Difference between revisions of "Nonfree applications package guidelines"

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[[Category: Package development (English)]]
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[[Category:Package development]]
{{i18n|Nonfree apps package guidelines}}
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{{Expansion|tell about extracting icons from exe files, encrypting archives, symlinking etc.}}
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{{Article summary start}}
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{{Article summary text|Tips and uggestions, related to non-free software packaging.}}
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{{Package Guidelines}}
 
{{Package Guidelines}}
{{Article summary end}}
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 +
{{Expansion|cover about encrypting archives, symlinking etc.}}
  
 
For many applications (most of which are Windows ones) there are neither sources nor tarballs available. Many of such applications can not be freely distributed because of license restrictions and/or lack of legal ways to obtain installer for no fee. Such software obviously can not be included into the [[official repositories]] but due to nature of [[AUR]] it is still possible to privately [[makepkg|build packages]] for it, manageable with [[pacman]].
 
For many applications (most of which are Windows ones) there are neither sources nor tarballs available. Many of such applications can not be freely distributed because of license restrictions and/or lack of legal ways to obtain installer for no fee. Such software obviously can not be included into the [[official repositories]] but due to nature of [[AUR]] it is still possible to privately [[makepkg|build packages]] for it, manageable with [[pacman]].
Line 13: Line 10:
 
There are multiple reasons for packaging even non-packageable software:
 
There are multiple reasons for packaging even non-packageable software:
 
* Simplification of installation/removal process
 
* Simplification of installation/removal process
:This is applicable even to simplest apps, which consist of single script to be installed into {{Ic|/usr/bin}}. Instead of issuing:
+
:This is applicable even to the simplest of apps, which consist of a single script to be installed into {{Ic|/usr/bin}}. Instead of issuing:
 
:{{bc|$ chmod +x ''filename''}}
 
:{{bc|$ chmod +x ''filename''}}
 
:{{bc|# cp ''filename'' /usr/bin/}}
 
:{{bc|# cp ''filename'' /usr/bin/}}
 
:you can type just
 
:you can type just
 
:{{bc|# makepkg -i}}
 
:{{bc|# makepkg -i}}
:Most non-free applications are obviously much more complicated and burden of downloading archive/installer from homepage (often full of advertising), unpacking/decrypting it, hand-writing stereotypic launcher scripts and doing other similar tasks can be effectively lightened by well-written packaging script.
+
:Most non-free applications are obviously much more complicated, but the burden of downloading an archive/installer from a homepage (often full of advertising), unpacking/decrypting it, hand-writing stereotypical launcher scripts and doing other similar tasks can be effectively lightened by a well-written packaging script.
 
* Utilizing pacman capabilities
 
* Utilizing pacman capabilities
:Ability to track state and perform automatic update of any installed piece of software, determine ownership of every single file and store compressed packages in well-organized cache is what makes GNU/Linux distributions so powerful.
+
:The ability to track state, perform automatic updates of any installed piece of software, determine ownership of every single file, and store compressed packages in a well-organized cache is what makes GNU/Linux distributions so powerful.
 
* Sharing code and knowledge
 
* Sharing code and knowledge
:It is really simple to apply tweaks, fix bugs and seek/provide help in single public place like AUR in comparison to submitting patches to proprietary developer who already ceased support or asking vague questions on general purpose forums.
+
:It is simpler to apply tweaks, fix bugs and seek/provide help in a single public place like AUR versus submitting patches to proprietary developers who may have ceased support or asking vague questions on general purpose forums.
  
 
== Common rules ==
 
== Common rules ==
 
=== Avoid nonfree software when possible ===
 
=== Avoid nonfree software when possible ===
Yes, better leave this guide and spend some time searching (or maybe even creating) alternative to application you wanted to package because  
+
Yes, it's better to leave this guide and spend some time searching (or maybe even creating) alternatives to an application you wanted to package because:
# packaging ill software is mess which is generally against [[The Arch Way]]
+
# Packaging nonfree software is often messy and often against [[The Arch Way]]
# it is clever to support FOSS developers who generally care about users more
+
# It is better to support software that is owned by us all than software that is owned by a company
 +
# It is better to support software that is actively maintained
 +
# It is better to support software that can be fixed if just one person out of millions care enough
  
 
=== Use open source variants where possible ===
 
=== Use open source variants where possible ===
Many commercial games ([[Common Applications/Games/Reimplemented|some are listed in this Wiki]]) have open source engines, lots of old games can be played with emulators such as [[Wikipedia:ScummVM|ScummVM]]. Usage of open source engines together with original game assets gives users access to bug fixes and eliminate lots of issues caused by binary packages.
+
Many commercial games ([[List of Applications/Games|some are listed in this Wiki]]) have open source engines and many old games can be played with emulators such as [[Wikipedia:ScummVM|ScummVM]]. Using open source engines together with the original game assets gives users access to bug fixes and eliminates several issues caused by binary packages.
  
