Official Installation Guide (Česky)

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Introduction

 What is Arch Linux?
  Arch Linux is an i686-optimized linux distribution that was originally
  based on ideas from CRUX, a great distribution developed by Per Lidén.
  Arch is fast, lightweight, flexible and simple. Those aren't very
  fancy buzzwords but they're all true. Arch is optimized for the i686
  processor, so you get more for your cpu cycle. It's lightweight
  compared to RedHat et al., and its simple design makes it easy to
  extend and mold into whatever kind of system you're building.
  This is backed by an easy-to-use binary package system that allows you
  to upgrade your entire system with one command. Arch also uses a
  ports-like package build system (the Arch Build System - ABS) to make
  it easy to build packages, which can also be synchronized with one
  command. Oh yeah, and you can rebuild your entire system with one
  command, too. Everything is done quite simply and transparently.
  Arch Linux strives to maintain the latest stable version of its
  software. We currently support a fairly streamlined core package set
  with a growing collection of extra packages maintained by AL
  developers, as well as literally thousands of additional packages
  submitted by trusted members of the community to our AUR for everyone
  to use as they see fit.
  In it's goal to be simple and lightweight, the relatively useless
  portions of a linux system have been left out, things like /usr/doc
  and the info pages. In my own personal experience these are rarely
  used, and equivalent information can be obtained from the net if need
  be. Manpages all the way!
  Arch Linux also strives to use some of the newer features that are
  available to linux users, Arch Linux 0.8 (Voodoo) of course uses 
  the 2.6 Linux kernel and udev by default, and has support for 
  EXT2/EXT3/REISERFS/XFS/JFS, RAID/LVM, and encrypted filesystems.
 License
  Arch Linux, pacman, documentation, and scripts are copyright
  Š2002-2007 by Judd Vinet and are licensed under the GNU Public
  License.
 Credits and Feedback
  This document is heavily based on the works of Judd Vinet
  judd@archlinux.org. Minor corrections and a good bunch of
  modifications and additions have been made by Dennis Herbrich
  dennis@archlinux.org and Tobias Powalowski tpowa@archlinux.org.
  Corrections and feedback should be fed into the bugtracker.
  An uncountable lot of people have contributed and will contribute to
  the evolution of the official Arch Linux Documentation
  by submitting corrections and suggesting improvement, it's way too
  unpractical to list them all. However, you know who you are, and
  without your help this would be near impossible to maintain and
  improve. Thank you!

Installing Arch Linux

 Pre-Installation
  Arch Linux is optimized for the i686 processor and therefore will not
  run on any lower or incompatible generations of x86 CPUs
  (i386,i486,i586). A Pentium II or AMD K6-2 processor or higher is
  required.
  x86-64 architectures are also officially supported.
  There is a community-driven project that provides packages for i586
  and ppc. See this site for more information.
  Before installing Arch Linux, you should decide which installation
  method you would like to use. Arch Linux provides three different
  bootable ISO images for a CD-ROM installation.
  As the preferred method of installation is the flexible CD-ROM based
  installation, we offer you three variants of the installation medium
  which only differ in terms of supplied packages. You can instruct the
  installer to obtain the packages via FTP using any of these images,
  and all images can also be used as a last-resort recovery cd.
    * The full 550 MB arch-0.8.iso contains the whole current package
      repository at the time of release. For details on which packages
      are included, check out the package list available online. Using
      this image to create your installation medium, you'll be able to
      install a fully working linux system including some bells and
      whistles like a window manager and a good bunch of helper
      applications that are usually not considered mandatory, yet it
      might not include just those applications you would like to have
      used.
      If you generally do not have internet access from your target
      machine, it's most likely a good idea to obtain this variant to
      maximize the amount of packages you have available on CD.
    * The considerably smaller arch-0.8-base.iso (150MB) only contains
      the base and kernels package categories and is otherwise
      identical. Please note that it is no longer necessary to download
      the full iso image if you plan using RAID/LVM during setup, as the
      necessary packages have been moved to base a while ago. Installing
      from a medium created with this image results in a completely
      functional linux system, without any frills, expecting to be used
      from the command line.
      This image is ideally suited for minimalists or experts who only
      want a basic, working system and go from there, and have a rather
      slow or difficult to set up internet connection to make an FTP
      install unfeasible.
    * Finally, there is a new option available to the
      bandwith-conscious, the tiny 22 MB arch-0.8-ftp.iso containing
      only the bare minimum to get the installer process running. This
      variant contains no packages at all, and is therefore only useful
      for an FTP installation, if you've got a fast and easy to setup
      internet connection or a package repository server on a LAN.
      With only 22MB this is the fastest way to start installing
      ArchLinux, and has the additional advantage of using the newest
      packages available at the time of installation instead of the
      release snapshot package versions included in the other images. Of
      course all packages you choose to install have to be downloaded
      from somewhere, but at least you don't have to update the system
      directly after installation, and safe yourself some hassle. If
      your network connection is cheap and fast, choose this image.
  If you do not have a CD-ROM drive attached to your computer, you're
  naturally stuck.
  Now obtain a bootable Arch installation CD image, either by
  downloading and burning one of the latest ISOs from one of the mirrors
  listed, or by letting someone else burn a copy if your dialup
  connection simply doesn't cut it, or you don't own a CD-ROM writer.
  You can also purchase a cd online from OSDisc, shipping nearly
  world-wide.
  Furthermore you should not worry about using an old ISO for
  installation, as upgrading the system to the current branch is a
  breeze once you've got your basic system set up. At least if you've
  got a broadband connection!
