Network managers|network managers]]. Independently of the tool you choose, you will probably need to be prepared with the following information:
+
List IP addresses:
  
* Static IP address
+
$ ip address show
* Subnet mask, or possibly its [[wikipedia:Classless Inter-Domain Routing#CIDR notation|CIDR notation]], for example {{ic|/24}} is the CIDR notation of {{ic|255.255.255.0}} netmask.
 
* [[Wikipedia:Broadcast_address|Broadcast address]]
 
* [[Wikipedia:Default_gateway|Gateway]]'s IP address
 
* Name server (DNS) IP addresses. See also [[resolv.conf]].
 
  
If you are running a private network, it is safe to use IP addresses in {{ic|192.168.*.*}} for your IP addresses, with a subnet mask of {{ic|255.255.255.0}} and a broadcast address of {{ic|192.168.*.255}}. The gateway is usually {{ic|192.168.*.1}} or {{ic|192.168.*.254}}.
+
Add an IP address to an interface:
  
{{Warning|
+
# ip address add ''address/prefix_len'' broadcast + dev ''interface''
* Make sure manually assigned IP addresses do not conflict with DHCP assigned ones. See [http://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f&#61;28&t&#61;16797 this forum thread].
 
* If you share your Internet connection from a Windows machine without a router, be sure to use static IP addresses on both computers to avoid LAN problems.
 
}}
 
  
{{Tip|Addresses can be calculated with the {{Pkg|ipcalc}} package; see [[#Calculating addresses]].}}
+
:Note that:
  
==== Manual assignment ====
+
:* the address is given in [[Wikipedia:Classless Inter-Domain Routing#CIDR notation|CIDR notation]] to also supply a [[Wikipedia:Subnetwork|subnet mask]]
 +
:* {{ic|+}} is a special symbol that makes {{ic|ip}} derive the [[Wikipedia:Broadcast address|broadcast address]] from the IP address and the subnet mask
  
It is possible to manually set up a static IP using only the {{pkg|iproute2}} package. This is a good way to test connection settings since the connection made using this method will not persist across reboots. First enable the [[#Device names|network interface]]:
+
:{{Note|Make sure manually assigned IP addresses do not conflict with DHCP assigned ones. See [http://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f&#61;28&t&#61;16797 this forum thread].
 +
}}
  
# ip link set ''interface'' up
+
Delete an IP address from an interface:
  
Assign a static IP address in the console:
+
$ ip address del ''address/prefix_len'' dev ''interface''
  
# ip addr add ''IP_address''/''subnet_mask'' broadcast ''broadcast_address'' dev ''interface''
+
Delete all addresses matching a criteria, e.g. of a specific interface:
  
Then add your gateway IP address:
+
$ ip address flush dev ''interface''
  
# ip route add default via ''default_gateway''
+
{{Tip|IP addresses can be calculated with [http://jodies.de/ipcalc ipcalc] ({{Pkg|ipcalc}}).}}
  
For example:
+
=== Routing table ===
  
# ip link set eth0 up
+
The [[Wikipedia:Routing table|routing table]] is used to determine if you can reach an IP address directly or what gateway (router) you should use. If no other route matches the IP address, the [[Wikipedia:Default gateway|default gateway]] is used.
# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 broadcast 192.168.1.255 dev eth0
 
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1
 
  
{{Tip|If you get the message {{ic|RTNETLINK answers: Network is unreachable}}, try to break up the route creation in the following two parts:
+
The routing table is managed using {{man|8|ip-route}}.
  
# ip route add 192.168.1.1 dev eth0
+
''PREFIX'' is either a CIDR notation or {{ic|default}} for the default gateway.
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1 dev eth0
 
}}
 
  
To undo these steps (e.g. before switching to a dynamic IP), first remove any assigned IP address:
+
List routes:
  
  # ip addr flush dev ''interface''
+
  $ ip route show
  
Then remove any assigned gateway:
+
Add a route:
  
  # ip route flush dev ''interface''
+
  # ip route add ''PREFIX'' via ''address'' dev ''interface''
  
And finally disable the interface:
+
Delete a route:
  
  # ip link set ''interface'' down
+
  # ip route del ''PREFIX'' via ''address'' dev ''interface''
  
For more options, see the {{man|8|ip}}. These commands can be automated using scripts and [[systemd#Writing unit files|systemd units]].
+
=== DHCP ===
  
==== Calculating addresses ====
+
A [[Wikipedia:Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol|Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol]] (DHCP) server provides clients with a dynamic IP address, the subnet mask, the default gateway IP address and optionally also with DNS name servers.
  
You can use {{ic|ipcalc}} provided by the {{Pkg|ipcalc}} package to calculate IP broadcast, network, netmask, and host ranges for more advanced configurations. An example is using Ethernet over Firewire to connect a Windows machine to Linux. To improve security and organization, both machines have their own network with the netmask and broadcast configured accordingly.
+
{{Note|You should not run two DHCP clients simultaneously.}}
  
Finding out the respective netmask and broadcast addresses is done with {{ic|ipcalc}}, by specifying the IP of the Linux NIC {{ic|10.66.66.1}} and the number of hosts (here two):
+
To use DHCP you need a DHCP server in your network and a DHCP client:
  
{{hc|$ ipcalc -nb 10.66.66.1 -s 1|<nowiki>
+
{| class="wikitable"
Address:   10.66.66.1
+
! Client !! Package !! [[Archiso]] !! Note !! Systemd units
 +
|-
 +
| [[dhcpcd]] || {{Pkg|dhcpcd}} || {{Yes}} || DHCP, DHCPv6, ZeroConf, static IP || {{ic|dhcpcd.service}}, {{ic|dhcpcd@''interface''.service}}
 +
|-
 +
| [https://www.isc.org/downloads/dhcp/ ISC dhclient] || {{Pkg|dhclient}} || {{Yes}} || DHCP, BOOTP, static IP || {{ic|dhclient@''interface''.service}}
 +
|}
  
Netmask:  255.255.255.252 = 30
+
Note that instead of directly using a DHCP client you can also use a [[#Network managers|network manager]].
Network:  10.66.66.0/30
+
 
HostMin:  10.66.66.1
+
{{Tip|You can check if a DHCP server is running with {{Pkg|dhcping}}.}}
HostMax:  10.66.66.2
 
Broadcast: 10.66.66.3
 
Hosts/Net: 2                    Class A, Private Internet
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
 
=== Network managers ===
 
=== Network managers ===
 +
A network manager lets you manage network connection settings in so called network profiles to facilitate switching networks.
  
