Difference between revisions of "Nginx"

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  # pacman -Sy nginx
 
  # pacman -Sy nginx
  
For a ''Ruby on Rails'' oriented installation, see [[RubyOnRails#Option_C:_The_Perfect_Rails_Setup|The Perfect Rails Setup]].
+
{{note|For a '''Ruby on Rails''' oriented installation, see [[RubyOnRails#Option_C:_The_Perfect_Rails_Setup|The Perfect Rails Setup]].}}
  
 
== Starting Service ==
 
== Starting Service ==
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  # rc.d start nginx
 
  # rc.d start nginx
  
The default served (i.e. the page served at http://127.0.0.1) page is:  
+
The default served page at http://127.0.0.1 is:  
  /etc/nginx/html/index.html
+
  /srv/http/index.html
  
(The {{Pkg|nginx}} package does not install a default {{ic|index.html}} file; you must create this file yourself, if you wish.)
+
The {{Pkg|nginx}} package does not install a default {{ic|index.html}} file; you must create this file yourself, if you wish.
 
+
After creating a {{ic|/etc/nginx/html/index.html}} webpage, you can use this URL: <nowiki>http://127.0.0.1</nowiki> to test if Nginx is working.
+
  
 
To enable the Nginx service by default at start-up just add {{Ic|nginx}} to the {{Ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}:
 
To enable the Nginx service by default at start-up just add {{Ic|nginx}} to the {{Ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}:
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== Configuring ==
 
== Configuring ==
  
You can modify the configurations by editing the files in {{ic|/etc/nginx/conf}}. ({{ic|/etc/nginx/conf/nginx.conf}} being the main config file.)
+
You can modify the configurations by editing the files in {{ic|/etc/nginx/conf}}, being ({{ic|/etc/nginx/conf/nginx.conf}} the main config file.  
  
 
More details can be found here: [http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxConfiguration Nginx Configuration Examples].
 
More details can be found here: [http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxConfiguration Nginx Configuration Examples].
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==== PHP Implementation ====
 
==== PHP Implementation ====
 +
 
There are different ways to run a FastCGI server for PHP.
 
There are different ways to run a FastCGI server for PHP.
  
===== Step 1: Edit php.ini =====
+
===== Step 1: PHP configuration =====
  
The default internal {{Ic|$document_root}} for Nginx is {{ic|/etc/nginx/html}} which is moved outside the default Nginx directory and symlinked to {{ic|/srv/http}} in the Arch Linux package.
+
The {{Ic|open_basedir}} in {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}} has to list base directories which contain PHP files, like {{ic|/srv/http/}} and {{ic|/usr/share/webapps/}}:
 
+
  open_basedir = /usr/share/webapps/:/srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/
For PHP to work, the {{Ic|open_basedir}} in {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}} has to contain the directory {{ic|/etc/nginx/html}}:<br>
+
  {{ic|open_basedir <nowiki>=</nowiki> /etc/nginx/html/:/srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/}}.}}
+
  
 
===== Step 2, option A: php-fpm =====
 
===== Step 2, option A: php-fpm =====
 +
 
* http://php-fpm.org
 
* http://php-fpm.org
  
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===== Step 2, option B: spawn-fcgi-php =====
 
===== Step 2, option B: spawn-fcgi-php =====
  
Install {{Aur|spawn-fcgi-php}}:
+
Install {{Aur|spawn-fcgi-php}}, available at [[AUR]]:
 
  $ yaourt -Sy spawn-fcgi-php
 
  $ yaourt -Sy spawn-fcgi-php
  
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Add {{Ic|spawn-fcgi-php}} to the {{Ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}.
 
Add {{Ic|spawn-fcgi-php}} to the {{Ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}.
 