  Using a dialup PPP connection to gain access to the internet during
  the install process is NOW supported. ppp utilities, rp-pppoe
  and the ISDN userspace utilities are included in the installation
  media.
  The 0.8 Isos now run like any installed arch system, 
  here are the highlights: 
  * pacman is included to allow installation of any other needed package 
    in install environment.
  * complete /etc/rc.d/ and /etc/rc.conf support
  * complete arch network support, including ssh,telnet and portmap services
  * custom config files support:
    any media with /config directory and files will be copied to /etc/ 
    install environment
  * loading packages as addons during boot:
    any media with /packages directory including pacman packages will be 
    installed during bootup.
  * links and naim included to be able to communicate over the internet.
  * complete kexec support
  The newbie-friendliest method of installing Arch Linux surely is
  installing the base system and all you need to get online from the CD,
  and then run a complete system upgrade and add any other packages you
  want or need once you set up your internet connection.
  Another thing you should know before trying to install Arch Linux is
  that during the install you're asked a few questions about which hard
  drive to prepare, what modules to load, and what changes to make to
  certain system-critical files like lilo.conf and rc.conf. The
  installer will not hold your hand here and guide you through any
  potential setup known and unknown to mankind, you are expected to know
  what to put in and leave out. This is quite a requirement for a
  newbie, so if this intimidates you already, make sure you read through
  this whole document to get at least a vague idea what is going to be
  asked, and check back on IRC, the forums or a linux guru in your
  neighborhood if anything is not clear to you before you totally mess
  up your system. You may of course boldly step into the fight and
  tinker and try around until it works, but don't tell anyone afterwards
  you haven't been warned. That being said, it's not that bad. ;)
   What You Will Need
    * a working knowledge of Linux and your system, especially your
      hardware
    * Arch Linux installation media (see the mirror list)
         + Arch Linux Install CD
    * an i686-based or x86-64 computer (PPro, Pentium 2 or higher, Athlon/Duron,
      etc. Note that AMD K6, Transmeta Crusoe, CyrixIII, and VIA-C3 are
      NOT supported.)
    * 96 MB RAM
    * some time to kill
   Acquiring Arch Linux
  You can download Arch Linux from any of the sources listed on the
  download page. The static mirrors are listed below for reference (note
  that these may be out of date; consult the webpage for a current
  list):
              DOWNLOAD MIRRORS
   # North America
   ftp://ftp.archlinux.org
   ftp://ftp.nethat.com/pub/linux/archlinux
   ftp://ftp-linux.cc.gatech.edu/pub/linux/distributions/archlinux
   ftp://mirror.cs.vt.edu/pub/ArchLinux
   ftp://ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/archlinux
   http://www2.cddc.vt.edu/linux/distributions/archlinux
   # Europe
   # -Austria
     ftp://gd.tuwien.ac.at/opsys/linux/archlinux
   # - Belgium
     ftp://ftp.belnet.be/packages/archlinux
   # - Czech Republic
     ftp://ftp.sh.cvut.cz/MIRRORS/arch
   # - Estonia
     ftp://ftp.estpak.ee/pub/archlinux
   # - France
     ftp://ftp.rez-gif.supelec.fr/pub/Linux/distrib/archlinux
     ftp://mir1.archlinuxfr.org/archlinux
     ftp://mir2.archlinuxfr.org/archlinux
     ftp://distrib-coffee.ipsl.jussieu.fr/pub/linux/archlinux
     http://mirrors.jakimowicz.com/archlinux
   # - Germany
     ftp://ftp.tu-chemnitz.de/pub/linux/sunsite.unc-mirror/distributions/archlinux
     ftp://ftp.hosteurope.de/mirror/ftp.archlinux.org
   # - Great Britain
     http://ftp.parrswood.manchester.sch.uk/Mirrors/ftp.archlinux.org
   # - Greece
     ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/linux/archlinux
   # - Ireland
     ftp://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.archlinux.org
   # - Italy
     ftp://mi.mirror.garr.it/mirrors/archlinux
   # - Netherlands
     ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/metalab/distributions/archlinux
     ftp://ftp.surfnet.nl/pub/os/Linux/distr/archlinux
   # - Norway
     ftp://mirror.djzradio.net/archlinux
   # - Poland
     ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/site/linux-sunsite/distributions/archlinux
     ftp://mirror.icis.pcz.pl/archlinux
   # - Portugal
     ftp://gul.est.ips.pt/repos/archlinux
     ftp://cesium.di.uminho.pt/pub/archlinux
     http://darkstar.ist.utl.pt/archlinux
   # - Romania
     ftp://ftp.iasi.roedu.net/mirrors/archlinux.org
   # - Sweden
     ftp://ftp.ds.hj.se/pub/linux/distributions/archlinux
     ftp://ftp.gigabit.nu
   # - Switzerland
     ftp://archlinux.puzzle.ch
   # - Ukraine
     ftp://ftp.linux.kiev.ua/pub/Linux/ArchLinux
   # Australia
   ftp://mirror.pacific.net.au/linux/archlinux
   # Asia
   ftp://cle.linux.org.tw/pub/ArchLinux
   http://mirror.vxmatrix.net/ArchLinux
   http://dxmirror.vxmatrix.net/ArchLinux
   http://cncmirror.vxmatrix.net/ArchLinux
   Preparing Installation Media
   CD Install
   1. Download 0.8/iso/<your_architecture>/arch-0.8.iso (path relative to mirror root)
   2. Download 0.8/iso/<your_architecture>/arch-0.8.md5sum
   3. Verify the integrity of the .iso image using md5sum:
  1. md5sum --check arch-0.8.md5sum

arch-0.8.iso: OK

   4. Burn the .iso image to a blank CD-R (this step varies depending on
      the OS/software you're using).