There are many solutions to choose from, but remember that all of them are mutually exclusive; you should not run two daemons simultaneously. The following table compares the different connection managers. ''Automatically handles wired connection'' means that there is at least one option for the user to simply start the daemon without creating a configuration file.
+
{{Note|There are many solutions to choose from, but remember that all of them are mutually exclusive; you should not run two daemons simultaneously.}}
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
! Connection manager || Automatically handles<br>wired connection || Official <br>GUI || [[Archiso]] [https://git.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.both] || Console tools || Systemd units
+
! Network manager || GUI || [[Archiso]] [https://git.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.both] || CLI tools || [[Wikipedia:Point-to-Point Protocol|PPP]] support <br>(e.g. 3G modem) || [[#DHCP]] client || Systemd units
|-
 
| [[ConnMan]] || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{ic|connmanctl}} || {{ic|connman.service}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[dhcpcd]] || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{Yes}} ({{grp|base}}) || {{ic|dhcpcd}} || {{ic|dhcpcd.service}}, {{ic|dhcpcd@''interface''.service}}
+
| [[ConnMan]] || {{Y|8 unofficial}} || {{No}} || {{G|{{man|1|connmanctl}}}} || {{Yes}} || internal || {{ic|connman.service}}
 
|-
 
|-
| [[netctl]] || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{Yes}} ({{grp|base}}) || {{ic|netctl}} || {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}}
+
| [[netctl]] || {{Y|2 unofficial}} || {{Yes}} ({{grp|base}}) || {{G|{{man|1|netctl}}, wifi-menu}} || {{Yes}} || [[dhcpcd]] or {{Pkg|dhclient}} || {{ic|netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service}}, {{ic|netctl-auto@''interface''.service}}
 
|-
 
|-
| [[NetworkManager]] || {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{ic|nmcli}},{{ic|nmtui}} || {{ic|NetworkManager.service}}
+
| [[NetworkManager]] || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{G|{{man|1|nmcli}}, {{man|1|nmtui}}}} || {{Yes}} || internal, [[dhcpcd]] or {{Pkg|dhclient}} || {{ic|NetworkManager.service}}
 
|-
 
|-
| [[systemd-networkd]] || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{Yes}} ({{grp|base}}) || || {{ic|systemd-networkd.service}}, {{ic|systemd-resolved.service}}
+
| [[systemd-networkd]] || {{No}} || {{Yes}} ({{grp|base}}) || {{No}} || ? || internal || {{ic|systemd-networkd.service}}, {{ic|systemd-resolved.service}}
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Wicd]] || {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{ic|wicd-curses}} || {{ic|wicd.service}}
+
| [[Wicd]] || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{G|{{man|8|wicd-cli}}, {{man|8|wicd-curses}}}} || {{No}} || [[dhcpcd]] || {{ic|wicd.service}}
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
{{Style|The fact that [[Wifi Radar]] is a GUI application does not make it suitable for listing in the general "Network managers" section. [[Wireless_network_configuration#Utilities]] is more appropriate.|section=Wifi Radar}}
 +
 +
There also is [[Wifi Radar]], a GUI application to manage WiFi networks with {{Pkg|wireless_tools}}, it however does not handle wired connections.
  
 
See also [[List of applications#Network managers]].
 
See also [[List of applications#Network managers]].
Line 252: Line 251:
 
To set the "pretty" hostname and other machine metadata, see {{man|5|machine-info|https://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/machine-info.html}}.
 
To set the "pretty" hostname and other machine metadata, see {{man|5|machine-info|https://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/machine-info.html}}.
  
=== Local network hostname resolution ===
+
=== Local hostname resolution ===
 
 
The pre-requisite is to [[#Set the hostname]], after which hostname resolution works on the local system itself:
 
 
 
{{hc|$ ping ''myhostname''|2=
 
PING myhostname (192.168.1.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
 
64 bytes from myhostname (192.168.1.2): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.043 ms}}
 
  
To allow other machines to address the host by name, it is necessary to either:
+
{{Expansion|Explain why you want a resolvable hostname, why {{ic|127.0.1.1}} is used (and why a static IP address should be preferred over it).}}
  
* Configure the {{man|5|hosts}} file, or
+
The {{ic|myhostname}} [[Name Service Switch]] (NSS) module of [[systemd]] provides local hostname resolution without having to edit {{ic|/etc/hosts}} ({{man|5|hosts}}). It is enabled by default.
* Enable a service which resolves the hostname.
 
  
{{Note|1={{Pkg|systemd}} provides hostname resolution via the {{ic|myhostname}} nss module, enabled by default in {{ic|/etc/nsswitch.conf}}. However, clients may still rely on {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, see [https://lists.debian.org/debian-devel/2013/07/msg00809.html] [https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=87717#c55] for examples.}}
+
Some clients may however still rely on {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, see [https://lists.debian.org/debian-devel/2013/07/msg00809.html] [https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=87717#c55] for examples.
  
 
To configure the hosts file, add the following line to {{ic|/etc/hosts}}:
 
To configure the hosts file, add the following line to {{ic|/etc/hosts}}:
  
 
  127.0.1.1 ''myhostname''.localdomain ''myhostname''
 
  127.0.1.1 ''myhostname''.localdomain ''myhostname''
 +
 +
{{Note|The order of hostnames/aliases that follow the IP address in {{ic|/etc/hosts}} is significant. The first string is considered the canonical hostname and may be appended with parent domains, where domain components are separated by a dot (ie. {{ic|.localdomain}} above). All following strings on the same line are considered aliases. See {{man|5|hosts}} for more info.}}
  
 
As a result the system resolves to both entries:  
 
As a result the system resolves to both entries:  
Line 275: Line 269:
 
{{hc|$ getent hosts|
 
{{hc|$ getent hosts|
 
127.0.0.1      localhost
 
127.0.0.1      localhost
127.0.1.1      myhostname.localdomain myhostname
+
127.0.1.1      ''myhostname''.localdomain ''myhostname''
 
}}
 
}}
  
For a system with a permanent IP address, that permanent IP address should be used instead of {{ic|127.0.1.1}}.  
+
For a system with a permanent IP address, that permanent IP address should be used instead of {{ic|127.0.1.1}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Local network hostname resolution ===
 +
 
 +
To make your machine accessible in your LAN via its hostname you can:
  
{{Note|1=Another option is to set up a full DNS server such as [[BIND]] or [[Unbound]], but that is overkill and too complex for most systems. For small networks and dynamic flexibility with hosts joining and leaving the network [[Wikipedia:Zero-configuration_networking|zero-configuration networking]] services may be more applicable:
+
* edit the {{ic|/etc/hosts}} file for every device in your LAN, see {{man|5|hosts}}
*[[Samba]] provides hostname resolution via Microsoft's '''NetBIOS'''. It only requires installation of {{Pkg|samba}} and enabling of the {{ic|nmbd.service}} service. Computers running Windows, macOS, or Linux with {{ic|nmbd}} running, will be able to find your machine.
+
* set up a [[DNS server]] to resolve your hostname and make the LAN devices use it (e.g. via [[#DHCP]])
*[[Avahi]] provides hostname resolution via '''zeroconf''', also known as Avahi or Bonjour. It requires slightly more complex configuration than Samba: see [[Avahi#Hostname resolution]] for details. Computers running macOS, or Linux with an Avahi daemon running, will be able to find your machine. Windows does not have an built-in Avahi client or daemon.
+
* or the easy way: use a [[Wikipedia:Zero-configuration networking|Zero-configuration networking]] service:
}}
+
** [[Samba]] provides hostname resolution via Microsoft's '''NetBIOS'''. It only requires installation of {{Pkg|samba}} and enabling of the {{ic|nmbd.service}} service. Computers running Windows, macOS, or Linux with {{ic|nmbd}} running, will be able to find your machine.
 +
** [[Avahi]] provides hostname resolution via '''zeroconf''', also known as Avahi or Bonjour. It requires slightly more complex configuration than Samba: see [[Avahi#Hostname resolution]] for details. Computers running macOS, or Linux with an Avahi daemon running, will be able to find your machine. Windows does not have a built-in Avahi client or daemon.
  
