Difference between revisions of "Official Arch Linux Install Guide Appendix"

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[[Category: General (English)]]
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#REDIRECT [[General Recommendations]]
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{{Article summary start}}
 
{{Article summary text|Appendix of the Official Arch Linux Install Guide}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Available Languages}}
 
{{i18n_entry|English|Official Arch Linux Install Guide Appendix}}
 
{{i18n_entry|Italiano|Official Arch Linux Install Guide Appendix (Italiano)}}
 
{{i18n_entry|简体中文|Arch 官方安装指南附录 (简体中文)}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Related articles}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Beginners Guide}} (If you are new to Arch)
 
{{Article summary wiki|Official Arch Linux Install Guide}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
 
 
==Adding a Window Manager/Desktop Environment==
 
See [[Window Manager]] and [[Desktop Environment]]
 
 
 
==Boot Scripts==
 
See [[Arch Boot Process]]
 
 
 
==User & Group Management==
 
 
 
See [[Users]] and [[Groups]]
 
 
 
==Internet Access==
 
 
 
Due to a lack of developers for dialup issues, connecting Arch to the
 
Internet with a dialup line is requiring a lot of manual setup. If at
 
all possible, set up a dedicated router which you can then use as a
 
default gateway on the Arch box.
 
 
 
There are quite a few dialup related documents in the Arch Linux Wiki
 
 
 
===Analog Modem===
 
 
 
To be able to use a Hayes-compatible, external, analog modem, you need
 
to at least have the ppp package installed. Modify the file
 
/etc/ppp/options to suit your needs and according to man pppd. You
 
will need to define a chat script to supply your username and password
 
to the ISP after the initial connection has been established. The
 
manpages for pppd and chat have examples in them that should suffice
 
to get a connection up and running if you're either experienced or
 
stubborn enough. With udev, your serial ports usually are /dev/tts/0
 
and /dev/tts/1.
 
 
 
Instead of fighting a glorious battle with the plain pppd, you may opt
 
to install wvdial or a similar tool to ease the setup process
 
considerably.
 
 
 
In case you're using a so called WinModem, which is basically a PCI
 
plugin card working as an internal analog modem, you should indulge in
 
the vast information found on the LinModem homepage.
 
 
 
===ISDN===
 
 
 
Setting up ISDN is done in three steps:
 
#Install and configure hardware
 
#Install and configure the ISDN utilities
 
#Add settings for your ISP
 
 
 
The current Arch stock kernels include the necessary ISDN modules,
 
meaning that you won't need to recompile your kernel unless you're
 
about to use rather odd or old ISDN hardware. After physically
 
installing your ISDN card in your machine or plugging in your USB
 
ISDN-Box, you can try loading the modules with modprobe. Nearly all
 
passive ISDN PCI cards are handled by the hisax module which needs two
 
parameters; type and protocol. You must set protocol to '1' if your
 
country uses the 1TR6 standard, '2' if it uses EuroISDN (EDSS1), '3'
 
if you're hooked to a so called leased-line without D-channel, and '4'
 
for US NI1.
 
 
 
Details on all those settings and how to set them is included in the
 
kernel documentation, more specifically in the isdn subdirectory,
 
available online. The type parameter depends on your card; A list of
 
all possible types is to be found in the README.HiSax kernel
 
documentation. Choose your card and load the module with the
 
appropriate options like this:
 
  modprobe hisax type=18 protocol=2
 
 
 
This will load the hisax module for my (Dennis) ELSA Quickstep
 
1000PCI, being used in Germany with the EDSS1 protocol. You should
 
find helpful debugging output in your /var/log/everything.log file in
 
which you should see your card being prepared for action. Please note
 
that you will probably need to load some usb modules before you can
 
work with an external USB ISDN Adapter.
 
 
 
Once you confirmed that your card works with certain settings, you can
 
add the module options to your /etc/modprobe.conf:
 
 
 
  alias ippp0 hisax
 
  options hisax type=18 protocol=2
 
 
 
Alternatively you can only add the options line here, and add hisax to
 
your MODULES array in the rc.conf. Your choice, really, but this
 
example has the advantage that the module will not be loaded until
 
it's really needed.
 
 
 
That being done you should have working, supported hardware. Now you
 
need the basic utilities to actually use it!
 
 
 
Install the isdn4k-utils package, and read the manpage to isdnctrl,
 
it'll get you started. Further down in the manpage you will find
 
explanations on how to create a configuration file that can be parsed
 
by isdnctrl, as well as some helpful setup examples.
 