      If you want to download the base, ftp or a beta ISO instead, use
      the appropriate filename, ie: arch-0.8-base.iso instead of
      arch-0.8.iso, likewise for the md5sum.
   5. Write down all your network settings so you can enter them into
      setup later, if you want to install via FTP:
         + IP Address
         + Subnet Mask
         + Gateway
         + Ethernet Module for your network card (eg.: eepro100,
           8139too, ne2k-pci, etc.)
 Using the CD-ROM
  If you're already familiar with the boot process, you may skip all this 
  babble as well, and jump to the Common Install Procedure, which outlines 
  the actual process of installing Arch Linux.
  Reboot your computer with the Arch Linux Installation CD in the drive.
  Make sure your BIOS is set in a way to allow booting from your CD-ROM.
  Refer to your motherboard manual or your system manufacturer for
  details if you have no clue how to do that. Once the CD is booted
  from, you will see a boot prompt waiting for you pressing a key
  indefinitely, explaining what your options are at this point. Most
  users can just hit Enter.
  If your CD-ROM fails to boot for no obvious reason, and you're using a
  rather old CD-ROM drive in conjunction with a copy burned to a CD-RW,
  consider using a normal CD-R instead. Some older drives [two of mine,
  for example - Dennis] don't manage to read CD-RWs properly.
  At the end of the boot procedure, you should be dropped into a root
  shell with a handful of instructions filling the upper half of your
  screen. At this point you are ready to commence the actual
  installation, or do any manual preparation you consider necessary.
 Common Installation Procedure
  At this point your system should be booted, and the hard drive to
  which you'd like to install, as well as your installation source, must
  be accessible.
  Installation Steps:
   1. Loading a non-US Keymap
   2. Running Setup
   3. Configure Network (FTP Install only)
   4. Prepare Hard Drive
        1. Auto-Prepare
        2. Partition Hard Drives
        3. Set Filesystem Mountpoints
   5. Select Packages
   6. Install Packages
   7. Configure System
   8. Install Kernel
   9. Install Bootloader
  10. Exit Install
  Using the available shell tools, experienced users are also able to
  prepare the hard drive or any devices needed for the installation
  before starting the installer. You may simply skip this paragraph if
  you don't see any immediate need for further manual interaction. Note
  that the Arch Linux installation media also contains a /arch/quickinst
  script for experienced users. This script installs the "base" set of
  packages to a user-specified destination directory. If you are doing
  an exotic install with fun things like RAID and LVM, or don't want to
  use the installer at all, you'll probably want to use the quickinst
  script. All the cool kids do it.
   Loading a non-US Keymap
  If you require a non-US keymap, you can use the km utility to load a
  new keymap. Just type km at the prompt, then use the arrow keys to
  navigate to the correct keymap and/or console font.
   Running Setup
  Now you can run /arch/setup to invoke the installer program. After an
  informational message you will be prompted for the installation method
  of your choice. If you have a fast internet connection, you might
  prefer the FTP installation to ensure you get the latest packages
  instead of using the potentially outdated CD contents. Please note
  that you will probably run into trouble if you have a complex proxy
  setup with authentication when using the FTP installation. If you
  can't use a CD-ROM, or any other medium you could mount at this stage,
  this is the only viable method of installing Arch Linux.
  When navigating the setup script, make sure that you select DONE from
  the submenus after performing each step. This saves any settings you
  make in preparation for the next step. Further, avoid arbitrary steps
  through the installation process as this can also confuse the
  installer.
  It's actually rather easy to set up your own FTP package mirror or
  create your own bootable installation CD with the packages you need,
  making the task of installing several instances of Arch Linux across
  multiple machines rather simple, while at the same time saving a lot
  of mirror bandwidth. Make your life and ours easier, and look into
  these alternatives!
  When choosing a CD-ROM or OTHER SOURCE install you will only be able
  to install packages contained on the CD, which may be quite old, or
  packages stored on a medium you were able to mount (DVD, USB stick or
  similar) somewhere in the filesystem tree manually. Of course it has
  the merit that you won't need an internet connection, and is therefore
  the recommended choice for dialup users or anyone else who does not
  feel like downloading about at least 100 MB of packages.
  After choosing one of the two alternatives, you will be presented with
  the installer menu, listing the necessary steps in the order in which
  they should be completed.
  At any point in the install process, you can switch to your 5th
  virtual console (ALT-F5) to view the output from the commands the
  setup is running. Use (ALT-F1) to get back to your first console where
  the installer is running, and any F-key inbetween if you need to open
  another console to intervene manually for any reason.
   Configure Network (FTP Install only)
  Configure Network will allow you to install and configure your network
  device.
  A list of all currently available network devices is presented to you.
  If no ethernet device is available yet, or not the one you want to
  use, you may choose to switch to another terminal first using ALT-F2
  for example, and load the necessary modules manually. Alternatively,
  you may just do as instructed, hit OK, and probe for a network module
  in the following screen by selecting the Probe command. If the
  installer fails to find a matching network module, make sure you ran
  the loaddisk command correctly earlier to make the ethernet modules
  available, if you are using floppies. When booting from CD-ROM, this
  is not necessary. If your network card is still not found, make sure
  your card is properly physically installed and supported by the linux
  kernel at all. Sometimes it's necessary to obtain a binary,
  proprietary driver from the manufacturer of your network card, and
  somehow manage to copy it to the installation system and load it
  manually. This is usually nothing for the faint of heart, and using a
  different model of network card is advised.