 
== Tips and tricks ==
 
== Tips and tricks ==
  
=== Change device name ===
+
=== Change interface name ===
 +
 
 +
{{Note|When changing the naming scheme, do not forget to update all network-related configuration files and custom systemd unit files to reflect the change.}}
  
 
You can change the device name by defining the name manually with an udev-rule. For example:
 
You can change the device name by defining the name manually with an udev-rule. For example:
  
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules|<nowiki>
+
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules|2=
 
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff", NAME="net1"
 
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff", NAME="net1"
 
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="ff:ee:dd:cc:bb:aa", NAME="net0"
 
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="ff:ee:dd:cc:bb:aa", NAME="net0"
</nowiki>}}
+
}}
  
 
These rules will be applied automatically at boot.
 
These rules will be applied automatically at boot.
Line 301: Line 302:
  
 
* To get the MAC address of each card, use this command: {{ic|cat /sys/class/net/''device_name''/address}}
 
* To get the MAC address of each card, use this command: {{ic|cat /sys/class/net/''device_name''/address}}
* Make sure to use the lower-case hex values in your udev rules. It doesn't like upper-case.
+
* Make sure to use the lower-case hex values in your udev rules. It does not like upper-case.
  
 
If the network card has a dynamic MAC, you can use {{ic|DEVPATH}}, for example:
 
If the network card has a dynamic MAC, you can use {{ic|DEVPATH}}, for example:
  
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules|<nowiki>
+
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules|2=
 
SUBSYSTEM=="net", DEVPATH=="/devices/platform/wemac.*", NAME="int"
 
SUBSYSTEM=="net", DEVPATH=="/devices/platform/wemac.*", NAME="int"
 
SUBSYSTEM=="net", DEVPATH=="/devices/pci*/*1c.0/*/net/*", NAME="en"
 
SUBSYSTEM=="net", DEVPATH=="/devices/pci*/*1c.0/*/net/*", NAME="en"
</nowiki>}}
+
}}
  
 
The device path should match both the new and old device name, since the rule may be executed more than once on bootup. For example, in the second rule, {{ic|"/devices/pci*/*1c.0/*/net/enp*"}} would be wrong since it will stop matching once the name is changed to {{ic|en}}. Only the system-default rule will fire the second time around, causing the name to be changed back to e.g. {{ic|enp1s0}}.
 
The device path should match both the new and old device name, since the rule may be executed more than once on bootup. For example, in the second rule, {{ic|"/devices/pci*/*1c.0/*/net/enp*"}} would be wrong since it will stop matching once the name is changed to {{ic|en}}. Only the system-default rule will fire the second time around, causing the name to be changed back to e.g. {{ic|enp1s0}}.
  
To [[Udev#Testing_rules_before_loading|test]] your rules, they can be triggered directly from userspace, e.g. with {{ic|udevadm --debug test /sys/''DEVPATH''}}. Remember to first take down the interface you are trying to rename (e.g. {{ic|ip link set enp1s0 down}}).
+
To [[udev#Testing rules before loading|test]] your rules, they can be triggered directly from userspace, e.g. with {{ic|udevadm --debug test /sys/''DEVPATH''}}. Remember to first take down the interface you are trying to rename (e.g. {{ic|ip link set enp1s0 down}}).
  
 
{{Note|When choosing the static names '''it should be avoided to use names in the format of "eth''X''" and "wlan''X''"''', because this may lead to race conditions between the kernel and udev during boot. Instead, it is better to use interface names that are not used by the kernel as default, e.g.: {{ic|net0}}, {{ic|net1}}, {{ic|wifi0}}, {{ic|wifi1}}. For further details please see the [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames systemd] documentation.}}
 
{{Note|When choosing the static names '''it should be avoided to use names in the format of "eth''X''" and "wlan''X''"''', because this may lead to race conditions between the kernel and udev during boot. Instead, it is better to use interface names that are not used by the kernel as default, e.g.: {{ic|net0}}, {{ic|net1}}, {{ic|wifi0}}, {{ic|wifi1}}. For further details please see the [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames systemd] documentation.}}
  
=== Revert to traditional device names ===
+
=== Revert to traditional interface names ===
  
 
If you would prefer to retain traditional interface names such as eth0,  [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames Predictable Network Interface Names] can be disabled by masking the udev rule:
 
If you would prefer to retain traditional interface names such as eth0,  [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames Predictable Network Interface Names] can be disabled by masking the udev rule:
  
  # ln -s /dev/null /etc/udev/rules.d/80-net-setup-link.rules
+
# ln -s /dev/null /etc/udev/rules.d/80-net-setup-link.rules
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, add {{ic|1=net.ifnames=0}} to the [[kernel parameters]].
  
 
=== Set device MTU and queue length ===
 
=== Set device MTU and queue length ===
  
You can change the device [[wikipedia:Maximum_transmission_unit|MTU]] and queue length by defining manually with an udev-rule. For example:
+
You can change the device [[wikipedia:Maximum transmission unit|MTU]] and queue length by defining manually with an udev-rule. For example:
  
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules|<nowiki>
+
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules|2=
 
ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", KERNEL=="wl*", ATTR{mtu}="1500", ATTR{tx_queue_len}="2000"
 
ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", KERNEL=="wl*", ATTR{mtu}="1500", ATTR{tx_queue_len}="2000"
</nowiki>}}
+
}}
  
 
{{Note|
 
{{Note|
Line 336: Line 339:
  
 
=== ifplugd for laptops ===
 
=== ifplugd for laptops ===
 +
 +
{{Move|/Wired|Section is Ethernet-specific.|section=Moving Ethernet-specific sections to Wired subpage}}
  
 
{{Tip|[[dhcpcd]] provides the same feature out of the box.}}
 
{{Tip|[[dhcpcd]] provides the same feature out of the box.}}
Line 364: Line 369:
  
 
Packets destined for a subnet will use the primary alias by default. If the destination IP is within a subnet of a secondary alias, then the source IP is set respectively. Consider the case where there is more than one NIC, the default routes can be listed with {{ic|ip route}}.
 
Packets destined for a subnet will use the primary alias by default. If the destination IP is within a subnet of a secondary alias, then the source IP is set respectively. Consider the case where there is more than one NIC, the default routes can be listed with {{ic|ip route}}.
 
=== Change MAC/hardware address ===
 
 
See [[MAC address spoofing]].
 
 
=== Internet sharing ===
 
 
See [[Internet sharing]].
 
 
=== Router configuration ===
 
 
See [[Router]].
 
  
 
=== Promiscuous mode ===
 
=== Promiscuous mode ===
  
Toggling [[wikipedia:Promiscuous_mode|promiscuous mode]] will make a (wireless) NIC forward all traffic it receives to the OS for further processing. This is opposite to "normal mode" where a NIC will drop frames it is not intended to receive. It is most often used for advanced network troubleshooting and [[wikipedia:Packet_sniffing|packet sniffing]].
+
Toggling [[wikipedia:Promiscuous mode|promiscuous mode]] will make a (wireless) NIC forward all traffic it receives to the OS for further processing. This is opposite to "normal mode" where a NIC will drop frames it is not intended to receive. It is most often used for advanced network troubleshooting and [[wikipedia:Packet sniffing|packet sniffing]].
  
