Difference between revisions of "Official Installation Guide (Česky)"

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#REDIRECT [[Installation guide (Česky)]]
[[Category:HOWTOs (Česky)]]
 
[[Category:Accessibility (Česky)]]
 
[[Category:Česky]]
 
 
 
{{translateme}}
 
 
 
{{i18n|Official Arch Linux Install Guide}}
 
{{Article summary start|Shrnutí}}
 
{{Article summary text| 1=
 
<p>Všeobecná instalační dokumentace pro distribuci Arch Linux.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Tento průvodce je platný pouze pro vydání 2010.05 nebo novější.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Originální anglická verze je udržována v [http://projects.archlinux.org/?p=aif.git aif gitu] a je též dostupná ve složce /usr/share/aif/docs directory na instalačních médiích.</p>}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Související články}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Průvodce začátečníka}} (Pokud s Arch Linuxem začínáte)
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
 
 
<h1>Úvod</h1>
 
 
 
<h2>Co je Arch Linux?</h2>
 
 
 
<p>Arch Linux je nezávisle vyvíjená linuxová distribuce optimalizovaná pro i686 a x86_64, která původně zakládala na myšlenkách z distribuce CRUX. <br />
 
Vývoj je zaostřen na rovnováhu jednoduchosti, elegantnosti, korektnosti kódu a nejnovějšího softwaru. <br />
 
Jeho odlehčenost a jednoduchý návrh ho dělá snadno rozšiřitelným a tvarovatelným pro jakýkoliv druh systému, jenž budujete.</p>
 
 
 
<h2>Licence</h2>
 
 
 
<p>Arch Linux a jeho skripty jsou pod copyrightem</p>
 
 
 
<p>2002-2007 Judd Vinet</p>
 
<p>2007-2010 Aaron Griffin</p>
 
 
 
<p>a jsou licencovány pod licencí GNU GPL.</p>
 
 
 
<h1>Před instalací</h1>
 
 
 
<h2>Architektury</h2>
 
 
 
<p>Arch Linux je optimalizován pro procesory i686 a x86_64 a proto nepoběží na jakékoliv
 
nižší nebo nekompatibilní generaci procesorů x86 (i386, i486 nebo i586).
 
Je vyžadováno alespoň Pentium Pro, Pentium II nebo AMD Athlon (K7).
 
(Technicky jsou procesory bez instrukce cmov, jakými jsou AMD K6 a Via C3, také i686,
 
ale my používáme gcc a gcc zase používá instrukce cmov.)
 
Před instalací Arch Linuxu byste se měli rozhodnout, jakou instalační metodu chcete použít.</p>
 
 
 
<h2>Dostupné obrazy</h2>
 
 
 
<p>Arch Linux poskytuje ISO soubory, které mohou být zapsány na CD nebo na pevné či Flash disky.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Je použit bootloader Isolinux. Každé instalační médium má dvě varianty, jež se liší
 
pouze v poskytovaných balíčcích.</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Obrazy "core" obsahují snímek hlavních balíčků distribuce.<br />
 
Tyto obrazy jsou nejvhodnější pro lidi, kteří mají internetové připojení,
 
které je pomalé nebo se špatně nastavuje.</p></li>
 
<li><p>Obrazy "net" neobsahují vůbec žádné balíčky. Postahují si je ze sítě.<br />
 
Tyto obrazy jsou upřednostňovány, protože u nich v závěru skončíte se zcela aktuálním systémem,
 
a jsou nejvhodnější pro lidi s rychlým připojením k Internetu.</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Instalátoru můžete nařídit, aby si obstaral balíčky z Internetu (nebo
 
jakékoliv jiné sítě) u obou těchto obrazů. Všechny obrazy mohou též
 
být použity jako plně funkční prostředí pro obnovu systému. <br />
 
Tyto obrazy fungují stejně jako jakákoliv jiná běžná instalace Arch Linuxu.<br />
 
Defakto jsou úplně totožné, pouze jsou nainstalovány na obraz CD nebo Flash disku
 
namísto na pevný disk.<br />
 
Obsahují celou "základní" sadu balíčků, jakož i rozličné síťové nástroje a ovladače,
 
a je v nich nainstalován balíček aif.<br />
 
Pokud budete při jejich používání potřebovat ještě cokoliv dalšího, stačí rozběhnout
 
připojení k Internetu a nainstalovat to pacmanem.<br />
 
Krátký přehled příkazů pro pacmana je dostupný na konci tohoto dokumentu.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Všechny obrazy jsou dostupné ve variantě pro i686, x86_64 nebo obojí. Poslední zmíněná obsahuje obě dvě architektury a nechá vás si při bootu vybrat.</p>
 
 
 
<h2>Instalační nástroj AIF</h2>
 
 
 
<p>Arch Linux pro provádění instalace používá AIF (Arch Linux Installation Framework).<br />
 
Tento nástroj &mdash; napsaný v bashi &mdash; sestává z několika knihoven
 
pro provádění různých funkcí (instalace balíčků, nastavení disků atd.) a několika takzvaných
 
procedur, které využívají tyto knihovny pro snadnou instalaci nebo související menší úkoly
 
("částečné procedury"). Běžně jsou přítomné tyto procedury:</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>'''interactive:''' Interaktivní instalační procedura, která se vás zeptá
 
          na některé věci, provede vás instalací a pomůže vám
 
          zkonfigurovat systém pomocí automatických změn
 
          nastavení v závislosti na tom, co jste předtím uvedli
 
          (např. v nastavení sítě)<br />
 
          Instalovaný systém bude mít zpočátku nainstalovanou pouze přizpůsobitelnou
 
          sadu "základních" balíčků spolu s jakýmikoliv utilitami
 
          a ovladači, které potřebujete pro to, abyste mohli být online.<br />
 
          Jakmile úspěšně nabootujete nainstalovaný systém, spustíte úplný
 
          upgrade systému a nainstalujete jakékoliv jiné balíčky chcete.
 