  When the correct module is loaded, and your desired network card is
  listed, you should Select the ethernet device you want to configure
  and you will be given the option to configure your network with DHCP.
  If you're connected to a DHCP server, hit YES and let the installer do
  the rest. If you select NO, you will be asked to enter the networking
  information manually, which you hopefully wrote down as you were told.
  Either way, your network should be successfully configured, and if
  you're of the skeptical kind, you may check connectivity using
  standard tools like ping on another console.
  As automatisms are not perfect, you may not be able to successfully
  use the installer to set up your network. In these rare cases, don't
  bother, and set up you network device manually in one of the consoles.
  All the installer needs is a transparent connection to the ftp server
  you are going to select later during the installation.
  This menu entry is only available when choosing FTP Installation, for
  rather obvious reasons.
   Prepare Hard Drive
  Prepare Hard Drive will lead you into a submenu offering two
  alternatives of preparing your target drive for installation.
  The first choice is Auto-Prepare, which will automatically partition
  your hard drive into a /boot, swap, and root partition, and then
  create filesystems on all three. These partitions will also be
  automatically mounted in the proper place. To be exact, this option
  will create a
    * 32 MB ext2 /boot partition
    * 256 MB swap partition
    * root and /home partition with the remaining space
  Actual sizes may vary slightly due to different hard disk geometries.
  You can choose this option if you don't know much about hard drive
  partitions, but be warned:
  AUTO-PREPARE WILL ERASE ALL DATA ON THE CHOSEN HARD DRIVE!
  Read the warning presented by the installer very carefully, and make
  sure the correct device is about to be partitioned!
  A way to verify your choice for a device to partition would be to open
  another terminal (ALT-F2, Enter) and enter
  1. cfdisk -P s <name of device>
  there to display the current partition table of the selected device,
  which should suffice to identify the hard disk.
  If no device name is shown ("[nothing] will be COMPLETELY ERASED!
  ..."), and the installer produces an "Device not valid" error after
  hitting YES, make sure you loaded all needed modules if it's a SCSI,
  RAID, etc. device. You can still load any modules now by changing to
  another terminal and issuing the commands there, then return to the
  installer process on terminal one (ALT-F1).
  If you prefer to do the partitioning manually, use the other two
  options, Partition Hard Drives and Set Filesystem Mountpoints to
  prepare the target media according to your specifications as outlined
  below. Then Return to Main Menu after a successful preparation.
   Partition Hard Drives
  Partition Hard Drives should be skipped if you chose Auto-Prepare
  already!
  Otherwise you should select the disk(s) you want to partition, and
  you'll be dropped into the cfdisk program where you can freely modify
  the partitioning information until you [Write] and [Quit].
  You will need at least a root partition to continue the installation,
  and it's helpful to note somewhere which partition you're going to
  mount where, as you'll be asked exactly that in the next step.
   Set Filesystem Mountpoints
  Set Filesystem Mountpoints should also be skipped if you chose to
  Auto-Prepare your hard drive. You should select this choice once the
  partition information is edited to your liking with the previous menu
  selection, or already existent through whatever other means.
  The first question to answer is what partition to use as swap. Select
  the previously created swap partition from the list, or NONE, if you
  don't want to use a swap partition. Using a swap file is not directly
  supported by the installer; Instead choose NONE here, finish the
  mountpoint associations, and activate a swap file on your desired,
  formatted partition with the swapon command.
  After setting up the swap partition, you'll be asked to specify the
  partition to be used as the root partition. This is mandatory.
  The association process is then repeated until you choose DONE from
  the list, ideally after all listed partitions have been associated
  with their intended mountpoints. The installer will suggest /boot for
  all following mountpoints after choosing swap and root.
  Every time you specify a partition to mount, you will be asked if you
  want to create a filesystem on the respective partition. If you select
  YES, you will be asked what filesystem to create (a matter of taste,
  really. Choose ext3 if you have no clue), and the partition will be
  formatted with the chosen filesystem, destroying all data in the
  process. It should be no problem, however, to say NO at this point to
  preserve any existing files on the partition.
  If you want to preserve existing data on a partition, you are strongly
  advised to create backups instead of hoping that nothing will go wrong
  during the install. Don't say I didn't warn you!
  You will be asked whether to create a filesystem on your swap
  partition, and since this partition uses a specific filesystem of it's
  own, you should always answer YES here.
  If you want to mount any other partitions, for example a separate
  /boot or /home partition, you will be able to do so. Simply
    * select a partition to mount
    * choose a filesystem (if you want to create one instead of keeping
      the data)
    * enter a unique mountpoint for the partition
  Repeat these steps until you're satisfied, then select DONE to create
  any filesystems and mount the partitions in their respective places.
  Before the actual formatting is done, the installer will present to
  you a list of all of your choices for review. After formatting and
  mounting all partitions, you may return to the Main Menu and proceed
  with the next step.
   Select Packages
  Select Packages will let you select the packages you wish to install
  from the CD or your FTP mirror.
  If you chose CD-ROM installation, you have to tell the installer
  whether it should try to mount the CD itself, or whether you already
  mounted the source media on the /src directory. Select the option
  according to what you need; Normally you will want to choose CD, after
  which you will be given the possibility to choose a CD-ROM drive from
  the list of all detected devices.