 
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/promiscuous@.service|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/promiscuous@.service|<nowiki>
Line 398: Line 391:
  
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 +
 +
{{Move|/Wired|All but [[#The TCP window scaling problem]] are Ethernet-specific.|section=Moving Ethernet-specific sections to Wired subpage}}
  
 
=== Swapping computers on the cable modem ===
 
=== Swapping computers on the cable modem ===
  
Some cable ISPs (videotron for example) have the cable modem configured to recognize only one client PC, by the MAC address of its network interface. Once the cable modem has learned the MAC address of the first PC or equipment that talks to it, it will not respond to another MAC address in any way. Thus if you swap one PC for another (or for a router), the new PC (or router) will not work with the cable modem, because the new PC (or router) has a MAC address different from the old one. To reset the cable modem so that it will recognise the new PC, you must power the cable modem off and on again. Once the cable modem has rebooted and gone fully online again (indicator lights settled down), reboot the newly connected PC so that it makes a DHCP request, or manually make it request a new DHCP lease.
+
Some cable ISPs (Vidéotron for example) have the cable modem configured to recognize only one client PC, by the MAC address of its network interface. Once the cable modem has learned the MAC address of the first PC or equipment that talks to it, it will not respond to another MAC address in any way. Thus if you swap one PC for another (or for a router), the new PC (or router) will not work with the cable modem, because the new PC (or router) has a MAC address different from the old one. To reset the cable modem so that it will recognise the new PC, you must power the cable modem off and on again. Once the cable modem has rebooted and gone fully online again (indicator lights settled down), reboot the newly connected PC so that it makes a DHCP request, or manually make it request a new DHCP lease.
  
If this method does not work, you will need to clone the MAC address of the original machine. See also [[#Change MAC/hardware address]].
+
If this method does not work, you will need to clone the MAC address of the original machine. See also [[MAC address spoofing]].
  
 
=== The TCP window scaling problem ===
 
=== The TCP window scaling problem ===
Line 417: Line 412:
 
==== How to diagnose the problem ====
 
==== How to diagnose the problem ====
  
First of all, let's make it clear: this problem is odd. In some cases, you will not be able to use TCP connections (HTTP, FTP, ...) at all and in others, you will be able to communicate with some hosts (very few).
+
First of all, let us make it clear: this problem is odd. In some cases, you will not be able to use TCP connections (HTTP, FTP, ...) at all and in others, you will be able to communicate with some hosts (very few).
  
 
When you have this problem, the {{ic|dmesg}}'s output is OK, logs are clean and {{ic|ip addr}} will report normal status... and actually everything appears normal.
 
When you have this problem, the {{ic|dmesg}}'s output is OK, logs are clean and {{ic|ip addr}} will report normal status... and actually everything appears normal.
  
If you cannot browse any website, but you can ping some random hosts, chances are great that you're experiencing this problem: ping uses ICMP and is not affected by TCP problems.
+
If you cannot browse any website, but you can ping some random hosts, chances are great that you are experiencing this problem: ping uses ICMP and is not affected by TCP problems.
  
 
You can try to use [[Wireshark]]. You might see successful UDP and ICMP communications but unsuccessful TCP communications (only to foreign hosts).
 
You can try to use [[Wireshark]]. You might see successful UDP and ICMP communications but unsuccessful TCP communications (only to foreign hosts).
Line 441: Line 436:
 
===== Best =====
 
===== Best =====
  
This problem is caused by broken routers/firewalls, so let's change them. Some users have reported that the broken router was their very own DSL router.
+
This problem is caused by broken routers/firewalls, so let us change them. Some users have reported that the broken router was their very own DSL router.
  
 
==== More about it ====
 
==== More about it ====
Line 451: Line 446:
 
=== Realtek no link / WOL problem ===
 
=== Realtek no link / WOL problem ===
  
Users with Realtek 8168 8169 8101 8111(C) based NICs (cards / and on-board) may notice a problem where the NIC seems to be disabled on boot and has no Link light. This can usually be found on a dual boot system where Windows is also installed. It seems that using the offical Realtek drivers (dated anything after May 2007) under Windows is the cause. These newer drivers disable the Wake-On-LAN feature by disabling the NIC at Windows shutdown time, where it will remain disabled until the next time Windows boots. You will be able to notice if this problem is affecting you if the Link light remains off until Windows boots up; during Windows shutdown the Link light will switch off. Normal operation should be that the link light is always on as long as the system is on, even during POST. This problem will also affect other operating systems without newer drivers (eg. Live CDs). Here are a few fixes for this problem.
+
Users with Realtek 8168 8169 8101 8111(C) based NICs (cards / and on-board) may notice a problem where the NIC seems to be disabled on boot and has no Link light. This can usually be found on a dual boot system where Windows is also installed. It seems that using the official Realtek drivers (dated anything after May 2007) under Windows is the cause. These newer drivers disable the Wake-On-LAN feature by disabling the NIC at Windows shutdown time, where it will remain disabled until the next time Windows boots. You will be able to notice if this problem is affecting you if the Link light remains off until Windows boots up; during Windows shutdown the Link light will switch off. Normal operation should be that the link light is always on as long as the system is on, even during POST. This problem will also affect other operating systems without newer drivers (eg. Live CDs). Here are a few fixes for this problem.
  
 
==== Enable the NIC directly in Linux ====
 
==== Enable the NIC directly in Linux ====
Line 476: Line 471:
 
             --> Enable
 
             --> Enable
  
{{Note|Newer Realtek Windows drivers (tested with ''Realtek 8111/8169 LAN Driver v5.708.1030.2008'', dated 2009/01/22, available from GIGABYTE) may refer to this option slightly differently, like ''Shutdown Wake-On-LAN --> Enable''. It seems that switching it to {{ic|Disable}} has no effect (you will notice the Link light still turns off upon Windows shutdown). One rather dirty workaround is to boot to Windows and just reset the system (perform an ungraceful restart/shutdown) thus not giving the Windows driver a chance to disable LAN. The Link light will remain on and the LAN adapter will remain accessible after POST - that is until you boot back to Windows and shut it down properly again.}}
+
{{Note|Newer Realtek Windows drivers (tested with ''Realtek 8111/8169 LAN Driver v5.708.1030.2008'', dated 2009/01/22, available from GIGABYTE) may refer to this option slightly differently, like ''Shutdown Wake-On-LAN > Enable''. It seems that switching it to {{ic|Disable}} has no effect (you will notice the Link light still turns off upon Windows shutdown). One rather dirty workaround is to boot to Windows and just reset the system (perform an ungraceful restart/shutdown) thus not giving the Windows driver a chance to disable LAN. The Link light will remain on and the LAN adapter will remain accessible after POST - that is until you boot back to Windows and shut it down properly again.}}
  
 
==== Newer Realtek Linux driver ====
 
==== Newer Realtek Linux driver ====
Line 482: Line 477:
 
Any newer driver for these Realtek cards can be found for Linux on the realtek site (untested but believed to also solve the problem).
 
