Node.js (简体中文)

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翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Node.js翻译,最后翻译时间:2014-08-11,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

Node.js 是一个javascript运行环境,并附带有常用的库. 它使用了 Google's V8 引擎 在浏览器外执行代码. 由于其是事件驱动、非阻塞 I/O 模型,它适合于实时 web 应用.

安装

nodejs 包位于 official repositories .

Node Packaged Modules

npm 是官方的node.js包管理器,已包含在 nodejs 中.

使用npm管理包

安装软件包

任何包可以用以下命令安装:

$ npm install packageName

这个命令会将包安装在当前目录下 node_modules 目录内 executables under node_modules/.bin .

作为系统级的全局安装使用 -g 选项:

# npm -g install packageName

默认情形下这个命令会将包安装至 /usr/lib/node_modules/npm 并且需要管理员权限.

For a user-wide installation you can configure npm to use a local folder instead. This can be done in various ways:

  • Manually with the --prefix command line flag (e.g. npm -g install packageName --prefix ~/.node_modules ).
  • Using the npm_config_prefix environment variable.
  • Using a user config file ~/.npmrc .

First method is not recommended since you need to remember the location and give it as the parameter each time you do an operation.

For the second method simply add the following lines to your shell configuration file (e.g. .bash_profile ).

PATH=$PATH:~/.node_modules/bin
export npm_config_prefix=~/.node_modules

Do not forget to log out and log back in or restart your shell accordingly.

For the third method you can use the command:

$ npm config edit

You can then find the prefix option and set a desired location:

prefix=~/.node_modules

Do not forget to delete the preceding ; on the line or it will be read as a comment. You can now add the location of your executables to your shell configuration file (e.g. .bash_profile ).

PATH=$PATH:~/.node_modules/bin

Again do not forget to log out and log back in or restart your shell accordingly.


Updating packages

Updating packages is as simple as

 $ npm update packageName

For the case of globally installed packages ( -g )

 $ npm update -g packageName
Note: Remember that globally installed packages require administrator privileges
Updating All Packages

However, sometimes you may just wish to update all packages. Be it locally or globally. Leaving off the packageName npm will attempt to update all the packages

 $ npm update

or add the -g flag to update globally installed packages

 $ npm update -g

Removing packages

To remove a package installed with the -g switch simply use:

$ npm -g uninstall packageName

Listing packages

To show a tree view of the installed packages use:

$ npm -g list

Managing packages with pacman

Some node.js packages can be found in Arch User Repository with the name nodejs-packageName .

Additional Resources

For further information on nodejs and use of its official package manager npm you may wish to consult the following external resources