  If your CD-ROM drive is not displayed in the list, make sure you
  loaded any modules that may be needed, like SCSI or USB storage
  support, and load them in another terminal if necessary.
  If you chose FTP Installation, you will be asked to choose a mirror
  close to you from a list, or select Custom to enter your own fully
  qualified domain name (or IP address) to an FTP server containing the
  installation source packages, ie. a prepared server in your LAN, or a
  mirror that's not listed for whatever reason, and afterwards the full
  path to the directory on the server that contains the packages and
  specifically the file current.db.tar.gz. The installer will check your
  input for validity, and allow you to make corrections until you enter
  an address and path that are reachable and allow downloading of the
  package list.
  Whatever source you chose, after fetching the package list you'll be
  dropped into the package category selection screen.
  If you are presented an error while fetching the package database, you
  should either choose another FTP mirror, make sure your network is
  working at all, and you didn't slip any typos into your custom server
  address. You might also have goofed mounting of your source media in
  the /src directory, if you chose that option. Read the messages
  presented to you carefully, in most cases all you need is a little
  tweaking of the directory layout on your source media or server,
  respectively.
  Now, once that is tackled, you have the opportunity to specify whole
  package groups from which you'd generally like to install packages,
  then fine-tune your coarse selection by (de)selecting individual
  packages from the groups you have chosen.
  Any packages in the BASE category should stay selected under all
  circumstances, and you should select any other group which contains a
  package you might need. Please note that the upcoming individual
  package selection screen will only offer packages which are in the
  categories you select here, so if you only select BASE, you won't be
  able to add any other packages than those in the BASE category.
  If you want to only select the bare minimum for installation, but be
  able to browse through all available packages nevertheless to see if
  anything interesting is there to add, you should select all package
  categories, but choose to NOT select all packages by default.
  The "Select all packages by default?" question can be easily
  misunderstood; Basically you are asked whether you want all the
  packages in the categories you just chose to be selected or not.
  If you select YES, the whole list of packages contained in the chosen
  categories will be displayed and selected, and your job will be to
  deselect what you do not want.
  If you select NO, the same list of packages will displayed, but only
  packages of the BASE category will be selected, and you'll have to
  explicitly select any other packages you want to install.
  Choosing NO helps to install a lean system!
  It is recommended that you install all the BASE packages, but not
  anything else at this point. Don't worry about getting all the
  packages you want - you can easily install more of them once the basic
  system boots by itself. The only exception to this rule is installing
  any packages you need for setting up internet connectivity. These
  packages usually are:
  dhcpcd (base)
         Add if your machine is a DHCP client.
  isdn4k-utils (network)
         Add if you use ISDN for dialup.
  ppp (base)
         Add if you use an analog modem for dialup.
  wvdial (network)
         Add if you'd like to have an easy frontend to analog modem
         dialup setup.
  rp-pppoe (base)
         Add if you use DSL for pseudo-dialup.
  The downloadable base ISO does not contain any packages but those in
  the BASE category, so be advised to get the full ISO if you need the
  ISDN packages or certain helper applications!
  Once you're done selecting the packages you need, leave the selection
  screen and continue to the next step, Install Packages.
   Install Packages
  Install Packages will now install pacman and any other packages you
  selected with resolved dependencies onto your harddisk. Don't be
  surprised if more packages are installed than you selected! Those
  packages are dependencies for your selection, and the installer will
  not explicitly ask for permission to install these extra packages, as
  it assumes you know what you're doing.
  After the package selection, the installer will not check for free
  space on the target! This seemingly trivial task would eat up
  considerable time, and therefore the installer simply assumes to have
  enough free space on the target partition(s). In case it doesn't, the
  installation will fail in various funny ways. A df -h in another
  terminal might show that one or more of the targets mounted below /mnt
  have been filled up, causing mischief. Consider repartitioning or
  selecting a smaller set of packages.
  Error messages and debugging output is echoed as usual to terminal
  five (ALT-F5). During normal, successful operation, you shouldn't find
  much to read there, though. After the packages have been installed,
  proceed to the next step, Configure System.
   Configure System
  Configure System allows you to edit the configuration files crucial
  for your newly installed system. Initially you will be asked whether
  to allow the hwdetect script to try and detect your hardware, and
  produce some (even more) sensible defaults for your configuration
  files. Unless you're having problems/crashes, you should let it have
  it's way, and work from what it generates.
  Answer the following questions about RAID, LVM and encrypted volumes
  with Yes, if your root partition resides on a RAID, LVM or encrypted
  volume, respectively, to automatically add the necessary HOOKS to the
  mkinitcpio.conf. Otherwise you will get a kernel panic during boot, as
  your root partition will not be accessible at the time of boot. Most
  people will answer these questions with No, though, and not waste a
  second thought about it.
  After this automatic preconfiguration you'll be asked for your
  favourite editor to use for manually fine-tuning the generated
  configuration files, either VIM or nano. When in doubt, choose nano.
  If you're in a real hurry, you may skip the following step of
  reviewing the configuration entirely and hope the defaults will work
  for you, but it's strongly recommended to iterate through the list of
  configuration files presented here and review the settings carefully.
  Please refer to the System Configuration section for detailed
  descriptions of the various files.
   Install Kernel
  Install Kernel will ask you which kernel image to install on your hard
  drive.
  2.6
         Install the stock 2.6 kernel with SCSI/SATA/IDE support. What
         exactly will be supported by the kernel during boot depends on
         how you configured your initial ramdisk, but the default has
         support for practically all SCSI, SATA, and IDE systems. See
         the System Configuration section for more information about the
         new initramfs, especially the potential pitfalls with the new
         PATA and ide legacy drivers.