Any newer driver for these Realtek cards can be found for Linux on the realtek site (untested but believed to also solve the problem).
  
==== Enable ''LAN Boot ROM'' in BIOS/CMOS ====
+
==== Enable LAN Boot ROM in BIOS/CMOS ====
  
It appears that setting ''Integrated Peripherals --> Onboard LAN Boot ROM --> Enabled'' in BIOS/CMOS reactivates the Realtek LAN chip on system boot-up, despite the Windows driver disabling it on OS shutdown.
+
It appears that setting ''Integrated Peripherals > Onboard LAN Boot ROM > Enabled'' in BIOS/CMOS reactivates the Realtek LAN chip on system boot-up, despite the Windows driver disabling it on OS shutdown.
  
 
{{Note|This was tested several times on a GIGABYTE GA-G31M-ES2L motherboard, BIOS version F8 released on 2009/02/05.}}
 
{{Note|This was tested several times on a GIGABYTE GA-G31M-ES2L motherboard, BIOS version F8 released on 2009/02/05.}}
Line 500: Line 495:
 
* Find your NIC in ''lspci'' output:
 
* Find your NIC in ''lspci'' output:
  
{{hc|<nowiki>$ lspci | grep Ethernet</nowiki>|
+
{{hc|$ lspci {{!}} grep Ethernet|
 
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Corporation NetLink BCM57780 Gigabit Ethernet PCIe (rev 01)
 
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Corporation NetLink BCM57780 Gigabit Ethernet PCIe (rev 01)
 
}}
 
}}
  
* If your wired networking is not functioning in some way or another, try unplugging your cable then doing the following:
+
* If your wired networking is not functioning in some way or another, unplug your cable then do the following:
  
 
  # modprobe -r tg3
 
  # modprobe -r tg3
Line 510: Line 505:
 
  # modprobe tg3
 
  # modprobe tg3
  
* Plug your network cable in. If this solves your problems you can make this permanent by adding {{ic|broadcom}} and {{ic|tg3}} (in this order) to the {{ic|MODULES}} array in {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}:
+
* Plug your network cable back in and check whether the module succeeded with:
  
  MODULES=".. broadcom tg3 .."
+
  $ dmesg | greg tg3
  
* Rebuild the initramfs:
+
* If this procedure solved the issue you can make it permanent by adding {{ic|broadcom}} and {{ic|tg3}} (in this order) to the {{ic|MODULES}} array:
 
+
{{hc|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf|2=MODULES=(.. broadcom tg3 ..)}}
# mkinitcpio -p linux
 
  
 +
* [[Regenerate the initramfs]]
 
* Alternatively, you can create an {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/broadcom.conf}}:
 
* Alternatively, you can create an {{ic|/etc/modprobe.d/broadcom.conf}}:
  
Line 526: Line 521:
 
=== Realtek RTL8111/8168B ===
 
=== Realtek RTL8111/8168B ===
  
{{hc|<nowiki># lspci | grep Ethernet</nowiki>|
+
{{hc|# lspci {{!}} grep Ethernet|
 
03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller (rev 02)
 
03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller (rev 02)
 
}}
 
}}
Line 537: Line 532:
  
 
=== Gigabyte Motherboard with Realtek 8111/8168/8411 ===
 
=== Gigabyte Motherboard with Realtek 8111/8168/8411 ===
With motherboards such as the Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD3, booting with IOMMU off (which can be the default) will cause the network interface to be unreliable, often failing to connect or connecting but allowing no throughput. This will apply not only to the onboard NIC, but any other pci-NIC you put in the box because the IOMMU setting affects the entire network interface on the board. Enabling IOMMU and booting with the install media will throw AMD I-10/xhci page faults for a second, but then boot normally, resulting in a fully functional onboard NIC (even with the r8169 module).
+
 
 +
With motherboards such as the ''Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD3'', booting with [[PCI passthrough via OVMF#Setting up IOMMU|IOMMU]] off (which can be the default) will cause the network interface to be unreliable, often failing to connect or connecting but allowing no throughput. This will apply to the onboard NIC and to any other pci-NIC in the box because the IOMMU setting affects the entire network interface on the board. Enabling IOMMU and booting with the install media will throw AMD I-10/xhci page faults for a second, but then boots normally, resulting in a fully functional onboard NIC (even with the r8169 module).
  
 
When configuring the boot process for your installation, add {{ic|1=iommu=soft}} as a [[kernel parameter]] to eliminate the error messages on boot and restore USB3.0 functionality.
 
When configuring the boot process for your installation, add {{ic|1=iommu=soft}} as a [[kernel parameter]] to eliminate the error messages on boot and restore USB3.0 functionality.
Line 543: Line 539:
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
  
 +
* [https://www.tldp.org/LDP/nag2/index.html Linux Network Administrators Guide]
 
* [https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch05.en.html Debian Reference: Network setup]
 
* [https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch05.en.html Debian Reference: Network setup]
 
* [https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/Networking_Guide/ RHEL7: Networking Guide]
 
* [https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/7/html/Networking_Guide/ RHEL7: Networking Guide]
 
* [http://www.linuxhomenetworking.com/wiki/ Linux Home Networking]
 
* [http://www.linuxhomenetworking.com/wiki/ Linux Home Networking]
 +
* [https://blog.packagecloud.io/eng/2016/06/22/monitoring-tuning-linux-networking-stack-receiving-data/ Monitoring and tuning the Linux Networking Stack: Receiving data]
 +
* [https://blog.packagecloud.io/eng/2017/02/06/monitoring-tuning-linux-networking-stack-sending-data/ Monitoring and tuning the Linux Networking Stack: Sending data]
 +
* [http://blog.yadutaf.fr/2017/07/28/tracing-a-packet-journey-using-linux-tracepoints-perf-ebpf/ Tracing a packet journey using tracepoints, perf and eBPF]

Latest revision as of 15:51, 10 June 2018

This article explains how to configure a network connection.

Check the connection

To troubleshoot a network connection, go through the following conditions and ensure that you meet them:

  1. Your network interface is listed and enabled.
  2. You are connected to the network. The cable is plugged in or you are connected to the wireless LAN.
  3. Your network interface has an IP address
  4. Your routing table is correctly set up.
  5. You can ping a local IP address (e.g. your default gateway).
  6. You can ping a public IP address (e.g. 8.8.8.8), if you can't it may be related to your default gateway or your internet service provider.
  7. Check if you can resolve domain names (e.g. archlinux.org).
Note: 8.8.8.8 is a static address that is easy to remember. It is the address of Google's primary DNS server, therefore it can be considered reliable, and is generally not blocked by content filtering systems and proxies.

Ping

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Add or link explanation of common ping errors like Unknown hosts / Network is unreachable. (Discuss in Talk:Network configuration#)
ping is used to test if you can reach a host.
$ ping www.example.com
PING www.example.com (93.184.216.34): 56(84) data bytes
64 bytes from 93.184.216.34: icmp_seq=0 ttl=56 time=11.632 ms
64 bytes from 93.184.216.34: icmp_seq=1 ttl=56 time=11.726 ms
64 bytes from 93.184.216.34: icmp_seq=2 ttl=56 time=10.683 ms
...

For every reply you receive ping prints a line like above. For more information see the ping(8) manual.