 
 
Please note that you have to add your SPID to your MSN setting
 
separated by a colon if you use US NI1.
 
 
 
After you configured your ISDN card with the isdnctrl utility, you
 
should be able to dial into the machine you specified with the
 
PHONE_OUT parameter, but fail the username and password
 
authentication. To make this work add your username and password to
 
/etc/ppp/pap-secrets or /etc/ppp/chap-secrets as if you were
 
configuring a normal analogous PPP link, depending on which protocol
 
your ISP uses for authentication. If in doubt, put your data into both
 
files.
 
 
 
If you set up everything correctly, you should now be able to
 
establish a dialup connection with isdnctrl dial ippp0 as root. If you
 
have any problems, remember to check the logfiles!
 
 
 
===DSL (PPPoE)===
 
 
 
These instructions are only relevant to you if your PC itself is
 
supposed to manage the connection to your ISP. You do not need to do
 
anything but define a correct default gateway if you are using a
 
separate router of some sort to do the grunt work.
 
 
 
Before you can use your DSL online connection, you will have to
 
physically install the network card that is supposed to be connected
 
to the DSL-Modem into your computer. After adding your newly installed
 
network card to the modprobe.conf or the MODULES array, you should
 
install the rp-pppoe package and run the pppoe-setup script to
 
configure your connection. After you have entered all required data,
 
you can connect and disconnect your line with
 
 
 
# /etc/rc.d/adsl start
 
# /etc/rc.d/adsl stop
 
 
 
respectively. The setup usually is rather easy and straightforward,
 
but feel free to read the manpages for hints. If you want to
 
automatically dial in on bootup, add adsl to your DAEMONS array,
 
and put a ! before the network entry, since the network is handled
 
by adsl now.
 
 
 
==Package Management==
 
 
 
==Pacman==
 
 
 
See [[pacman]]
 
 
 
==Accessing Repositories==
 
 
 
See [[Official Repositories]]
 
 
 
==Arch Build System (ABS)==
 
 
 
==Binary vs. Source==
 
 
 
See [[Arch Build System]]
 
 
 
==Synchronizing Your ABS Tree==
 
 
 
See [[Arch Build System]]
 
 
 
==How to Build Packages==
 
 
 
See [[Creating Packages]]
 
 
 
==Package Guidelines==
 
 
 
When building a package for Arch Linux, you should adhere to the package
 
guidelines below, especially if you would like to contribute your new
 
package to Arch Linux.
 
 
 
Package Naming
 
 
 
* Package names should consist of alphanumeric characters only; all letters should be lowercase.
 
* Package versions should be the same as the version released by the author. Versions can include letters if need be (eg, nmap'sversion was 2.54beta32 a good while ago). Version tags may not include hyphens!  Letters, numbers, and periods only.
 
* Package releases are specific to Arch Linux packages. These allow users to differentiate between newer and older package builds. When a new package version is first released, the release countstarts at 1. Then as fixes and optimizations are made, the package will be re-released to the AL public and the release number will increment. When a new version comes out, the release count resets to 1. Package release tags follow the same naming restrictions as version tags.
 
 
 
 
 
'''Directories'''
 
 
 
Configuration files should be placed in the /etc directory. If there's
 
more than one configuration file, it's customary to use a subdirectory
 
in order to keep the /etc area as clean as possible. Use
 
/etc/{pkgname}/ where {pkgname} is the name of your package (or a
 
suitable alternative, eg, apache uses /etc/httpd/).
 
 
 
Package files should follow these general directory guidelines:
 
 
 
  /etc            System-essential configuration files
 
  /usr/bin        Application binaries
 
  /usr/sbin        System binaries
 
  /usr/lib        Libraries
 
  /usr/include    Header files
 
  /usr/lib/{pkg}  Modules, plugins, etc.
 
  /usr/share/man  Manpages
 
  /usr/share/{pkg} Application data
 
  /etc/{pkg}      Configuration files for {pkg}
 
  /opt            Packages that do not fit cleanly into the GNU filesystem layout can be
 
                  placed here. If a package's files can be cleanly placed into the above
 
                  directories, then do so. If there are other high-level directories
 
                  that do not fit, then you should use /opt.
 
 
 
For example, the acrobat package has Browser, Reader, and Resource
 
directories sitting at the same level as the bin directory. This
 
doesn't fit into a normal GNU filesystem layout, so we place all the
 
files in a subdirectory of /opt.
 