          (zastoupeno jako <code>/arch/setup</code>)</li>
 
<li>'''automatic:'''  Automatizovaná procedura navržená pro nízkou nebo nulovou interaktivitu.<br />
 
          Pro konfiguraci cílového systému používá profily.<br />
 
          Vizte /usr/share/aif/examples/ pro ukázkové soubory profilů.
 
          Tyto ukázky implementují celkem obecné scénáře, ale můžete
 
          si je pozměnit, jak chcete, abyste tak nainstalovali zvláštní balíčky,
 
          provedli změny v konfiguraci atd.</li>
 
<li>'''base:'''        Základní instalace s nízkou interaktivitou a běžnými předdefinovanými hodnotami.<br />
 
          Tato procedura je používána jako základ pro ostatní procedury
 
          a NENÍ zamýšlena pro přímé použití koncovými uživateli.</li>
 
<li>'''partial-configure-network:''' odkrývá krok pro konfiguraci sítě z
 
                        interaktivní procedury, aby vám tak pomohla nastavit síť
 
                        v živém prostředí.</li>
 
<li>'''partial-disks:''' Pro zpracování diskového subsystému nebo provedení rollbacku.</li>
 
<li>'''partial-keymap:''' Pro změnu nastavení klávesnice nebo fontu v konzoli (zastoupeno jako <code>km</code>)</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Výhoda procedur jako partial-keymap a partial-configure-network
 
nad přímým užitím nástrojů jako loadkeys nebo ifconfig je v tom,
 
že při spuštění interaktivní procedury budete dotázáni, zda chcete
 
svá nastavení uplatnit i na konfigurační soubory cílového systému.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Pokud chcete zajít dále, můžete také:</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>napsat své vlastní procedury znova od začátku nebo přepsat
 
některé části jiných procedur</li>
 
<li>napsat své vlastní knihovny, abyste s jejich pomocí
 
poskytli novou znovupoužitelnou funkcionalitu</li>
 
<li>vytvořit své vlastní konfigurace pro procedury, které to podporují (např. automatic)</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Pro více informací si přečtěte readme AIF.</p>
 
 
 
<h2>Získání Arch Linuxu</h2>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Arch Linux si můžete stáhnout z jakéhokoliv zrcadla
 
na [http://www.archlinux.org/download/ této stránce].</p></li>
 
<li><p>Můžete si též od Archux, OSDisc nebo LinuxCD zakoupit instalační CD
 
a nechat ho poslat kamkoliv na světě.</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<h2>Příprava instalačního média</h2>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Stáhněte si své vybrané médium z torrentu (upřednostňováno) nebo ze svého oblíbeného zrcadla.</p></li>
 
<li><p>Stáhněte iso/<vydání>/sha1sums.txt</p></li>
 
<li><p>Ověřte integritu .iso obrazu pomocí sha1sum:</p>
 
 
 
<p>sha1sum --check sha1sums.txt</p>
 
 
 
<p>archlinux-XXX.iso: OK</p></li>
 
<li><p>Vypalte ISO obraz na CD-R nebo CD-RW softwarem vlastního výběru. Pokud chcete použít zařízení USB Mass Storage, jakým je např. Flash disk, nahrajte ho na něj pomocí dd nebo podobného přímo zapisujícího softwaru:</p>
 
 
 
<p>dd if=archlinux-XXX.iso of=/dev/sdX</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Ujistěte se, že používáte /dev/sdX a ne /dev/sdX1. <br />
 
Tento příkaz nezvratně smaže veškeré soubory na vašem USB disku, takže se předem ujistěte, že na něm nemáte žádné důležité soubory.</p>
 
 
 
<h1>Instalace Arch Linuxu</h1>
 
 
 
<h2>Pomocí instalačního média</h2>
 
 
 
<h3>Před bootem</h3>
 
 
 
<p>Ujistěte se, že je váš BIOS nastaven tak, aby umožnil bootování z vaší
 
CD-ROM nebo USB jednotky. <br />
 
Restartujte svůj počítač s instalačním CD Arch Linuxu v jednotce nebo USB diskem
 
zastrčeným v portu. Jakmile začne instalační médium bootovat, uvidíte logo Arch Linuxu
 
a obrazovku GRUBu čekající na váš výběr. <br />
 
Typicky zde můžete jednoduše stisknout enter. <br />
 
Pokud se GRUB zasekne, jste jedním z těch pár nešťastníků, kterým CD-ROM jednotka
 
s GRUBem nefunguje, a v tom případě byste měli vyzkoušit obraz s IsoLinuxem.</p>
 
 
 