Note that computers can be configured not to respond to ICMP echo requests.[1]

When you receive no reply, you can use a traceroute (traceroute(8) or tracepath(8)) to further diagnose the route to the host.

Note: If you receive an error like ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted when executing ping, try to re-install the iputils package.

Device driver

Tango-go-next.pngThis article or section is a candidate for moving to /Wired.Tango-go-next.png

Check the status

udev should detect your network interface controller (NIC) and automatically load the necessary kernel module at startup. Check the "Ethernet controller" entry (or similar) from the lspci -v output. It should tell you which kernel module contains the driver for your network device. For example:

$ lspci -v
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Attansic Technology Corp. L1 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter (rev b0)
 	...
 	Kernel driver in use: atl1
 	Kernel modules: atl1

Next, check that the driver was loaded via dmesg | grep module_name. For example:

$ dmesg | grep atl1
...
atl1 0000:02:00.0: eth0 link is up 100 Mbps full duplex

Skip the next section if the driver was loaded successfully. Otherwise, you will need to know which module is needed for your particular model.

Load the module

Search in the Internet for the right module/driver for the chipset. Some common modules are 8139too for cards with a Realtek chipset, or sis900 for cards with a SiS chipset. Once you know which module to use, try to load it manually. If you get an error saying that the module was not found, it is possible that the driver is not included in Arch kernel. You may search the AUR for the module name.

If udev is not detecting and loading the proper module automatically during bootup, see Kernel module#Automatic module handling.

Network management

To set up a network connection, go through the following steps:

  1. Ensure your network interface is listed and enabled.
  2. Connect to the network. Plug in the Ethernet cable or connect to the wireless LAN.
  3. Configure your network connection:
Tip: #Network managers provide automatic network connection and configuration based on network profiles.

The iproute2 package provides the ip(8) command-line utility, used to manage network interfaces, IP addresses and the routing table. Be aware that configuration made using ip will be lost after a reboot. You can automate ip commands using scripts and systemd units. Also note that ip commands can generally be abbreviated, for clarity they are however spelled out in this article.

Network interfaces

By default udev assigns names to your network interfaces using Predictable Network Interface Names, which prefixes interfaces names with en (wired/Ethernet), wl (wireless/WLAN), or ww (WWAN).

Tip: To change interface names, see #Change interface name and #Revert to traditional interface names.

Listing network interfaces

Both wired and wireless interface names can be found via ls /sys/class/net or ip link. Note that lo is the loop device and not used in making network connections.

Wireless device names can also be retrieved using iw dev. See also Wireless network configuration#Get the name of the interface.

If your network interface is not listed, make sure your device driver was loaded successfully.

Enabling and disabling network interfaces

Network interfaces can be enabled / disabled using ip link set interface up|down, see ip-link(8).

To check the status of the interface eth0:

$ ip link show dev eth0
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
...

The UP in <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> is what indicates the interface is up, not the later state DOWN.

Note: If your default route is through interface eth0, taking it down will also remove the route, and bringing it back up will not automatically reestablish the default route. See #Routing table for reestablishing it.

Static IP address

A static IP address can be configured with most standard network managers and also dhcpcd.

To manually configure a static IP address, add an IP address as described in #IP addresses, set up your routing table and configure your DNS servers.

IP addresses

IP addresses are managed using ip-address(8).

List IP addresses:

$ ip address show

Add an IP address to an interface:

# ip address add address/prefix_len broadcast + dev interface
Note that:
Note: Make sure manually assigned IP addresses do not conflict with DHCP assigned ones. See this forum thread.

Delete an IP address from an interface:

$ ip address del address/prefix_len dev interface

Delete all addresses matching a criteria, e.g. of a specific interface:

$ ip address flush dev interface
Tip: IP addresses can be calculated with ipcalc (ipcalc).

Routing table

The routing table is used to determine if you can reach an IP address directly or what gateway (router) you should use. If no other route matches the IP address, the default gateway is used.

The routing table is managed using ip-route(8).

PREFIX is either a CIDR notation or default for the default gateway.

List routes:

$ ip route show

Add a route:

# ip route add PREFIX via address dev interface

Delete a route:

# ip route del PREFIX via address dev interface

DHCP

A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server provides clients with a dynamic IP address, the subnet mask, the default gateway IP address and optionally also with DNS name servers.

Note: You should not run two DHCP clients simultaneously.

To use DHCP you need a DHCP server in your network and a DHCP client:

Client Package Archiso Note Systemd units
dhcpcd dhcpcd Yes DHCP, DHCPv6, ZeroConf, static IP dhcpcd.service, dhcpcd@interface.service
ISC dhclient dhclient Yes DHCP, BOOTP, static IP dhclient@interface.service

Note that instead of directly using a DHCP client you can also use a network manager.

Tip: You can check if a DHCP server is running with dhcping.

Network managers

A network manager lets you manage network connection settings in so called network profiles to facilitate switching networks.

Note: There are many solutions to choose from, but remember that all of them are mutually exclusive; you should not run two daemons simultaneously.
Network manager GUI Archiso [2] CLI tools PPP support
(e.g. 3G modem)
#DHCP client Systemd units
ConnMan 8 unofficial No connmanctl(1) Yes internal connman.service
netctl 2 unofficial Yes (base) netctl(1), wifi-menu Yes dhcpcd or dhclient netctl-ifplugd@interface.service, netctl-auto@interface.service
NetworkManager Yes No nmcli(1), nmtui(1) Yes internal, dhcpcd or dhclient NetworkManager.service
systemd-networkd No Yes (base) No  ? internal systemd-networkd.service, systemd-resolved.service
Wicd Yes No wicd-cli(8), wicd-curses(8) No dhcpcd wicd.service

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Reason: The fact that Wifi Radar is a GUI application does not make it suitable for listing in the general "Network managers" section. Wireless_network_configuration#Utilities is more appropriate. (Discuss in Talk:Network configuration#Wifi Radar)

There also is Wifi Radar, a GUI application to manage WiFi networks with wireless_tools, it however does not handle wired connections.

See also List of applications#Network managers.

Set the hostname

A hostname is a unique name created to identify a machine on a network, configured in /etc/hostname—see hostname(5) and hostname(7) for details. The file can contain the system's domain name, if any. To set the hostname, edit /etc/hostname to include a single line with myhostname:

/etc/hostname
myhostname
Tip: For advice on choosing a hostname, see RFC 1178.

Alternatively, using hostnamectl(1):

# hostnamectl set-hostname myhostname

To temporarily set the hostname (until reboot), use hostname(1) from inetutils:

# hostname myhostname

To set the "pretty" hostname and other machine metadata, see machine-info(5).

Local hostname resolution

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Reason: Explain why you want a resolvable hostname, why 127.0.1.1 is used (and why a static IP address should be preferred over it). (Discuss in Talk:Network configuration#)

The myhostname Name Service Switch (NSS) module of systemd provides local hostname resolution without having to edit /etc/hosts (hosts(5)). It is enabled by default.

Some clients may however still rely on /etc/hosts, see [3] [4] for examples.

