Difference between revisions of "OCaml package guidelines"

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[[Category:Package development (English)]]
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[[Category:Package development]]
[[Category:Guidelines (English)]]
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[[it:OCaml Package Guidelines]]
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{{Package Guidelines}}
  
==Package Naming==
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Writing [[PKGBUILD]]s for software written in [[Wikipedia:OCaml|OCaml]].
For libraries, use ''ocaml-modulename''. For applications, use the program name. In either case, the pkgname should be entirely lowercase.
+
  
==OCaml Library Locations==
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==Package naming==
OCaml libraries should be installed under '''/usr/lib/ocaml'''. Libraries were previously installed under /usr/lib/ocaml  or /usr/lib/ocaml/site-lib, depending on the package. This mixture prevented some packages from working with others and fragmented OCaml development on Arch Linux. The use of /usr/lib/ocaml/site-lib has therefore been discontinued.
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For libraries, use {{ic|ocaml-''modulename''}}. For applications, use the program name. In either case, the name should be entirely lowercase.
  
OCaml libraries should be installed using '''ocaml-findlib'''. ocaml-findlib includes library metadata in the package that makes it easy to manage libraries. It is a de-facto standard and a lot of OCaml software now requires.
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==File placement==
 +
=== Libraries ===
 +
OCaml libraries should be installed under {{ic|/usr/lib/ocaml}}. Installation in {{ic|/usr/lib/ocaml/site-lib}} is deprecated.
  
ocaml-findlib extracts necessary data from a file named '''META''' that should be included in the source archive. If this file is not included, one should either be obtained from the corresponding Debian, Ubuntu, or Fedora package, or created for the package by the maintainer. A request to include the file should also be made to the upstream developers of the package.
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OCaml libraries should be installed using {{Pkg|ocaml-findlib}}. {{ic|ocaml-findlib}} includes library metadata in the package that makes it easy to manage libraries. It is a de-facto standard and a lot of OCaml software now requires it.
  
The '''OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR''' variable should be used when installing packages with ocaml-lib. See the example PKGBUILD below for details.
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{{ic|ocaml-findlib}} extracts necessary data from a file named {{ic|META}} that should be included in the source archive. If this file is not included, one should either be obtained from the corresponding Debian, Ubuntu, or Fedora package, or created for the package by the maintainer. A request to include the file should also be made to the upstream developers of the package.
  
== OCaml Bytecode and Levels ==
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The {{ic|OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR}} variable should be used when installing packages with {{ic|ocaml-findlib}}. See the example PKGBUILD below for details.
 +
 
 +
=== OASIS ===
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OCaml packages that install executables using OASIS ignore {{ic|DESTDIR}}. This is a known limitation of OASIS ([https://forge.ocamlcore.org/tracker/?func=detail&atid=294&aid=852&group_id=54 issue #852]). One way to enable {{ic|DESTDIR}}-like functionality is to run the {{ic|configure}} script with the {{ic|--destdir}} argument, like so:
 +
 
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>build() {
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    cd "${srcdir}/${srcname}-${pkgver}"
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    ./configure --prefix /usr --destdir "$pkgdir"
 +
 
 +
    # build commands
 +
}</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
== OCaml bytecode and levels ==
  
 
OCaml can run code on multiple "levels", the top level interprets OCaml Code without compiling, the bytecode level creates machine independent bytecode and the native level creates machine code binaries (just like C/C++).
 
OCaml can run code on multiple "levels", the top level interprets OCaml Code without compiling, the bytecode level creates machine independent bytecode and the native level creates machine code binaries (just like C/C++).
Line 22: Line 36:
 
If bytecode is produced at all then the PKGBUILD must contain the following to protect the bytecode:
 
If bytecode is produced at all then the PKGBUILD must contain the following to protect the bytecode:
  
* options=('!strip')
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options=('!strip')
  
If the package does not contain bytecode and only distributes a binary, then ''ocaml'' is not needed as a dependency, but it of course is required as a makedepends since the ocaml package provides the OCaml compiler. If the package contains both native code and bytecode then ''ocaml'' should be a dependency and a makedepends.
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If the package does not contain bytecode and only distributes a binary, then {{ic|ocaml}} is not needed as a dependency, but it of course is required as a makedepends since the {{ic|ocaml}} package provides the OCaml compiler. If the package contains both native code and bytecode then {{ic|ocaml}} should be a dependency and a makedepends.
  
OCaml code is rarely (if ever) distributed as bytecode only and will almost always include native code, the only case where using ''any'' as the arch is advisable is where only un compiled source code is distributed, usually with a library, but many libraries still distribute native code.
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OCaml code is rarely (if ever) distributed as bytecode only and will almost always include native code: the only case where using ''any'' as the ''arch'' is advisable is when only un-compiled source code is distributed, usually with a library, though many libraries still distribute native code.
  