<h3>Po bootu</h3>
 
 
 
<p>At the end of the boot procedure, you should be at a login prompt with some
 
simple instructions at the top of the screen. <br />
 
You should login as root. At this point you can
 
optionally perform manual preparations and commence the actual installation</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>If you prefer a non-US keymap or specific consolefont, type <code>km</code> to change
 
any of these.</li>
 
<li>If for some reason you need network access before starting the installer
 
(the interactive procedure lets you configure the network for NET
 
installations) <br />
 
you can type <code>aif -p partial-configure-network</code></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>For both items, changed settings will be remembered to be optionally applied
 
to the target system when using the interactive procedure.</p>
 
 
 
<p>There is also an <code>arch</code> login which can be usefull if you want to do things
 
as non-privileged user. <br />
 
Most people don't need this.</p>
 
 
 
<p>You will find that everything you need to perform this installation
 
(a copy of this guide, aif README, shortcuts to common aif procedures)
 
can be found in /arch</p>
 
 
 
<h2>Using PXE (Network booting)</h2>
 
 
 
<h3>Server</h3>
 
 
 
<p>On another machine running (Arch) Linux (live or normal), <br />
 
you need to install and configure a dhcp and tftpd daemon.
 
Dnsmasq is a fine choice which can do both. <br />
 
You also need a nbd (network block device) daemon so the client can load
 
the needed files.</p>
 
 
 
<p>You can find more info on the wiki
 
[http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Archiso-as-pxe-server Community contributed documentation]</p>
 
 
 
<p>(this section could be a bit more elaborate)</p>
 
 
 
<h3>Client</h3>
 
 
 
<p>Configure your system to try network booting (pxe) first.
 
On most systems this happen by default.
 
You will get an IP from the server and load all needed files over the network
 
automatically.  Once booted, you can proceed as normal.</p>
 
 
 
<h2>Performing the installation</h2>
 
 
 
<p>You can either use the interactive procedure or the automatic one. <br />
 
See section [#Aif_the_installation_tool 2.3 AIF, the installation tool]
 
or the AIF readme for more info.</p>
 
 
 
<h3>Interactive Installation Procedure</h3>
 
 
 
<p>Type <code>/arch/setup</code> (or <code>aif -p interactive</code>, which is the same) to start.</p>
 
 
 
<p>After the welcome message and disclaimer you will be presented with the main
 
installation menu. You can use UP and DOWN arrow to navigate menus. Use TAB to
 
switch between buttons and ENTER to select. At any point during the install
 
process, you can switch to your 7th virtual console (ALT-F7) to view the
 
output from the commands the setup is running. Use (ALT-F1) to get back to
 
your first console where the installer is running, and any F-key in between if
 
you need to open another console to intervene manually for any reason.</p>
 
 
 
<h4>Select Source</h4>
 
 
 
<p>As a first step you must choose the method you want to install Arch Linux. If
 
you have a fast Internet connection, you might prefer the NET installation to
 
ensure you get the latest packages instead of using the potentially outdated
 
CD or USB image contents.  If you're using a NET image you don't have much
 
choice ;-).</p>
 
 
 
<h5>CD-ROM or OTHER SOURCE</h5>
 
 
 
<p>When choosing a CD-ROM or OTHER SOURCE install you will only be able to
 
install packages contained on the CD, which may be quite old, or packages
 
stored on a medium you were able to mount (DVD, USB stick or similar)
 
somewhere in the filesystem tree manually. Of course it has the advantage that
 
you won't need an Internet connection, and is therefore the recommended choice
 
for dialup users or those unable or unwilling to download the entire package
 
set.</p>
 
 
 
<h5>NET (FTP/HTTP)</h5>
 
 
 
<h6>Setup Network</h6>
 
 
 
<p>The first entry Setup Network will allow you to install and configure your
 
network device. If you are using a wireless device you will still need to use
 
the usual utilities to configure it manually, in which case this part of the
 
installer isn't much use to you. A list of all currently available network
 
devices is presented to you. If no ethernet device is available yet, or the
 
one you wish to use is missing, either hit OK and go on to probe for it, or
 
switch to another console and load the module manually. If you still can't
 
configure your network card, make sure it's physically been properly
 
installed, and that it is supported by the Linux kernel.</p>
 
 
 
<p>When the correct module is loaded, and your desired network card is listed,
 
you should select the ethernet device you want to configure and you will be
 
given the option to configure your network with DHCP. If your network uses
 
DHCP, hit YES and let the installer do the rest. If you select NO, you will be
 
asked to enter the networking information manually. Either way, your network
 
should be successfully configured, and you may check connectivity using
 
standard tools like ping on another console.</p>
 
 
 
<h6>Choose Mirror</h6>
 
 
 
<p>Choose Mirror will allow you to choose the preferred mirror to download the
 
packages that will be installed in your Arch Linux system. You should choose a
 
mirror situated near where you live, in order to achieve faster download
 
speed. At some later point of the installation, you will be given the option
 
to use the mirror you choose at this step, as the default mirror to download
 
packages from.</p>
 
 
 
<p><em>*Note: *</em> ftp.archlinux.org is throttled to 50 KB/s.</p>
 
 
 
<p>These menu entries are only available when choosing FTP Installation, for
 
rather obvious reasons. After successful preparation, choose Return to Main
 
Menu.</p>
 
 
 
<h4>Set Clock</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Set Clock will allow you to set up your system clock and date.
 