To configure the hosts file, add the following line to /etc/hosts:

127.0.1.1	myhostname.localdomain	myhostname
Note: The order of hostnames/aliases that follow the IP address in /etc/hosts is significant. The first string is considered the canonical hostname and may be appended with parent domains, where domain components are separated by a dot (ie. .localdomain above). All following strings on the same line are considered aliases. See hosts(5) for more info.

As a result the system resolves to both entries:

$ getent hosts
127.0.0.1       localhost
127.0.1.1       myhostname.localdomain	myhostname

For a system with a permanent IP address, that permanent IP address should be used instead of 127.0.1.1.

Local network hostname resolution

To make your machine accessible in your LAN via its hostname you can:

  • edit the /etc/hosts file for every device in your LAN, see hosts(5)
  • set up a DNS server to resolve your hostname and make the LAN devices use it (e.g. via #DHCP)
  • or the easy way: use a Zero-configuration networking service:
    • Samba provides hostname resolution via Microsoft's NetBIOS. It only requires installation of samba and enabling of the nmbd.service service. Computers running Windows, macOS, or Linux with nmbd running, will be able to find your machine.
    • Avahi provides hostname resolution via zeroconf, also known as Avahi or Bonjour. It requires slightly more complex configuration than Samba: see Avahi#Hostname resolution for details. Computers running macOS, or Linux with an Avahi daemon running, will be able to find your machine. Windows does not have a built-in Avahi client or daemon.

Tips and tricks

Change interface name

Note: When changing the naming scheme, do not forget to update all network-related configuration files and custom systemd unit files to reflect the change.

You can change the device name by defining the name manually with an udev-rule. For example:

/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff", NAME="net1"
SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", ATTR{address}=="ff:ee:dd:cc:bb:aa", NAME="net0"

These rules will be applied automatically at boot.

A couple of things to note:

  • To get the MAC address of each card, use this command: cat /sys/class/net/device_name/address
  • Make sure to use the lower-case hex values in your udev rules. It does not like upper-case.

If the network card has a dynamic MAC, you can use DEVPATH, for example:

/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules
SUBSYSTEM=="net", DEVPATH=="/devices/platform/wemac.*", NAME="int"
SUBSYSTEM=="net", DEVPATH=="/devices/pci*/*1c.0/*/net/*", NAME="en"

The device path should match both the new and old device name, since the rule may be executed more than once on bootup. For example, in the second rule, "/devices/pci*/*1c.0/*/net/enp*" would be wrong since it will stop matching once the name is changed to en. Only the system-default rule will fire the second time around, causing the name to be changed back to e.g. enp1s0.

To test your rules, they can be triggered directly from userspace, e.g. with udevadm --debug test /sys/DEVPATH. Remember to first take down the interface you are trying to rename (e.g. ip link set enp1s0 down).

Note: When choosing the static names it should be avoided to use names in the format of "ethX" and "wlanX", because this may lead to race conditions between the kernel and udev during boot. Instead, it is better to use interface names that are not used by the kernel as default, e.g.: net0, net1, wifi0, wifi1. For further details please see the systemd documentation.

Revert to traditional interface names

If you would prefer to retain traditional interface names such as eth0, Predictable Network Interface Names can be disabled by masking the udev rule:

# ln -s /dev/null /etc/udev/rules.d/80-net-setup-link.rules

Alternatively, add net.ifnames=0 to the kernel parameters.

Set device MTU and queue length

You can change the device MTU and queue length by defining manually with an udev-rule. For example:

/etc/udev/rules.d/10-network.rules
ACTION=="add", SUBSYSTEM=="net", KERNEL=="wl*", ATTR{mtu}="1500", ATTR{tx_queue_len}="2000"
Note:
  • mtu: For PPPoE, the MTU should be no larger than 1492. You can also set MTU via systemd.netdev(5).
  • tx_queue_len: Small value for slower devices with a high latency like modem links and ISDN. High value is recommend for server connected over the high-speed Internet connections that perform large data transfers.

ifplugd for laptops

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Notes: Section is Ethernet-specific. (Discuss in Talk:Network configuration#Moving Ethernet-specific sections to Wired subpage)
Tip: dhcpcd provides the same feature out of the box.

ifplugd is a daemon which will automatically configure your Ethernet device when a cable is plugged in and automatically unconfigure it if the cable is pulled. This is useful on laptops with onboard network adapters, since it will only configure the interface when a cable is really connected. Another use is when you just need to restart the network but do not want to restart the computer or do it from the shell.

By default it is configured to work for the eth0 device. This and other settings like delays can be configured in /etc/ifplugd/ifplugd.conf.

Note: netctl package includes netctl-ifplugd@.service, otherwise you can use ifplugd@.service from ifplugd package. For example, enable ifplugd@eth0.service.

Bonding or LAG

See netctl#Bonding or Wireless bonding.

IP address aliasing

IP aliasing is the process of adding more than one IP address to a network interface. With this, one node on a network can have multiple connections to a network, each serving a different purpose. Typical uses are virtual hosting of Web and FTP servers, or reorganizing servers without having to update any other machines (this is especially useful for nameservers).

Example

To manually set an alias, for some NIC, use iproute2 to execute

# ip addr add 192.168.2.101/24 dev eth0 label eth0:1

To remove a given alias execute

# ip addr del 192.168.2.101/24 dev eth0:1

Packets destined for a subnet will use the primary alias by default. If the destination IP is within a subnet of a secondary alias, then the source IP is set respectively. Consider the case where there is more than one NIC, the default routes can be listed with ip route.

Promiscuous mode

Toggling promiscuous mode will make a (wireless) NIC forward all traffic it receives to the OS for further processing. This is opposite to "normal mode" where a NIC will drop frames it is not intended to receive. It is most often used for advanced network troubleshooting and packet sniffing.

/etc/systemd/system/promiscuous@.service
[Unit]
Description=Set %i interface in promiscuous mode
After=network.target

[Service]
Type=oneshot
ExecStart=/usr/bin/ip link set dev %i promisc on
RemainAfterExit=yes

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

If you want to enable promiscuous mode on interface eth0 run enable promiscuous@eth0.service.

Troubleshooting

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Notes: All but #The TCP window scaling problem are Ethernet-specific. (Discuss in Talk:Network configuration#Moving Ethernet-specific sections to Wired subpage)

Swapping computers on the cable modem

Some cable ISPs (Vidéotron for example) have the cable modem configured to recognize only one client PC, by the MAC address of its network interface. Once the cable modem has learned the MAC address of the first PC or equipment that talks to it, it will not respond to another MAC address in any way. Thus if you swap one PC for another (or for a router), the new PC (or router) will not work with the cable modem, because the new PC (or router) has a MAC address different from the old one. To reset the cable modem so that it will recognise the new PC, you must power the cable modem off and on again. Once the cable modem has rebooted and gone fully online again (indicator lights settled down), reboot the newly connected PC so that it makes a DHCP request, or manually make it request a new DHCP lease.

If this method does not work, you will need to clone the MAC address of the original machine. See also MAC address spoofing.

The TCP window scaling problem

TCP packets contain a "window" value in their headers indicating how much data the other host may send in return. This value is represented with only 16 bits, hence the window size is at most 64Kb. TCP packets are cached for a while (they have to be reordered), and as memory is (or used to be) limited, one host could easily run out of it.