  
 
===== Step 3: Nginx configuration =====
 
===== Step 3: Nginx configuration =====
  
 
+
Inside each {{Ic|server}} block serving a PHP web application should appear a {{Ic|location}} block similar to:
 
   location ~ \.php$ {
 
   location ~ \.php$ {
 
       fastcgi_pass  unix:/var/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;
 
       fastcgi_pass  unix:/var/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;
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       include        fastcgi.conf;
 
       include        fastcgi.conf;
 
   }
 
   }
 +
'''Pay attention''' to the {{Ic|fastcgi_pass}} argument, as it must be the TCP or Unix socket defined by the chosen FastCGI server in its config file. The default Unix for {{Ic|php-fpm}} is
 +
fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;
 +
and for {{Ic|spawn-fcgi-php}},
 +
fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/spawn-fcgi-php.sock;
 +
. Or you may use the common TCP socket
 +
fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
 +
. Unix sockets are however much better.
  
==== Step 3: Restart Nginx ====
+
{{Ic|fastcgi.conf}} or {{Ic|fastcgi_params}} are usually included because they hold FastCGI settings for Nginx; the use of the latter is deprecated, though. They come within the Nginx installation.
  
If Nginx has been working, run:
+
Finally, if Nginx has been working, run:
 
  # rc.d restart nginx
 
  # rc.d restart nginx
  
Edit {{ic|/srv/http/nginx/index.php}},
+
If you would like to test the FastCGI implementation, create {{ic|/srv/http/index.php}} with content
 
  <?php
 
  <?php
 
   phpinfo();
 
   phpinfo();
 
  ?>  
 
  ?>  
Visit the URL: <nowiki>http://localhost/index.php</nowiki> with your browser, and you will find PHP has worked well with Nginx.
+
and visit the URL http://127.0.0.1/index.php with your browser.
 
+
 
+
 
+
=== Ruby Integration (Ruby on Rails and Rack-based) ===
+
 
+
The [http://wiki.rubyonrails.org/ Ruby on Rails wiki] has tutorials on configuring Ruby for [http://nginx.org/ Nginx]. It is not recommended to use [http://www.fastcgi.com/drupal/ FastCGI] to make Nginx work with Ruby anymore, although very well possible.
+
[http://nginx.org/ Nginx] and [http://modrails.com/ Passenger] are a great toolkit, and this setup is extremely easy to achieve on Archlinux.
+
It should be noted, however, that there are other alternatives, including [http://github.com/fauna/mongrel Mongrel], [http://code.macournoyer.com/thin/ Thin] and [http://unicorn.bogomips.org/ Unicorn].
+
 
+
==== Setting up Nginx and Passenger ====
+
 
+
Install the Nginx Passenger package from the [[AUR]], and you are ready to go.
+
 
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For further information on setting up Nginx with Ruby, read the Nginx part of [http://wiki.rubyonrails.org/deployment/vps-setup-nginx-passenger this tutorial].
+
 
+
{{Note|With Passenger you are also able to run other Rack-based applications, including Sinatra. Note, however, that these require a {{ic|config.ru}} file in the source directory.}}
+
 
+
=== phpMyAdmin Setup ===
+
 
+
See the following wiki article: [[PhpMyAdmin#NGINX_Configuration]].
+
 
+
=== Security ===
+
 
+
* Allow/deny visitors based on IP:
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[http://wiki.codemongers.com/NginxHttpAccessModule ngx_http_access_module].
+
* HTTP authentication:
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[http://wiki.codemongers.com/NginxHttpAuthBasicModule ngx_http_auth_basic_module].
+
* HTTPS support:
+
[http://wiki.codemongers.com/NginxHttpSslModule ngx_http_ssl_module].
+
  
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
== Troubleshooting ==
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=== Error: 404 (Pathinfo error) ===
 
=== Error: 404 (Pathinfo error) ===
  
In some framework(like thinkphp, cakephp) or CMS, they need the pathinfo function.  
+
In some framework (like thinkphp, cakephp) or CMS, they need the pathinfo function.  
  