First you have to say if your hardwareclock is (or should be) in UTC or
 
localtime.
 
UTC is preferred, but if you have an OS installed which cannot handle UTC
 
BIOS times correctly -like Windows- you'll have to choose localtime.
 
Next the setup will want you to select your continent/country (timezone),
 
and allow you to set the date and time (for which you can also use
 
[http://www.ntp.org/ NTP] if your network is up)</p>
 
 
 
<h4>Prepare Hard Drive</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Prepare Hard Drive will lead you into a submenu offering two alternatives of
 
preparing your target drive(s) for installation, and a means to undo changes if
 
you want to retry.</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>Auto-prepare will automatically partition (and fully overwrite) one disk
 
of your choice.
 
It creates a simple layout with a /boot, swap, / and /home partition where
 
you have some control over the used filesystems and sizes thereof.</li>
 
<li>If you wish/need more control you can manually partition one or more hard
 
disks and then manually specify a complete setup using the partitions on your
 
disks.  You can also use things such as lvm and dm_crypt here.</li>
 
<li>The Rollback feature will check which filesystems were created by either
 
of these methods, unmount the relevant filesystems and destroy lvm and
 
dm_crypt volumes if they were created by you.  You need this option if you
 
want to undo or redo a certain scheme.  You will be prompted for this if
 
you forget.</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Notes:</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>AIF can help you set up new dm_crypt and lvm volumes, but not (yet) softraid.</li>
 
<li>AIF currently doesn't help you creating volumegroups that span multiple
 
physical volumes.  (if you need this -unlikely- : use vgcreate)</li>
 
<li>AIF supports reusing filesystems, but only if it can find the blockdevice.
 
If you want to reuse a filesystem that is on top of lvm/dm_crypt/softraid,
 
you'll need to bring up the volumes yourself.</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<h5>Auto-Prepare</h5>
 
 
 
<p>Auto-Prepare will automatically partition a hard drive of your choice
 
into a /boot, swap, a root partition, and a /home and then create filesystems
 
on all four. These partitions will also be automatically mounted
 
in the proper place. To be exact, this option will create:</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>32 MB ext2 /boot partition</li>
 
<li>256 MB swap partition</li>
 
<li>7.5 GB root partition</li>
 
<li>/home partition with the remaining space</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>You will be prompted to modify the sizes to your requirements, but /home will
 
always use the remaining disk space.  You can customize the used filesystem
 
for /boot and for both of root and /home at once.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>AUTO-PREPARE WILL ERASE ALL DATA ON THE CHOSEN HARD DRIVE!</strong></p>
 
 
 
<h5>Manually partition Hard Drives</h5>
 
 
 
<p>Here you can select the disk(s) you want to partition, and you'll be
 
dropped into the cfdisk program where you can freely modify the partitioning
 
information until you [Write] and [Quit]. You will need at least a root
 
partition to continue the installation.</p>
 
 
 
<h5>Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints</h5>
 
 
 
<p>In this menu all recognized partitions are listed.  On top of these you can
 
create new filesystems.
 
You should be aware of three things:</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>All of this is just a model, everything will only be set up after you confirm.</li>
 
<li>Not all blockdevices support all filesystems (Eg you cannot put an LVM
 
volumegroup on something other then a LVM physical volume).
 
The installer will automatically filter the list of possible filesystems
 
and even select the one automatically for you if there's only one option.</li>
 
<li>Some filesystems will cause new blockdevices to be created.
 
This is the case for dm_crypt and lvm volumes.
 
You will see them appear in the model and you can use them to put another
 
filesystem on top of it.</li>
 
<li>When asked for (optional) options to mkfs tools, pass
 
arguments which will literally be added when calling mkfs.
 
For example, to disable the journal on ext filesystems:
 
<ul>
 
<li>don't do: <code>^has_journal</code></li>
 
<li>but rather: <code>-O ^has_journal</code></li>
 
</ul></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>When filesystems setup is complete, you can select 'Done'.  At this point a
 
check will be run which will tell you any critical errors (such as no root
 
filesystem) and/or give you some warnings which you may ignore (like no
 
swap).
 
If anything is found, you can go back to fix these issues, or continue at
 
which point everything will be setup the way you asked.</p>
 
 
 
<p>For example, if you want a setup that uses LVM on top of dm_crypt, you would:</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>make sure that you have a 2 partitions: a small one for the unencrypted
 
boot (about 100M) and one for the rest of the (encrypted) system.
 