The moral of the story here is to be aware of what it is you are distributing, chances are your package contains native machine code and bytecode.
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The moral of the story here is to be aware of what it is you are distributing, chances are your package contains both native machine code and bytecode.
  
== OCaml PKGBUILD Example ==
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== Example PKGBUILD ==
<pre>
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 +
{{bc|1=
 
# Contributor: Your Name <youremail@domain.com>
 
# Contributor: Your Name <youremail@domain.com>
  
Line 57: Line 72:
  
 
package() {
 
package() {
 +
  cd "${srcdir}/${pkgname}-${pkgver}"
 
   env DESTDIR="${pkgdir}" \
 
   env DESTDIR="${pkgdir}" \
 
     OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR="$OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR" \
 
     OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR="$OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR" \
 
     make install
 
     make install
 
}
 
}
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}}
  
</pre>
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Keep in mind that many OCaml Packages will often need extra parameters passed to make and make install. Also remember to remove the'' '!strip' ''option and change the architecture if the package does not produce bytecode.
 
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Keep in mind that many OCaml Packages will often need extra parameters passed to make and make install. Also remember to remove the "!strip" option and change the architecture if the package does not produce bytecode.
+

Revision as of 23:18, 16 February 2014

Template:Package Guidelines

Writing PKGBUILDs for software written in OCaml.

Package naming

For libraries, use ocaml-modulename. For applications, use the program name. In either case, the name should be entirely lowercase.

File placement

Libraries

OCaml libraries should be installed under /usr/lib/ocaml. Installation in /usr/lib/ocaml/site-lib is deprecated.

OCaml libraries should be installed using ocaml-findlib. ocaml-findlib includes library metadata in the package that makes it easy to manage libraries. It is a de-facto standard and a lot of OCaml software now requires it.

ocaml-findlib extracts necessary data from a file named META that should be included in the source archive. If this file is not included, one should either be obtained from the corresponding Debian, Ubuntu, or Fedora package, or created for the package by the maintainer. A request to include the file should also be made to the upstream developers of the package.

The OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR variable should be used when installing packages with ocaml-findlib. See the example PKGBUILD below for details.

OASIS

OCaml packages that install executables using OASIS ignore DESTDIR. This is a known limitation of OASIS (issue #852). One way to enable DESTDIR-like functionality is to run the configure script with the --destdir argument, like so:

build() {
    cd "${srcdir}/${srcname}-${pkgver}"
    ./configure --prefix /usr --destdir "$pkgdir"

    # build commands
}

OCaml bytecode and levels

OCaml can run code on multiple "levels", the top level interprets OCaml Code without compiling, the bytecode level creates machine independent bytecode and the native level creates machine code binaries (just like C/C++).

When building OCaml Packages you need to be aware if the build process is compiling native machine code, bytecode, or as in many cases both. This creates a number of situations which can cause problems with package options and the right dependencies.

If bytecode is produced at all then the PKGBUILD must contain the following to protect the bytecode:

options=('!strip')

If the package does not contain bytecode and only distributes a binary, then ocaml is not needed as a dependency, but it of course is required as a makedepends since the ocaml package provides the OCaml compiler. If the package contains both native code and bytecode then ocaml should be a dependency and a makedepends.

OCaml code is rarely (if ever) distributed as bytecode only and will almost always include native code: the only case where using any as the arch is advisable is when only un-compiled source code is distributed, usually with a library, though many libraries still distribute native code.

The moral of the story here is to be aware of what it is you are distributing, chances are your package contains both native machine code and bytecode.

Example PKGBUILD

# Contributor: Your Name <youremail@domain.com>

pkgname=ocaml-<package name>
pkgver=4.2
pkgrel=1
license=()
arch=('i686' 'x86_64')
pkgdesc="An OCaml Package"
url=""
depends=('ocaml')
makedepends=('ocaml-findlib')
source=()
options=('!strip')
md5sums=()

OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR="${pkgdir}$(ocamlfind printconf destdir)"

build() {
  cd "${srcdir}/${pkgname}-${pkgver}"
  mkdir -p "$OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR"
  ./configure --prefix=/usr
  make
}

package() {
  cd "${srcdir}/${pkgname}-${pkgver}"
  env DESTDIR="${pkgdir}" \
    OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR="$OCAMLFIND_DESTDIR" \
    make install
}

Keep in mind that many OCaml Packages will often need extra parameters passed to make and make install. Also remember to remove the '!strip' option and change the architecture if the package does not produce bytecode.