Back in 1992, as more and more memory became available, RFC 1323 was written to improve the situation: Window Scaling. The "window" value, provided in all packets, will be modified by a Scale Factor defined once, at the very beginning of the connection. That 8-bit Scale Factor allows the Window to be up to 32 times higher than the initial 64Kb.

It appears that some broken routers and firewalls on the Internet are rewriting the Scale Factor to 0 which causes misunderstandings between hosts. The Linux kernel 2.6.17 introduced a new calculation scheme generating higher Scale Factors, virtually making the aftermaths of the broken routers and firewalls more visible.

The resulting connection is at best very slow or broken.

How to diagnose the problem

First of all, let us make it clear: this problem is odd. In some cases, you will not be able to use TCP connections (HTTP, FTP, ...) at all and in others, you will be able to communicate with some hosts (very few).

When you have this problem, the dmesg's output is OK, logs are clean and ip addr will report normal status... and actually everything appears normal.

If you cannot browse any website, but you can ping some random hosts, chances are great that you are experiencing this problem: ping uses ICMP and is not affected by TCP problems.

You can try to use Wireshark. You might see successful UDP and ICMP communications but unsuccessful TCP communications (only to foreign hosts).

Ways of fixing it

Bad

To fix it the bad way, you can change the tcp_rmem value, on which Scale Factor calculation is based. Although it should work for most hosts, it is not guaranteed, especially for very distant ones.

# echo "4096 87380 174760" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_rmem
Good

Simply disable Window Scaling. Since Window Scaling is a nice TCP feature, it may be uncomfortable to disable it, especially if you cannot fix the broken router. There are several ways to disable Window Scaling, and it seems that the most bulletproof way (which will work with most kernels) is to add the following line to /etc/sysctl.d/99-disable_window_scaling.conf (see also sysctl):

net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 0
Best

This problem is caused by broken routers/firewalls, so let us change them. Some users have reported that the broken router was their very own DSL router.

More about it

This section is based on the LWN article TCP window scaling and broken routers and a Kernel Trap article: Window Scaling on the Internet.

There are also several relevant threads on the LKML.

Realtek no link / WOL problem

Users with Realtek 8168 8169 8101 8111(C) based NICs (cards / and on-board) may notice a problem where the NIC seems to be disabled on boot and has no Link light. This can usually be found on a dual boot system where Windows is also installed. It seems that using the official Realtek drivers (dated anything after May 2007) under Windows is the cause. These newer drivers disable the Wake-On-LAN feature by disabling the NIC at Windows shutdown time, where it will remain disabled until the next time Windows boots. You will be able to notice if this problem is affecting you if the Link light remains off until Windows boots up; during Windows shutdown the Link light will switch off. Normal operation should be that the link light is always on as long as the system is on, even during POST. This problem will also affect other operating systems without newer drivers (eg. Live CDs). Here are a few fixes for this problem.

Enable the NIC directly in Linux

Follow #Enabling and disabling network interfaces to enable the interface.

Rollback/change Windows driver

You can roll back your Windows NIC driver to the Microsoft provided one (if available), or roll back/install an official Realtek driver pre-dating May 2007 (may be on the CD that came with your hardware).

Enable WOL in Windows driver

Probably the best and the fastest fix is to change this setting in the Windows driver. This way it should be fixed system-wide and not only under Arch (eg. live CDs, other operating systems). In Windows, under Device Manager, find your Realtek network adapter and double-click it. Under the "Advanced" tab, change "Wake-on-LAN after shutdown" to "Enable".

In Windows XP (example):

Right click my computer and choose "Properties"
--> "Hardware" tab
  --> Device Manager
    --> Network Adapters
      --> "double click" Realtek ...
        --> Advanced tab
          --> Wake-On-Lan After Shutdown
            --> Enable
Note: Newer Realtek Windows drivers (tested with Realtek 8111/8169 LAN Driver v5.708.1030.2008, dated 2009/01/22, available from GIGABYTE) may refer to this option slightly differently, like Shutdown Wake-On-LAN > Enable. It seems that switching it to Disable has no effect (you will notice the Link light still turns off upon Windows shutdown). One rather dirty workaround is to boot to Windows and just reset the system (perform an ungraceful restart/shutdown) thus not giving the Windows driver a chance to disable LAN. The Link light will remain on and the LAN adapter will remain accessible after POST - that is until you boot back to Windows and shut it down properly again.

Newer Realtek Linux driver

Any newer driver for these Realtek cards can be found for Linux on the realtek site (untested but believed to also solve the problem).

Enable LAN Boot ROM in BIOS/CMOS

It appears that setting Integrated Peripherals > Onboard LAN Boot ROM > Enabled in BIOS/CMOS reactivates the Realtek LAN chip on system boot-up, despite the Windows driver disabling it on OS shutdown.

Note: This was tested several times on a GIGABYTE GA-G31M-ES2L motherboard, BIOS version F8 released on 2009/02/05.

No interface with Atheros chipsets

Users of some Atheros ethernet chips are reporting it does not work out-of-the-box (with installation media of February 2014). The working solution for this is to install backports-patchedAUR.

Broadcom BCM57780

This Broadcom chipset sometimes does not behave well unless you specify the order of the modules to be loaded. The modules are broadcom and tg3, the former needing to be loaded first.

These steps should help if your computer has this chipset:

  • Find your NIC in lspci output:
$ lspci | grep Ethernet
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Corporation NetLink BCM57780 Gigabit Ethernet PCIe (rev 01)
  • If your wired networking is not functioning in some way or another, unplug your cable then do the following:
# modprobe -r tg3
# modprobe broadcom
# modprobe tg3
  • Plug your network cable back in and check whether the module succeeded with:
$ dmesg | greg tg3
  • If this procedure solved the issue you can make it permanent by adding broadcom and tg3 (in this order) to the MODULES array:
/etc/mkinitcpio.conf
MODULES=(.. broadcom tg3 ..)
softdep tg3 pre: broadcom
Note: These methods may work for other chipsets, such as BCM57760.

Realtek RTL8111/8168B

# lspci | grep Ethernet
03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller (rev 02)

The adapter should be recognized by the r8169 module. However, with some chip revisions the connection may go off and on all the time. The alternative r8168 should be used for a reliable connection in this case. Blacklist r8169, if r8168 is not automatically loaded by udev, see Kernel modules#Automatic module handling.

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: "some revisions", no proof the driver is the cause, and not e.g poorly configured DNS servers (Discuss in Talk:Network configuration#)

Another fault in the drivers for some revisions of this adapter is poor IPv6 support. IPv6#Disable functionality can be helpful if you encounter issues such as hanging webpages and slow speeds.

Gigabyte Motherboard with Realtek 8111/8168/8411

With motherboards such as the Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD3, booting with IOMMU off (which can be the default) will cause the network interface to be unreliable, often failing to connect or connecting but allowing no throughput. This will apply to the onboard NIC and to any other pci-NIC in the box because the IOMMU setting affects the entire network interface on the board. Enabling IOMMU and booting with the install media will throw AMD I-10/xhci page faults for a second, but then boots normally, resulting in a fully functional onboard NIC (even with the r8169 module).

When configuring the boot process for your installation, add iommu=soft as a kernel parameter to eliminate the error messages on boot and restore USB3.0 functionality.

See also

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