(do this in "Manually partition hard drives")</li>
 
<li>on your /dev/sdX1, make an ext2 filesystem with mountpoint /boot</li>
 
<li>on your /dev/sdX2, make a dm_crypt volume, with label sdX2crypt
 
(or whatever you want)</li>
 
<li>/dev/mapper/sdX2crypt will appear.  Put a LVM physical volume on this</li>
 
<li>/dev/mapper/sdX2crypt+ appears.  This is the representation of the
 
physical volume.  Put a volumegroup on this, with label cryptpool
 
(or whatever you want)</li>
 
<li>/dev/mapper/cryptpool appears.  On this volumegroup you are able to put
 
multiple logical volumes.  Make 2:
 
<ul>
 
<li>one with size 5G: label this cryptroot</li>
 
<li>one with size 10G: label this crypthome</li>
 
</ul></li>
 
<li>2 new volumes appear:
 
<ul>
 
<li>/dev/mapper/cryptpool-cryptroot: on this blockdevice, you can put your
 
root filesystem, with mountpoint /.</li>
 
<li>/dev/mapper/cryptpool-crypthome is the blockdevice on which you can put
 
the filesystem with mountpoint /home.</li>
 
</ul></li>
 
<li>If you want swapspace, make a logical volume for swap and put
 
a swap volume on it.</li>
 
<li>That's it! If you select 'done' it should process the model and create
 
your disk setup the way you specified.
 
The cool part is that you can pick relatively small
 
values for your volumes to start with, and if you need more space later
 
you can grow the logical volume and the filesystem on top of it.</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<h5>Rollbacks</h5>
 
 
 
<p>The rollback function will do everything necessary to "undo" changes you
 
made in the 'Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints'
 
or 'Autoprepare' step, to allow you completely redo your setup.</p>
 
 
 
<p>It will:</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>unmount filesystems from the target system</li>
 
<li>destroy/undo lvm and dm_crypt volumes.</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>It will not:</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>undo any partitioning</li>
 
<li>remove 'simple' filesystems such as ext3, xfs, swap etc.</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>The reason for this is simple: only things that might disturb subsequent
 
hard disk preparations need to be undone.</p>
 
 
 
<h4>Select Packages</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Select Packages will let you select the packages you wish to install from the
 
CD, USB or your NET mirror. You have the opportunity to specify whole package
 
groups from which you'd generally like to install packages, then fine-tune
 
your coarse selection by (de)selecting individual packages from the groups you
 
have chosen using the space bar. It is recommended that you install all the
 
"base" packages, but not anything else at this point. The only exception to
 
this rule is installing any packages you need for setting up Internet
 
connectivity.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Once you're done selecting the packages you need, leave the selection screen
 
and continue to the next step.</p>
 
 
 
<h4>Install Packages</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Install Packages will now install the base system and any other packages you
 
selected with resolved dependencies onto your harddisk.</p>
 
 
 
<h4>Configure System</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Configure System does multiple things:</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>automatically preseed some configuration files (eg grub's menu.lst,
 
mkinitcpio.conf's HOOKS, keymap settings in rc.conf, pacman mirror etc)</li>
 
<li>preseed some configuration files after you agreed. (eg network settings)</li>
 
<li>allow you to manually change important config files for your target system.
 
You'll be asked which text editor you want to use.
 
You have the choice between nano, joe and vi</li>
 
<li>allow you to set the root password for the target.</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p><strong>Configuration Files</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>These are the core configuration files for Arch Linux.
 
If you need help configuring a specific service, please read the appropriate
 
manpage or refer to any online documentation you need.
 
In many cases, the Arch Linux [http://wiki.archlinux.org/ Wiki] and
 
[http://bbs.archlinux.org/ forums] are a rich source for help as well.</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>/etc/rc.conf</li>
 
<li>[http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Fstab  /etc/fstab]</li>
 
<li>/etc/mkinitcpio.conf</li>
 
<li>/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf</li>
 
<li>/etc/resolv.conf</li>
 
<li>/etc/hosts</li>
 
<li>/etc/hosts.deny</li>
 
<li>/etc/hosts.allow</li>
 
<li>/etc/locale.gen</li>
 
<li>/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist</li>
 
<li>/etc/pacman.conf</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/etc/rc.conf</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>This is the main configuration file for Arch Linux. It allows you to set your
 
keyboard, timezone, hostname, network, daemons to run and modules to load at
 
bootup, profiles, and more.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>LOCALE:</strong> This sets your system language, which will be used by all i18n-
 
friendly applications and utilities. See locale.gen below for available
 
options. This setting's default is fine for US English users.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>HARDWARECLOCK:</strong> Either UTC if your BIOS clock is set to UTC, or localtime
 
if your BIOS clock is set to your local time. If you have an OS installed
 
which cannot handle UTC BIOS times correctly, like Windows, choose localtime
 
here, otherwise you should prefer UTC, which makes daylight savings time a
 
non-issue and has a few other positive aspects.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>USEDIRECTISA:</strong> If set to "yes" it tells hwclock to use explicit I/O
 
instructions to access the hardware clock. Otherwise, hwclock will try to use
 
the /dev/rtc device it assumes to be driven by the rtc device driver. This
 
setting's default "no" is fine for people not using an ISA machine.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>TIMEZONE:</strong> Specifies your time zone. Possible time zones are the relative
 
path to a zoneinfo file starting from the directory /usr/share/zoneinfo. For
 
example, a German timezone would be Europe/Berlin, which refers to the file
 
/usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin. If you don't know the exact name of your
 
timezone file, worry about it later.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>KEYMAP:</strong> Defines the keymap to load with the loadkeys program on bootup.
 
Possible keymaps are found in /usr/share/kbd/keymaps. Please note that this
 
setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or X!
 