  Please note that this release of Arch Linux only offers one kernel to
  install, as flexibility has now been put into the initramfs created by
  the mkinitcpio tool.
  The CD-ROM includes the 2.6.20.1 kernel. If you are using the FTP
  Installation method, the kernel about to be installed will be the
  current version waiting on your FTP source, and might therefore
  introduce changes and/or incompatibilities unknown at the present
  time. This is unlikely, but keep this in mind.
   Install Bootloader
  Install Bootloader will install a bootloader on your hard drive,
  either GRUB (recommended) or LILO, depending on your personal
  preference.
  Before installing the bootloader, the setup script will want you to
  examine the appropriate configuration file to confirm the proper
  settings. Make sure you know what your root (and /boot, if you have
  it) partitions are.
  If you choose to install LILO, the bootloader will be automatically
  installed according to your settings in the configuration file, whilst
  GRUB demands the selection of a partition to install the bootloader
  to. Here you should choose what you would enter as the boot option of
  LILO, which is usually the entry named /dev/hda, as it refers the
  master boot record of the first hard disk. Detailed error messages can
  be found as usual on VC5 (virtual console 5), if anything goes wrong.
  If you plan on setting up a multiboot system, it might be a better
  option to install the bootloader in your root or /boot partition, and
  refer to that boot sector from whatever other boot loader you want to
  reside in the master boot record.
  Installing a boot loader in the MBR will relentlessly overwrite any
  existing bootloader! Make sure you understand the implications of that
  if you're running a multiboot system, or want to preserve an installed
  bootloader from another OS!
   Exit Install
  Exit Install now, remove the CD from the drive, type reboot at the
  command line and cross your fingers!
  If your system boots up, you can log in as root without any password,
  so your first things to do are setting a password for root with the
  passwd command once you're logged in, add a user as outlined in the
  User Management section, and set up your Internet Connection.
  Congratulations! Now you can proceed getting into the nitty-gritty of
  configuring the interesting parts of your system, and adapt it to your
  needs!

System Configuration

  These are the core configuration files for Arch Linux. You should be
  comfortable hand-editing these files with a text-editor, because there
  aren't any GUI apps to help you out. Only the most basic configuration
  files are listed here. If you need help configuring a specific
  service, please read the appropriate manpage or refer to any online
  documentation you need. In many cases, the Archlinux Wiki and forums
  are a rich source for help as well.
  Arch Linux does not use any abstraction layers to administrate your
  system. As a result, you can usually stick to any instructions
  published by the author of a software, or whatever you find in a
  search engine of your choice, and it'll work out without confusing
  your system, because your system just does not care.
 Configuration Files
  Before attempting to boot your newly installed system, you should at
  least glance over these files and make sure they are not too far off
  the mark.
  List of Configuration Files
   1. Setup-relevant configuration files:
   2. /etc/rc.conf
   3. /etc/hosts
   4. /etc/fstab
   5. /etc/mkinitcpio.conf
   6. /etc/modprobe.conf
   7. /etc/resolv.conf
   8. /etc/locale.gen
   9. /boot/grub/menu.lst
  10. /etc/lilo.conf
  11. Additional configuration files:
  12. /etc/conf.d/*
  13. /etc/profile
   /etc/rc.conf
  This is the main configuration file for Arch Linux. It allows you to
  set your keyboard, timezone, hostname, network, daemons to run and
  modules to load at bootup, profiles, and more. You should read through
  all the settings in this file and make sure you understand them, and
  change them where appropriate:
  LOCALE
         This sets your system language, which will be used by all
         i18n-friendly applications and utilities. You can get a list of
         the available locales by running locale -a from the command
         line. This setting's default is fine for US English users.
  HARDWARECLOCK
         Either UTC if your BIOS clock is set to UTC, or localtime if
         your BIOS clock is set to your local time. If you have an OS
         installed which cannot handle UTC BIOS times correctly, like
         Windows, choose localtime here, otherwise you should prefer
         UTC, which makes daylight savings time a non-issue and has a
         few other positive aspects.
  TIMEZONE
         Specifies your time zone. Possible time zones are the relative
         path to a zoneinfo file starting from the directory
         /usr/share/zoneinfo. For example, a german timezone would be
         Europe/Berlin, which refers to the file
         /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin. If you don't know the exact
         name of your timezone file, worry about it later.
  KEYMAP
         Defines the keymap to load with the loadkeys program on bootup.
         Possible keymaps are found in /usr/share/kbd/keymaps. Please
         note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any
         graphical window managers or X! Again, the default is fine for
         US users.
  CONSOLEFONT
         Defines the console font to load with the setfont program on
         bootup. Possible fonts are found in
         /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts.
  CONSOLEMAP
         Defines the console map to load with the setfont program on
         bootup. Possible maps are found in /usr/share/kbd/consoletrans.
         You will want to set this to a map suitable for your locale
         (8859-1 for Latin1, for example) if you're using an utf8 locale
         above, and use programs that generate 8-bit output. If you're
         using X11 for everyday's work, don't bother, as it only affects
         the output of linux console applications.
  USECOLOR
         Enable (or disable) colorized status messages during boot-up.
  MOD_AUTOLOAD
         If set to "yes", Arch will scan your hardware at bootup and
         attempt to automatically load the proper modules for your
         system. This is done with the hwdetect utility.
  MOD_BLACKLIST
         This is an array of modules that you do not want to be loaded
         at bootup. For example, if you don't want that annoying PC
         speaker, you could blacklist the pcspkr module.