 
=== Keep it simple ===
 
=== Keep it simple ===
If packaging of of some program requires more effort and hacks than buying & using original version - do the simplest thing, it is Arch!
+
If the packaging of some program requires more effort and hacks than buying and using the original version - do the simplest thing, it is Arch!
  
== Package Naming ==
+
== Package naming ==
Before choosing name on your own search in AUR for existing version of software you want to package. Try to use established naming conversion (e.g. do not create something like {{AUR|gish-hb}} when there are already {{AUR|aquaria-hib-hg}}, {{AUR|penumbra-overture-hib}} and {{AUR|uplink-hib}}). Use suffix {{Ic|-bin}} '''always''' unless you are sure there will never be source-based package – it's creator would have to ask you (or in worst case TUs) to orphan existing package for him and you both will end up with PKGBUILDs cluttered with additional {{Ic|replases}} and {{Ic|conflicts}}.
+
Before choosing a name on your own, search in AUR for existing versions of the software you want to package. Try to use established naming conversion (e.g. do not create something like {{AUR|gish-hb}} when there are already {{AUR|aquaria-hib-hg}}, {{AUR|penumbra-overture-hib}} and {{AUR|uplink-hib}}). Use suffix {{Ic|-bin}} '''always''' unless you are sure there will never be a source-based package—its creator would have to ask you (or in worst case TUs) to orphan existing package for him and you both will end up with PKGBUILDs cluttered with additional {{Ic|replaces}} and {{Ic|conflicts}}.
  
 
== File placement ==
 
== File placement ==
Again analyze existing packages (if present) and decide whether or not you want to conflict with them. Do not place things under {{Ic|/opt}} unless you want to use some ugly hacks like giving ownership {{Ic|root:games}} to package directory (for users in group {{Ic|games}} to be able to run game writing files in it's own folder).
+
Again, analyze existing packages (if present) and decide whether or not you want to conflict with them. Do not place things under {{Ic|/opt}} unless you want to use some ugly hacks like giving ownership {{Ic|root:games}} to the package directory (so users in group {{Ic|games}} running the game can write files in the game's own folder).
  
 
== Missing files ==
 
== Missing files ==
For most commercial games there is no way to (legally) download game files, which is preferable way to get them for normal packages. Even when it is possible to download files after providing password (like with all [[Wikipedia:Humble Indie Bundle|Humble Indie Bundle]] games) asking user for this password and downloading somewhere in {{Ic|build}} function is not recommended for variety of reasons (for example user can have no Internet access but have all files downloaded and stored locally). Following options should be considered:
+
For most commercial games there is no way to (legally) download game files, which is the preferable way to get them for normal packages. Even when it is possible to download files after providing a password (like with all [[Wikipedia:Humble Indie Bundle|Humble Indie Bundle]] games) asking user for this password and downloading somewhere in {{Ic|build}} function is not recommended for a variety of reasons (for example, the user may have no Internet access but have all files downloaded and stored locally). The following options should be considered:
  
 
* '''There is only one way to obtain files'''
 
* '''There is only one way to obtain files'''
 
:* Software is distributed in archive/installer
 
:* Software is distributed in archive/installer
:add required file to {{Ic|sources}} array:
+
:Add the required file to {{Ic|sources}} array:
 
:{{Bc|1=sources=(... "''originalname''::'''file://'''''originalname''")}}
 
:{{Bc|1=sources=(... "''originalname''::'''file://'''''originalname''")}}
:This way link to file in AUR web interface will look different from names of files, included in source tarball.
+
:This way the link to file in AUR web interface will look different from names of files included in source tarball.
 
:Add following comment on package page:
 
:Add following comment on package page:
:{{bc|Need archive/installer is required for work.}}
+
:{{bc|Need archive/installer to work.}}
:and explain in details in PKGBUILD source.
+
:and explain the details in PKGBUILD source.
  
 
:* Software is distributed on compact-disk
 
:* Software is distributed on compact-disk
:add installer script and {{Ic|.install}} file to package contents like in package {{AUR|tsukihime-en}}.
+
:Add installer script and {{Ic|.install}} file to package contents, like in package {{AUR|tsukihime-en}}.
  
 
* '''There are several ways to obtain files'''
 
* '''There are several ways to obtain files'''
Copying files from disk / downloading from Net / getting from archive during {{Ic|build}} phase may look like good idea but it is not recommended because it limits user's possibilities and makes package installation interactive (which is generally discouraged and just annoying). Again good installer script and {{Ic|.install}} file can do work.
+
Copying files from disk / downloading from Net / getting from archive during {{Ic|build}} phase may look like a good idea but it is not recommended because it limits the user's possibilities and makes package installation interactive (which is generally discouraged and just annoying). Again, a good installer script and {{Ic|.install}} file can work instead.
  