Again, the default is fine for US users.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>CONSOLEFONT:</strong> Defines the console font to load with the setfont program on
 
bootup. Possible fonts are found in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>CONSOLEMAP:</strong> Defines the console map to load with the setfont program on
 
bootup. Possible maps are found in /usr/share/kbd/consoletrans. Set this
 
to a map suitable for the appropriate locale (8859-1 for Latin1, for example)
 
if you're using an UTF-8 locale above, and use programs that generate 8-bit
 
output. If you're using X11 for everyday work, don't bother, as it only
 
affects the output of Linux console applications.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>USECOLOR:</strong> Enable (or disable) colorized status messages during boot-up.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>MOD_AUTOLOAD:</strong> If set to "yes", udev will be allowed to load modules as
 
necessary upon bootup. If set to "no", it will not.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>MODULES:</strong> In this array you can list the names of modules you want to load
 
during bootup without the need to bind them to a hardware device as in the
 
modprobe.conf. Simply add the name of the module here, and put any options
 
into modprobe.conf if need be. Prepending a module with a bang ('!') will
 
blacklist the module, and not allow it to be loaded.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>USELVM:</strong> Set to "yes" to run a vgchange during sysinit, thus activating any
 
LVM groups</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>HOSTNAME:</strong> Set this to the hostname of the machine, without the domain
 
part. This is totally your choice, as long as you stick to letters, digits and
 
a few common special characters like the dash.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>INTERFACES:</strong> Here you define the settings for your networking interfaces.
 
The default lines and the included comments explain the setup well enough. If
 
you use DHCP, 'eth0="dhcp"' should work for you. If you do not use DHCP just
 
keep in mind that the value of the variable (whose name must be equal to the
 
name of the device which is supposed to be configured) equals the line which
 
would be appended to the ifconfig command if you were to configure the device
 
manually in the shell.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>ROUTES:</strong> You can define your own static network routes with arbitrary names
 
here. Look at the example for a default gateway to get the idea. Basically the
 
quoted part is identical to what you'd pass to a manual route add command,
 
therefore reading man route is recommended or simply leave this alone.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>[/index.php/Network_Profiles  NET_PROFILES]:</strong> Enables certain network profiles at bootup. Network
 
profiles provide a convenient way of managing multiple network configurations,
 
and are intended to replace the standard INTERFACES/ROUTES setup that is still
 
recommended for systems with only one network configuration. If your computer
 
will be participating in various networks at various times (eg, a laptop) then
 
you should take a look at the /etc/network-profiles/ directory to set up some
 
profiles. There is a template file included there that can be used to create
 
new profiles. This now requires the netcfg package.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>DAEMONS:</strong> This array simply lists the names of those scripts contained in
 
/etc/rc.d/ which are supposed to be started during the boot process. If a
 
script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not executed. If a script is
 
prefixed with an "at" symbol (@), then it will be executed in the background,
 
ie. the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion before
 
continuing. Usually you do not need to change the defaults to get a running
 
system, but you are going to edit this array whenever you install system
 
services like sshd, and want to start these automatically during bootup.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>[http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Fstab  /etc/fstab]</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>Filesystem settings and mountpoints are configured here. The installer
 
should have created the necessary entries. Ensure they are accurate and
 
correct.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/etc/mkinitcpio.conf</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>This file allows you to fine-tune the initial ramdisk for your system. The
 
ramdisk is a gzipped image that is read by the kernel during bootup. Its
 
purpose is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the root
 
filesystem. This means it has to load any modules that are required to "see"
 
things like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if you are booting off a
 
USB/FW drive). Once the ramdisk loads the proper modules, either manually or
 
through udev, it passes control to the Arch system and your bootup continues.
 
For this reason, the ramdisk only needs to contain the modules necessary to
 
access the root filesystem. It does not need to contain every module you would
 
ever want to use. The majority of your everyday modules will be loaded later
 
on by udev, during the init process.</p>
 
 
 
<p>By default, mkinitcpio.conf is configured to autodetect all needed modules for
 
IDE, SCSI, or SATA systems through so-called HOOKS. The installer should
 
also have inserted hooks like crypt, lvm, keymap and usbinput if relevant.
 
This means the default initrd should work for almost everybody.
 
You can edit mkinitcpio.conf and remove the subsystem HOOKS
 
(ie, IDE, SCSI, RAID, USB, etc) that you don't need.
 
You can customize even further by specifying the exact modules you need
 
in the MODULES array and remove even more of the hooks, but proceed with
 
caution.</p>
 
 
 
<p>If you're using RAID on your root filesystem, the RAID settings near the
 
bottom must be configured.  See the wiki pages for
 
RAID and mkinitcpio for more info. If you're using
 
a non-US keyboard, you should also add the 'keymap' hook, as well as the
 
'usbinput' hook if you are using a USB keyboard.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>This tells the kernel which modules to load for system devices, and
 
what options to set. For example, to have the kernel load the Realtek 8139
 
ethernet module when it starts the network (ie. tries to setup eth0), use this
 
line:</p>
 
 
 
<pre><code> alias eth0 8139too
 
</code></pre>
 
 
 
<p>Most people will not need to edit this file.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/etc/resolv.conf</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>Use this file to manually setup your preferred nameserver(s). It
 
should basically look like this:</p>
 
 
 