  MODULES
         In this array you can list the names of modules you want to
         load during bootup without the need to bind them to a hardware
         device as in the modprobe.conf. Simply add the name of the
         module here, and put any options into the modprobe.conf if need
         be. Prepending a module with a bang ('!') will not load the
         module during bootup (this is not the same as MOD_BLACKLIST!),
         thus allowing to "comment out" certain modules if necessary. A
         benefit of specifying networking modules here is that ethernet
         cards covered by the listed modules will always be detected in
         the order the modules are listed. This prevents the dreaded
         interface confusion where your ethernet hardware is assigned to
         seemingly random interfaces after each boot. An even better way
         to handle this is using static interface labels by configuring
         udev appropriately, though.
  USELVM
         Set to "YES" to run a vgchange during sysinit, thus activating
         any LVM groups. If you have no idea what this means, don't
         bother.
  HOSTNAME
         Set this to the hostname of the machine, without the domain
         part. This is totally your choice, as long as you stick to
         letters, digits and a few common special characters like the
         dash. Don't be too creative here, though, and when in doubt,
         use the default.
  INTERFACES
         Here you define the settings for your networking interfaces.
         The default lines and the included comments explain the setup
         well enough. If you do not use DHCP to configure a device, just
         keep in mind that the value of the variable (whose name must be
         equal to the name of the device which is supposed to be
         configured) equals the line which would be appended to the
         ifconfig command if you were to configure the device manually
         in the shell.
  ROUTES
         You can define your own static network routes with arbitrary
         names here. Look at the example for a default gateway to get
         the idea. Basically the quoted part is identical to what you'd
         pass to a manual route add command, therefore reading man route
         is recommended if you don't know what to write here, or simply
         leave this alone.
  NET_PROFILES
         Enables certain network profiles at bootup. Network profiles
         provide a convenient way of managing multiple network
         configurations, and are intended to replace the standard
         INTERFACES/ROUTES setup that is still recommended for systems
         with only one network configuration. If your computer will be
         participating in various networks at various times (eg, a
         laptop) then you should take a look at the
         /etc/network-profiles/ directory to set up some profiles. There
         is a template file included there that can be used to create
         new profiles.
  DAEMONS
         This array simply lists the names of those scripts contained in
         /etc/rc.d/ which are supposed to be started during the boot
         process. If a script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is
         not executed. If a script is prefixed with an "at" symbol (@),
         then it will be executed in the background, ie. the startup
         sequence will not wait for successful completion before
         continuing. Usually you do not need to change the defaults to
         get a running system, but you are going to edit this array
         whenever you install system services like sshd, and want to
         start these automatically during bootup. This is basically
         Arch's way of handling what others handle with various symlinks
         to an init.d directory.
   /etc/hosts
  This is where you stick hostname/ip associations of computers on your
  network. If a hostname isn't known to your DNS, you can add it here to
  allow proper resolving, or override DNS replies. You usually don't
  need to change anything here, but you might want to add the hostname
  and hostname + domain of the local machine to this file, resolving to
  the IP of your network interface. Some services, postfix for example,
  will bomb otherwise. If you don't know what you're doing, leave this
  file alone until you read man hosts.
   /etc/fstab
  Your filesystem settings and mountpoints are configured here. The
  installer should have created the necessary entries for you, but you
  should look over it and make sure it's right, especially when using an
  encrypted root device, LVM or RAID.
  With the current kernel, an important change has been introduced
  pertaining to the ATA/IDE subsystem. The new pata (Parallel ATA)
  drivers replace the legacy IDE subsystem, and one important change is
  that the naming scheme for IDE disks has changed from the old hda,
  hdb, etc. to also use device names of the type sda, sdb, etc, just
  like SCSI and SATA devices do. Because of this, when using the new
  pata driver in the HOOKS of the /etc/mkinitcpio.conf, remember to use
  the appropriate device names in your /etc/fstab and bootloader
  configuration! Alternatively, you could use the /dev/disk/by-uuid/...
  or /dev/disk/by-label/... representations of your disk drives where
  available to make absolutely sure you're referring to the right
  partitions, and save yourself the trouble of sorting out whether
  you're supposed to use sda or hda. If that's not an option, here's the
  rundown; If you're using pata instead of ide in the HOOKS array of the
  /etc/mkinitcpio.conf, you'll be using the sd? names. If not, use the
  old style hd? names. It is therefore crucial to check the HOOKS array
  in the /etc/mkinitcpio.conf, to be able to adapt the other files
  accordingly.
   /etc/mkinitcpio.conf
  This file allows you to fine-tune the initial ramdisk (also commonly
  referred to as the "initrd") for your system. The initrd is a gzipped
  image that is read by the kernel during bootup. The purpose of the
  initrd is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the
  root filesystem. This means it has to load any modules that are
  required to "see" things like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if
  you are booting off a USB/FW drive). Once the initrd loads the proper
  modules, either manually or through udev, it passes control to the
  Arch system and your bootup continues. For this reason, the initrd
  only needs to contain the modules necessary to access the root
  filesystem. It does not need to contain every module you would ever
  want to use. The majority of your everyday modules will be loaded
  later on by udev, during the init process.
  By default, mkinitcpio.conf is configured to provide all known modules
  for IDE, SCSI, or SATA systems through so-called HOOKS. This means the
  default initrd should work for almost everybody. The downside to this
  is that there are many modules loaded that you will not need. This is
  easily visible by examining your module table after booting up (with
  the lsmod command). While this doesn't actually hurt anything, some
  people find it annoying. To cull this list down to only what you
  actually need, you can edit mkinitcpio.conf and remove the subsystem
  HOOKS (ie, IDE, SCSI, RAID, USB, etc) that you don't need.