Few examples of various strategies of obtaining files required for package:
+
Few examples of various strategies for obtaining files required for package:
 
* {{AUR|worldofgoo}} – dependency on user-provided file
 
* {{AUR|worldofgoo}} – dependency on user-provided file
 
* {{AUR|umineko-en}} – combining files from freely available patch and user-provided compact-disk
 
* {{AUR|umineko-en}} – combining files from freely available patch and user-provided compact-disk
 
* {{AUR|worldofgoo-demo}} – autonomic fetching installer during build phase
 
* {{AUR|worldofgoo-demo}} – autonomic fetching installer during build phase
 
* {{AUR|ut2004-anthology}} – searching for disk via mountpoints
 
* {{AUR|ut2004-anthology}} – searching for disk via mountpoints
 +
 +
== Advanced topics ==
 +
=== Custom DLAGENTS ===
 +
Some software authors aggressively  protect their software from automatic downloading: ban certain "User-Agent" strings, create temporary links to files etc. You can still conveniently download this files by using {{Ic|DLAGENTS}} variable in PKGBUILD (see {{Ic|man makepkg.conf}}). This is used by some packages in [[official repositories]], for example {{Pkg|ttf-baekmuk}}.
 +
 +
Following one-liner disguises curl as the most popular browser among novice computer users:
 +
 +
DLAGENTS=("http::/usr/bin/curl -A 'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 6.1)' -fLC - --retry 3 --retry-delay 3 -o %o %u")
 +
 +
And following allows to extract temporary link to file from download page:
 +
 +
DLAGENTS=("http::/usr/bin/wget -r -np -nd -H %u")
 +
 +
=== Unpacking ===
 +
Many proprietary programs are shipped in nasty installers which sometimes do not even run in Wine. Following tools may be of some help:
 +
* {{Pkg|unzip}} and {{Pkg|unrar}} unpack executable SFX archives, based on this formats
 +
* {{Pkg|cabextract}} can unpack most {{Ic|.cab}} files (including ones with {{Ic|.exe}} extension)
 +
* {{Pkg|unshield}} can extract CAB files from InstallShield installers
 +
* {{Pkg|7z}} unpacks not only many archive formats but also [[Wikipedia:NSIS|NSIS]]-based {{Ic|.exe}} installers
 +
** it even can extract single sections from common PE ({{Ic|.exe}} & {{Ic|.dll}}) files!
 +
* {{Pkg|upx}} is sometimes used to encrypt above-listed executables and can be used for decryption as well
 +
* {{Aur|innoextract}} can unpack {{Ic|.exe}} installers created with [[Wikipedia:Inno Setup|Inno Setup]] (used for example by GOG.com games)
 +
In order to determine exact type of file run {{Ic|file ''file_of_unknown_type''}}.
 +
 +
=== Getting icons for .desktop files ===
 +
Proprietary software often have no separate icon files, so there is nothing to use in [[.desktop]] file creation. Happily {{Ic|.ico}} files can be easily extracted from executables with programs from {{Pkg|icoutils}} package. You can even do it on fly during {{Ic|build}} phase (example can be found in {{AUR|sugarsdelight}}).

Revision as of 09:48, 14 July 2013

Template:Package Guidelines

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: cover about encrypting archives, symlinking etc. (Discuss in Talk:Nonfree applications package guidelines#)

For many applications (most of which are Windows ones) there are neither sources nor tarballs available. Many of such applications can not be freely distributed because of license restrictions and/or lack of legal ways to obtain installer for no fee. Such software obviously can not be included into the official repositories but due to nature of AUR it is still possible to privately build packages for it, manageable with pacman.

Note: All information here is package-agnostic, for information specific to the most typical nonfree software see Wine PKGBUILD guidelines.

Rationale

There are multiple reasons for packaging even non-packageable software:

  • Simplification of installation/removal process
This is applicable even to the simplest of apps, which consist of a single script to be installed into /usr/bin. Instead of issuing:
$ chmod +x filename
# cp filename /usr/bin/
you can type just
# makepkg -i
Most non-free applications are obviously much more complicated, but the burden of downloading an archive/installer from a homepage (often full of advertising), unpacking/decrypting it, hand-writing stereotypical launcher scripts and doing other similar tasks can be effectively lightened by a well-written packaging script.
  • Utilizing pacman capabilities
The ability to track state, perform automatic updates of any installed piece of software, determine ownership of every single file, and store compressed packages in a well-organized cache is what makes GNU/Linux distributions so powerful.
  • Sharing code and knowledge
It is simpler to apply tweaks, fix bugs and seek/provide help in a single public place like AUR versus submitting patches to proprietary developers who may have ceased support or asking vague questions on general purpose forums.