<pre><code> search domain.tld
 
 
 
nameserver 192.168.0.1
 
 
 
nameserver 192.168.0.2
 
</code></pre>
 
 
 
<p>Replace domain.tld and the ip addresses with your settings. The so-called
 
search domain specifies the default domain that is appended to unqualified
 
hostnames automatically. By setting this, a ping myhost will effectively
 
become a ping myhost.domain.tld with the above values. These settings usually
 
aren't mighty important, though, and most people should leave them alone for
 
now. If you use DHCP, this file will be replaced with the correct values
 
automatically when networking is started, meaning you can and should happily
 
ignore this file.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/etc/hosts</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>This is where you stick hostname/ip associations of computers on your network.
 
If a hostname isn't known to your DNS, you can add it here to allow proper
 
resolving, or override DNS replies. You usually don't need to change anything
 
here, but you might want to add the hostname and hostname + domain of the
 
local machine to this file, resolving to the IP of your network interface.
 
Some services, postfix for example, will bomb otherwise. If you don't know
 
what you're doing, leave this file alone until you read man hosts.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/etc/hosts.deny</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>This file denies network services access. By default all network services are
 
denied.</p>
 
 
 
<pre><code> ALL: ALL: DENY
 
</code></pre>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/etc/hosts.allow</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>This file allows network services access. Enter the services you want to allow
 
here. eg. to allow all machines to connect via ssh:</p>
 
 
 
<pre><code> sshd: ALL: ALLOW
 
</code></pre>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/etc/locale.gen</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>This file contains a list of all supported locales and charsets available to
 
you. When choosing a LOCALE in your /etc/rc.conf or when starting a program,
 
it is required to uncomment the respective locale in this file, to make a
 
"compiled" version available to the system, and run the locale-gen command as
 
root to generate all uncommented locales and put them in their place
 
afterwards. You should uncomment all locales you intend to use.</p>
 
 
 
<p>During the installation process, you do not need to run locale-gen manually,
 
this will be taken care of automatically after saving your changes to this
 
file. By default, all locales are enabled that would make sense by rc.conf's
 
LOCALE= setting. To make your system work smoothly, you should edit this file
 
and uncomment at least the one locale you're using in your rc.conf.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>This file contains a list of mirrors from which pacman will download packages
 
for the official Arch Linux repositories. The mirrors are tried in the order
 
in which they are listed. The $repo macro is automatically expanded by pacman
 
depending on the repository (core, extra, community or testing).</p>
 
 
 
<p>If you are performing an FTP installation, the mirror you used to download the
 
packages from will be added on top of the mirror list, in order to be used as
 
the default mirror in your new Arch Linux system.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/etc/pacman.conf</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>Here you can customize pacman settings such as which repositories to use.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>Set Root Password</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>At this step, you must set the root password for your system. Choose this
 
password carefully, preferably as a mixture of alphanumeric and special
 
characters, since this password allows you to modify critical parts of your
 
system.</p>
 
 
 
<p>When you are done editing the configuration files choose Return to return to
 
the main menu. The setup will regenerate the initial ramdisk to enable the
 
changes you made in mkinitcpio.conf.</p>
 
 
 
<h4>Install Bootloader</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Install Bootloader will install a bootloader on your hard drive, either GRUB
 
or NONE in case you have a bootloader already installed and want to use that
 
one instead. If you choose to install GRUB, the setup script will want you to
 
examine the appropriate configuration file to confirm the proper settings.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>/boot/grub/menu.lst</strong></p>
 
 
 
<p>You should check and modify this file to accommodate your boot setup if you
 
want to use GRUB, otherwise you will have to modify your existing bootloader's
 
configuration file. The installer will have pre-populated this file using UUID
 
entries which you may have to change in the same cases you'd need to change
 
them in your fstab.</p>
 
 
 
<p>After checking your bootloader configuration for correctness, you'll be
 
prompted for a partition to install the loader to. Unless you're using yet
 
another boot loader, you should install GRUB to the MBR of the installation
 
disk, which is usually represented by the appropriate device name without a
 
number suffix.</p>
 
 
 
<h4>Exit Install</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Exit the Installer, remove the media you used for the installation, type
 
reboot at the command line and cross your fingers!</p>
 
 
 
<h3>Automatic Installation Procedure</h3>
 
 
 
<p>With the automatic installation procedure, you can do scripted/automatic
 
installations.
 