 
1. Edit the file {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}}, make sure
 
1. Edit the file {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}}, make sure
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== See Also ==
 
== See Also ==
 
* [[Nginx/Init_script|Init script for Nginx]]
 
* [[Nginx/Init_script|Init script for Nginx]]
* [http://nginx.net/ Nginx Official Site]
+
* [http://nginx.org/ Nginx Official Site]
* [http://wiki.nginx.org/Main Nginx Wiki]
+
 
* [http://calomel.org/nginx.html Nginx HowTo]
 
* [http://calomel.org/nginx.html Nginx HowTo]
 
* [http://wiki.gotux.net/config:nginx Easy Config Files]
 
* [http://wiki.gotux.net/config:nginx Easy Config Files]

Revision as of 03:18, 19 May 2012

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Nginx (pronounced "engine X") written by Igor Sysoev (Russia) in 2005, is a free, open-source, high-performance HTTP server and reverse proxy, as well as an IMAP/POP3 proxy server. According to Netcraft's April 2012 Web Server Survey, Nginx now hosts 10.32% of all domains worldwide, while Apache hosts about 65.46%. Nginx is now well known for its stability, rich feature set, simple configuration, and low resource consumption.

Installation

The nginx package is in the official repositories.

# pacman -Sy nginx
Note: For a Ruby on Rails oriented installation, see The Perfect Rails Setup.

Starting Service

To start the Nginx service, run:

# rc.d start nginx

The default served page at http://127.0.0.1 is:

/srv/http/index.html

The nginx package does not install a default index.html file; you must create this file yourself, if you wish.

To enable the Nginx service by default at start-up just add nginx to the DAEMONS array in /etc/rc.conf:

DAEMONS=(ntpd syslog-ng ... nginx)

Configuring

You can modify the configurations by editing the files in /etc/nginx/conf, being (/etc/nginx/conf/nginx.conf the main config file.

More details can be found here: Nginx Configuration Examples.

FastCGI

FastCGI is a protocol for interfacing interactive programs with a web server. FastCGI is a variation on the earlier Common Gateway Interface (CGI); FastCGI's main aim is to reduce the overhead associated with interfacing the web server and CGI programs, allowing a server to handle more web page requests at once.

FastCGI technology is introduced into Nginx to work with many external tools, i.e.: Perl, PHP and Python. So, you cannot use these unless a FastCGI server has been started.

PHP Implementation

There are different ways to run a FastCGI server for PHP.

Step 1: PHP configuration

The open_basedir in /etc/php/php.ini has to list base directories which contain PHP files, like /srv/http/ and /usr/share/webapps/:

open_basedir = /usr/share/webapps/:/srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/
Step 2, option A: php-fpm

Install php-fpm:

# pacman -Sy php-fpm

The configuration file is /etc/php/php-fpm.conf.

To start the service:

# rc.d start php-fpm

Add php-fpm to the DAEMONS array in /etc/rc.conf.

Step 2, option B: spawn-fcgi-php

Install spawn-fcgi-phpAUR, available at AUR:

$ yaourt -Sy spawn-fcgi-php

The configuration file is /etc/conf.d/spawn-fcgi-php.conf.

To start the service:

# rc.d start spawn-fcgi-php

Add spawn-fcgi-php to the DAEMONS array in /etc/rc.conf.

Step 3: Nginx configuration

Inside each server block serving a PHP web application should appear a location block similar to:

 location ~ \.php$ {
      fastcgi_pass   unix:/var/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;
      fastcgi_index  index.php; 
      include        fastcgi.conf;
 }

Pay attention to the fastcgi_pass argument, as it must be the TCP or Unix socket defined by the chosen FastCGI server in its config file. The default Unix for php-fpm is

fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;

and for spawn-fcgi-php,

fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/spawn-fcgi-php.sock;

. Or you may use the common TCP socket

fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;

. Unix sockets are however much better.

fastcgi.conf or fastcgi_params are usually included because they hold FastCGI settings for Nginx; the use of the latter is deprecated, though. They come within the Nginx installation.