 
 
Clear as mud? Good.
 
 
 
 
 
'''makepkg Duties'''
 
 
 
When you use makepkg to build a package for you, it does the following
 
automatically:
 
# Checks if package dependencies are installed
 
# Downloads source files from servers
 
# Unpacks source files
 
# Performs any necessary patching, if specified in the PKGBUILD script
 
# Builds the software and installs it in a fake root
 
# Removes /usr/doc, /usr/info, /usr/share/doc, and /usr/share/info from the package
 
# Strips symbols from binaries
 
# Strips debugging symbols from libraries
 
# Generates the package meta file which is included with each package
 
# Compresses the fake root into the package file
 
# Stores the package file in the configured destination directory (cwd by default)
 
 
 
 
 
'''Other'''
 
 
 
Do not introduce new variables into your PKGBUILD build scripts,
 
unless the package cannot be built without doing so, as these could
 
possibly conflict with variables used in makepkg itself. If a new
 
variable is absolutely required, prefix the variable name with an
 
underscore.
 
 
 
Avoid using /usr/libexec/ for anything. Use /usr/lib/{pkgname}
 
instead.
 
 
 
The "Packager" field from the package meta file can be customized by
 
the package builder by modifying the appropriate option in the
 
/etc/makepkg.conf file, or alternatively by exporting the PACKAGER
 
environment variable before building packages with makepkg:
 
  export PACKAGER="John Doe <your.email>"
 
 
 
 
 
'''Submitting Packages'''
 
 
 
If you'd like to submit packages, please take a look at the Arch User
 
Repository and their guidelines. New packages should be submitted to
 
the AUR.
 
 
 
If you're submitting a package, please do the following:
 
*Please add a comment line to the top of your PKGBUILD file that follows this format:
 
  Contributor: Your Name <your.email>
 
*Verify the package dependencies (eg, run ldd on dynamic executables, check tools required by scripts, etc.). It's also a good idea to use the namcap utility, written by Jason Chu jason@archlinux.org, to analyze the sanity if your package. namcap will tell you about bad permissions, missing dependencies, un-needed dependencies, and other common mistakes. You can install the namcap package with pacman as usual.
 
* All packages should come as a compressed tar file containing a directory with the newly built package, the PKGBUILD, filelist, and additional files (patches, install, ...) in it. The archive name should at least contain the name of the package.
 
* Read the appropriate documents regarding the AUR, and the newest version of the packaging guildelines on the AUR Homepage.
 
 
 
==Frequently Asked Questions==
 
 
 
The FAQs listed here are only covering any problems that may keep you
 
from booting or installing an initial Arch Linux system. If you have
 
questions regarding further usage of the system utilities, X11 setup,
 
etc. or how to configure your hardware, please head over to the Wiki.
 
If you think an issue is not covered here that should be, please
 
notify the author of this document, whose address is to be found at
 
the very top of this file.
 
 
 
==During the initial package installation, pacman fails to resolve dependencies for package A because package B is not in the package set==
 
 
 
Unless something is very broken and thus very likely to be reported by
 
multiple people soon, you probably just forgot to mount your target
 
partitions properly. This causes pacman to decompress the package
 
database into the initial ramdisk, which fills up quite nicely and
 
ultimatively leads to this error.
 
 
 
Make sure that you use the DONE and not the CANCEL option offered by
 
the Filesystem Mountpoints menu to apply your choices. This error
 
should not happen if you use the Auto-Prepare feature; If it does
 
nevertheless, please report this as a bug.
 
 
 
==How can I install packages from the install CD with pacman --sync (so it resolves dependencies for me)?==
 
 
 
If you would rather have packages install from the CD instead of
 
downloading them, then mount the install CD somewhere (eg. /mnt/cd)
 
and add this line right below the [core] line in /etc/pacman.conf:
 
Server = file:///mnt/cd
 
 
 
Replace /mnt/cd with the mountpoint you chose. Then use pacman --sync
 
as you normally would - It will now check the /mnt/cd directory first
 
for packages.
 
 
 
==How can I create multiple swap partitions during the install?==
 
 
 
Naturally you won't be able to use the Auto-Prepare feature if you
 
want to create and use multiple swap partitions. Create the partitions
 
manually instead, and create as many swap partitions as your little
 
heart desires. Go through the rest of the disk preparation steps,
 
don't mind that you're only asked for one swap partition during the
 
mount-point setting. Once you're through with the install and are
 
about to edit your system configuration files, you can edit the fstab
 
file and include a line for every swap device you created earlier.
 