Common rules

Avoid nonfree software when possible

Yes, it's better to leave this guide and spend some time searching (or maybe even creating) alternatives to an application you wanted to package because:

  1. Packaging nonfree software is often messy and often against The Arch Way
  2. It is better to support software that is owned by us all than software that is owned by a company
  3. It is better to support software that is actively maintained
  4. It is better to support software that can be fixed if just one person out of millions care enough

Use open source variants where possible

Many commercial games (some are listed in this Wiki) have open source engines and many old games can be played with emulators such as ScummVM. Using open source engines together with the original game assets gives users access to bug fixes and eliminates several issues caused by binary packages.

Keep it simple

If the packaging of some program requires more effort and hacks than buying and using the original version - do the simplest thing, it is Arch!

Package naming

Before choosing a name on your own, search in AUR for existing versions of the software you want to package. Try to use established naming conversion (e.g. do not create something like gish-hbAUR when there are already aquaria-hib-hgAUR, penumbra-overture-hibAUR and uplink-hibAUR). Use suffix -bin always unless you are sure there will never be a source-based package—its creator would have to ask you (or in worst case TUs) to orphan existing package for him and you both will end up with PKGBUILDs cluttered with additional replaces and conflicts.

File placement

Again, analyze existing packages (if present) and decide whether or not you want to conflict with them. Do not place things under /opt unless you want to use some ugly hacks like giving ownership root:games to the package directory (so users in group games running the game can write files in the game's own folder).

Missing files

For most commercial games there is no way to (legally) download game files, which is the preferable way to get them for normal packages. Even when it is possible to download files after providing a password (like with all Humble Indie Bundle games) asking user for this password and downloading somewhere in build function is not recommended for a variety of reasons (for example, the user may have no Internet access but have all files downloaded and stored locally). The following options should be considered:

  • There is only one way to obtain files
  • Software is distributed in archive/installer
Add the required file to sources array:
sources=(... "originalname::file://originalname")
This way the link to file in AUR web interface will look different from names of files included in source tarball.
Add following comment on package page:
Need archive/installer to work.
and explain the details in PKGBUILD source.
  • Software is distributed on compact-disk
Add installer script and .install file to package contents, like in package tsukihime-enAUR.
  • There are several ways to obtain files

Copying files from disk / downloading from Net / getting from archive during build phase may look like a good idea but it is not recommended because it limits the user's possibilities and makes package installation interactive (which is generally discouraged and just annoying). Again, a good installer script and .install file can work instead.

Few examples of various strategies for obtaining files required for package:

  • worldofgooAUR – dependency on user-provided file
  • umineko-enAUR – combining files from freely available patch and user-provided compact-disk
  • worldofgoo-demoAUR – autonomic fetching installer during build phase
  • ut2004-anthologyAUR – searching for disk via mountpoints

Advanced topics

Custom DLAGENTS

Some software authors aggressively protect their software from automatic downloading: ban certain "User-Agent" strings, create temporary links to files etc. You can still conveniently download this files by using DLAGENTS variable in PKGBUILD (see man makepkg.conf). This is used by some packages in official repositories, for example ttf-baekmuk.

Following one-liner disguises curl as the most popular browser among novice computer users:

DLAGENTS=("http::/usr/bin/curl -A 'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 6.1)' -fLC - --retry 3 --retry-delay 3 -o %o %u")

And following allows to extract temporary link to file from download page:

DLAGENTS=("http::/usr/bin/wget -r -np -nd -H %u")

Unpacking

Many proprietary programs are shipped in nasty installers which sometimes do not even run in Wine. Following tools may be of some help:

  • unzip and unrar unpack executable SFX archives, based on this formats
  • cabextract can unpack most .cab files (including ones with .exe extension)
  • unshield can extract CAB files from InstallShield installers
  • 7z unpacks not only many archive formats but also NSIS-based .exe installers
    • it even can extract single sections from common PE (.exe & .dll) files!
  • upx is sometimes used to encrypt above-listed executables and can be used for decryption as well
  • innoextractAUR can unpack .exe installers created with Inno Setup (used for example by GOG.com games)

In order to determine exact type of file run file file_of_unknown_type.

Getting icons for .desktop files

Proprietary software often have no separate icon files, so there is nothing to use in .desktop file creation. Happily .ico files can be easily extracted from executables with programs from icoutils package. You can even do it on fly during build phase (example can be found in sugarsdelightAUR).