See [#Aif_the_installation_tool 2.3 AIF, the installation tool]
 
In /usr/share/aif/examples you will find example profiles which will need
 
no or minimal editing in order to install a system:</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>generic-install-on-sda
 
this file demonstrates some things you can do (adding custom packages,
 
setting timezone, update config files etc)
 
it sets up a simple installation (with a structure similar to what you get
 
with Auto-prepare) on /dev/sda</li>
 
<li>fancy-install-on-sda
 
very similar to generic-install-on-sda,
 
but sets up a "filesystems on lvm on dm_crypt" system on /dev/sda</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Note that these files are plain bash files, so if you want to define for
 
example <code>SYNC_URL</code> it must be singlequoted to prevent bash expanding <code>$repo</code></p>
 
 
 
<p>Invoke as <code>aif -p automatic -c /path/to/configfile</code>
 
Obviously, don't forget to change the hard disk names unless you want
 
to use /dev/sda.</p>
 
 
 
<h4>Syntaxe konfiguračního souboru</h4>
 
 
 
<p>Config files will be sourced by the bash shell, so they need to be valid
 
bash code.</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>PARTITIONS:</strong> Allows you to define partitions for your hard disk,
 
separated by spaces.</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li>first comes the device file for the hard disk</li>
 
<li>then for each partition you want: size in MiB (or '*' for all remaining
 
space),filesystem type and optionally a '+' to toggle the bootable flag.
 
separated by colons (':')</li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p><strong>BLOCKDATA:</strong> In this multi-line variable you can describe for each
 
partition you'll have how it should be used.  Study the examples to see how
 
it works.</p>
 
 
 
<h3>Customizing Installations</h3>
 
 
 
<p>You can also customize your installation experience by writing new
 
procedures (possibly inheriting from current procedures) or config files for
 
procedures that support it (eg automatic).
 
You have all the aif libraries at your disposal and you can create new
 
libraries. (see /usr/lib/aif)
 
This is a moving target, so consult the AIF readme for more information.</p>
 
 
 
<h1>Váš nový systém</h1>
 
 
 
<p>If all went well, you can reboot your system (make sure you don't boot again
 
from the same USB disk or CD-ROM drive) and your new system will boot.</p>
 
 
 
<p>You'll notice that in the early userspace (the part that comes after the
 
bootloader) the hooks (as defined in mkinitcpio.conf) needed to get your root
 
filesystem are run. <br />
 
If you have lvm, it will run the lvm hook.  If you use encryption, it will
 
run the keymap and encrypt hooks so you can enter your password to decrypt the
 
volume.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Once the system is booted, login as root.  By default the password is empty
 
but in the interactive procedure you can change it.</p>
 
 
 
<h1>Více informací</h1>
 
 
 
<h2>Správa balíčků</h2>
 
 
 
<p>Pacman je správce balíčků, který eviduje veškerý software nainstalovaný
 
na vašem systému. Má podporu pro jednoduché závislosti a pro všechny balíčky
 
používá standardní formát archivu xz (v minulosti se používal gzip).
 
Některé běžné úkony, které můžete potřebovat v průběhu instalace, jsou
 
i s jejich příslušnými příkazy vysvětleny níže. Pro širší vysvětlení voleb
 
pacmana si přečtěte jeho manuálovou stránku nebo se podívejte na článek
 
[http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Pacman%20(Česky) o pacmanovi na wiki Arch Linuxu].
 
</p>
 
 
 
<p><strong>Typické úkony:</strong></p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Obnovení seznamu balíčků</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman --sync --refresh</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman -Sy</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Tímto se obdrží čerstvý seznam balíčků z repozitářů určených v souboru
 
/etc/pacman.conf a rozbalí do místní databáze.</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Vyhledání balíčku v repozitářích</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman --sync --search <regexp></p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman -Ss <regexp></p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Vyhledá v místní databázi všechny balíčky, jejichž název nebo popis
 
se shoduje s regulerním výrazem.</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Zobrazení informací o balíčku z databáze repozitářů</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman --sync --info foo</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman -Si foo</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Zobrazí informace z databáze repozitářů ohledně balíčku foo
 
(velikost, datum sestavení, závislosti, konflikty atp.)</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Přidání balíčku z repozitářů</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman --sync foo</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman -S foo</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Stáhne a nainstaluje balíček foo, kompletně se všemi závislostmi, které vyžaduje.
 
Před použitím jakékoliv "sync" volby se ujistěte, že jste obnovili seznam balíčků.</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Výpis nainstalovaných balíčků</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman --query</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman -Q</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Zobrazí seznam všech balíčků nainstalovaných do systému.</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Ověření, zda je nainstalován určitý balíček</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman --query foo</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman -Q foo</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Pokud je balíček foo nainstalován, tento příkaz zobrazí jeho jméno a verzi,
 
v opačném případě nezobrazí nic.</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Zobrazení informací o daném balíčku</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman --query --info foo</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman -Qi foo</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Zobrazí informace ohledně nainstalovaného balíčku foo
 
(velikost, datum instalace, datum sestavení, závislosti, konflikty atp.)</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Zobrazení seznamu souborů obsažených v balíčku</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman --query --list foo</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman -Ql foo</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Vypíše všechny soubory patřící k balíčku foo.</p>
 
 
 
<ul>
 
<li><p>Zjištění, ke kterému balíčku patří daný soubor</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman --query --owns /cesta/k/souboru</p>
 
 
 
<p># pacman -Qo /cesta/k/souboru</p></li>
 
</ul>
 
 
 
<p>Tento dotaz zobrazí jméno a verzi balíčku, který obsahuje
 
soubor zadaný v parametru.</p>
 
 
 
<h2>DODATEK</h2>
 
 
 
<p>Pro některé související informace, které mohou ocenit nováčci, vizte [http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Official_Arch_Linux_Install_Guide_Appendix Dodatek oficiálního průvodce instalací Arch Linuxu (anglicky)].</p>
 

Latest revision as of 14:39, 29 August 2015