Simply copy the automatically generated swap line, and modify the
 
referenced device according to your setup. The additional swaps will
 
be activated after the bootup when swapon -a is being run by the
 
initscripts. Make sure you ran mkswap on all of your swap partitions
 
manually, or else your system will complain on bootup!
 
 
 
If, for any odd reason, you can not wait until after the installation
 
with activating multiple swap partitions or files, you will have to
 
open a shell on one of the virtual terminals and issue the swapon
 
<device> for every swap drive or file you partitioned/readied before
 
with mkswap. Then continue as explained above with the install.
 
 
 
In case you are honestly contemplating setting up multiple swap files
 
or drives, you should keep in mind that a kernel that needs to swap is
 
actually crying bitterly for more RAM, not more swap space. Please
 
keep your penguin well fed. Thank you.
 
 
 
==How do I reconfigure LILO from the rescue system?==
 
 
 
As a first step you simply boot from the Arch Install CD or disks. If
 
your partitions are intact and don't need checking, you can try
 
choosing one of the recovery boot options according to your partition
 
layout, or fiddle with the GRUB boot manager settings on your own to
 
get your existing system to boot properly. That will boot directly
 
into your system, and you can skip all but the last step of actually
 
reconfiguring and running LILO.
 
 
 
If you cannot boot your old root directly, boot from the CD as if you
 
were going to start an installation. Once you're in a shell, you mount
 
the root partition of your harddisk into the /mnt directory, for
 
example like this:
 
  mount /dev/hda3 /mnt
 
 
 
Then you mount any other partitions to their respective mount points
 
within that root of yours, for example a /boot partition:
 
  mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/boot
 
 
 
Now you need to mount a /dev tree in the /mnt area, where LILO will be
 
able to find it:
 
  /mnt/bin/mount --bind /dev /mnt/dev
 
 
 
Once everything is mounted, make this /mnt directory your new root
 
with the chroot /mnt command. This will start a new shell and drop you
 
into the /mnt directory, which will be considered your / from then on.
 
 
 
Now you can edit /etc/lilo.conf to your liking and run lilo to fix
 
anything that needs fixing. Simply type exit when you want to break
 
out of this root again, back into the original file tree. You can now
 
reboot and test your changes.
 
 
 
==I can't ssh into my machine!==
 
 
 
The default configuration will reject all incoming connections, not only ssh connections. Edit your /etc/hosts.allow file and add the line: <code>sshd:all</code> to allow all incoming ssh connections.
 
 
 
==How should I load modules during boot now?==
 
 
 
If you want to load a module unconditionally without a specific device
 
binding, add the name of the module to the MODULES array of your
 
/etc/rc.conf. For on demand loading on device access, add it as usual
 
with the alias and optioncommands to your /etc/modprobe.conf, in the
 
rare cases that the automatisms employed by udev don't cut
 
it. To pass any options to a module you want to load through the
 
MODULES array, only add the appropriate options line to your
 
/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf.
 
 
 
==Kernel refuses to boot because of "lost interrupt"==
 
 
 
Kernel refuses to boot. It locks at:
 
IRQ probe failed for hda
 
hda lost interrupt
 
 
 
This or a similar error occurs for some HD controllers on kernel
 
2.6.x. A workaround is to pass the acpi=off option to the kernel at
 
boot time.
 
 
 
==I get "access denied" errors trying to play music or read DVDs==
 
 
 
Add your user to the optical and audio groups.
 
  gpasswd -a johndoe optical
 
  gpasswd -a johndoe audio
 
 
 
Logout, then login again as that user (eg. johndoe) so the group
 
changes can take effect, and the device permissions shouldn't be a
 
problem anymore.
 
 
 
If you have a DVD drive, you may want to create a /dev/dvd symlink to
 
your real DVD device. Usually udev does this for you already, but this
 
will serve well as an example for setting up similar symlinks.
 
 
 
For example, if your DVD drive is accessible through /dev/sdc, you can
 
do the following as root:
 
  cat >>/etc/udev/rules.d/00.rules <<EOF
 
  > KERNEL="sdc", NAME="sdc", SYMLINK="dvd"
 
  > EOF
 
  /etc/start_udev
 
  mount /dev/pts
 
  mount /dev/shm
 

Revision as of 17:51, 7 December 2010