Finally, if Nginx has been working, run:

# rc.d restart nginx

If you would like to test the FastCGI implementation, create /srv/http/index.php with content

<?php
  phpinfo();
?> 

and visit the URL http://127.0.0.1/index.php with your browser.

Troubleshooting

Accessing local IP redirects to localhost

Solution from the Arch Linux forum.

Edit /etc/nginx/nginx.conf and locate the "server_name localhost" line without a # infront of it, and add below:

server_name_in_redirect off;

Default behavior is that nginx redirects any requests to the value given as server_name in the config.

Error: 403 (Permission error)

This is most likely a permission error. Are you sure whatever user configured in the Nginx configuration is able to read the correct files?

If the files are located within a home directory, (e.g. /home/arch/public/webapp) and you are sure the user running Nginx has the right permissions (you can temporarily chmod all the files to 777 in order to determine this), /home/arch might be chmod 750, simply chmod it to 751, and it should work.

Error: 404 (Pathinfo error)

In some framework (like thinkphp, cakephp) or CMS, they need the pathinfo function.

1. Edit the file /etc/php/php.ini, make sure

cgi.fix_pathinfo=1

2. Edit /etc/nginx/conf/nginx.conf, comment

location ~ \.php$ {
...
}

to

#location ~ \.php$ {
#...
#}

Then add the follows,

location ~ ^(.+\.php)(.*)$ {
  root   /srv/http/nginx;
  fastcgi_pass   unix:/var/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock; 	
  #fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000; #Un-comment this and comment "fastcgi_pass   unix:/var/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;" if you are not using php-fpm.
  fastcgi_index  index.php;
  set $document_root2 $document_root;
  if ($document_root2 ~ "^(.*\\\\).*?[\\\\|\/]\.\.\/(.*)$") { set $document_root2 $1$2; }
  if ($document_root2 ~ "^(.*\\\\).*?[\\\\|\/]\.\.\/(.*)$") {	set $document_root2 $1$2; }
  if ($document_root2 ~ "^(.*\\\\).*?[\\\\|\/]\.\.\/(.*)$") {	set $document_root2 $1$2; }
  if ($document_root2 ~ "^(.*\\\\).*?[\\\\|\/]\.\.\/(.*)$") {	set $document_root2 $1$2; }
  if ($document_root2 ~ "^(.*\\\\).*?[\\\\|\/]\.\.\/(.*)$") {	set $document_root2 $1$2; }
  fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(.*)$;
  fastcgi_param	SCRIPT_FILENAME	$document_root2$fastcgi_script_name;
  fastcgi_param	PATH_INFO	$fastcgi_path_info;
  fastcgi_param	PATH_TRANSLATED	$document_root2$fastcgi_path_info;
  include	fastcgi_params;
  fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root2;
}

Error: The page you are looking for is temporarily unavailable. Please try again later.

This is because the FastCGI server has not been started.

Error: No input file specified

Most Likely you do not have the SCRIPT_FILENAME containing the full path to you scripts. If the configuration of nginx (fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME) is all right, this kind of error means php fail to load the requestd script. Usually it is simply a permissions issue, you can just run php-cgi as root

# spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 9000 -f /usr/bin/php-cgi

or you should create some group and user to start the php-cgi. For example:

# groupadd www
# useradd -g www www
# chmod +w /srv/www/nginx/html
# chown -R www:www /srv/www/nginx/html
# spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 9000 -u www -g www -f /usr/bin/php-cgi

Another occasion is that, wrong "root" argument in the "location ~ \.php$" section in nginx.conf, make sure the "root" points to the same directory as it in "location /" in the same server. Or you may just set root as global, do not define it in any location section.

Also keep in mind that your php script path was defined as /srv/www/nginx/html by default using the variable "open_basedir" in /etc/php/php.ini; you can change them if you need.

See Also