  You can customize even further by specifying the exact modules you
  need in the MODULES array and remove even more of the hooks, but take
  heed to the comments in the file, as this is a touchy place to go
  crazy with removing entries!
  If you're using RAID or encryption on your root filesystem, then
  you'll have to tweak the RAID/CRYPT settings near the bottom. See the
  wiki pages for RAID/LVM, filesystem encryption, and mkinitcpio for
  more info.
  When you're finished tweaking mkinitcpio.conf, you must run mkinitcpio
  -p kernel26 as root to regenerate the images, unless you're still
  installing the system; In that case this step will be done
  automatically after choosing Install Kernel later in the process.
  WARNING: If you fail to set up your mkinitcpio.conf correctly, your
  system will not boot! For this reason, you should be especially
  careful when tweaking this file.
  If you do manage to render your system unbootable, you can try using
  the fallback image that is installed alongside the stock kernel. A
  boot option for this is included in the default GRUB and LILO 
  configuration.
  Read the warning about the pata transition problems elaborated in the
  fstab section carefully!
   /etc/modprobe.conf
  This tells the kernel which modules it needs to load for system
  devices, and what options to set. For example, to have the kernel load
  your Realtek 8139 ethernet module when it starts the network (ie.
  tries to setup eth0), use this line:

alias eth0 8139too

  The syntax of this file is nearly identical to the old modules.conf
  scheme, unless you use some of the more exotic options like
  post-install. Then you should invest a little time into reading man
  modprobe.conf.
  Most people will not need to edit this file.
   /etc/resolv.conf
  Use this file to manually setup your nameserver(s) that you want to
  use. It should basically look like this:

search domain.tld nameserver 192.168.0.1 nameserver 192.168.0.2

  Replace domain.tld and the ip addresses with your settings. The
  so-called search domain specifies the default domain that is appended
  to unqualified hostnames automatically. By setting this, a ping myhost
  will effectively become a ping myhost.domain.tld with the above
  values. These settings usually aren't mighty important, though, and
  most people should leave them alone for now. If you use DHCP, this
  file will be replaced with the correct values automatically when
  networking is started, meaning you can and should happily ignore this
  file.
   /etc/locale.gen
  This file contains a list of all supported locales and charsets
  available to you. When choosing a LOCALE in your /etc/rc.conf or when
  starting a program, it is required to uncomment the respective locale
  in this file, to make a "compiled" version available to the system,
  and run the locale-gen command as root to generate all uncommented
  locales and put them in their place afterwards. You should uncomment
  all locales you intend to use.
  During the installation process, you do not need to run locale-gen
  manually, this will be taken care of automatically after saving your
  changes to this file.
  By default, all locales are commented out, including the default
  en_US.utf8 locale referred to in the /etc/rc.conf file. To make your
  system work smoothly, you must edit this file and uncomment at least
  the one locale you're using in your rc.conf.
    _________________________________________________________________
   /boot/grub/menu.lst
  GRUB is the default bootloader for Arch Linux. You should check and
  modify this file to accomodate your boot setup if you want to use
  GRUB, otherwise read on about the LILO configuration.
  Make sure you read the warning regarding the pata transition
  elaborated on in the fstab section!
  Configuring GRUB is quite easy, the biggest hurdle is that it uses yet
  another device naming scheme different from /dev; Your hard disks as a
  whole are referred to as (hd0), (hd1), etc., sequentially numbered in
  order of appearance on the IDE/SCSI bus, just like the hda, hdb, etc.
  names in Linux. The partitions of a disk are referred to with (hd0,0),
  (hd0,1) and so on, with 0 meaning the first partition. A few
  conversion examples are included in the default menu.lst to aid your
  understanding.
  Once you grasped the concept of device naming, all you need to do is
  to choose a nice title for your boot section(s), supply the correct
  root partition device as a parameter to the root option to have it
  mounted as / on bootup, and create a kernel line that includes the
  partition and path where the kernel is located as well as any boot
  parameters. If using the stock Arch 2.6.x kernel, you'll also need an
  initrd line that points to the kernel26.img file in your /boot
  directory. The path you put on your initrd line should be the same as
  the path to vmlinuz26 that you provide on the kernel line. You should
  be fine with the defaults, just check whether the partition
  information is correct in the root and kernel lines, especially in
  regard to the pata issue!
  To create a boot option that loads the bootsector of a different OS,
  the following example might be helpful. You will probably succeed in
  starting any Microsoft-based operating system with it, just add this
  block to the file after any other sections, and modify the partition
  device accordingly to refer to the partition containing the bootsector
  of the OS you are intending to boot.
  1. (1) Other OS

title My Other OS rootnoverify (hd0,1) makeactive chainloader +1

  For advanced configuration of other OSes, please refer to the online
  GRUB manual.
  After checking your bootloader configuration for correctness, you'll
  be prompted for a partition to install the loader to. Unless you're
  using yet another boot loader, you should install GRUB to the MBR of
  the installation disk, which is usually represented by the appropriate
  device name without a number suffix.
   /etc/lilo.conf
  This is the configuration file for the LILO bootloader. Make sure you
  check this one and get it right if you want to use LILO to boot your
  system. See LILO documentation for help on this.
  Things you should check are the root= lines in the image sections and
  the boot= line right at the beginning of the file. The root lines
  specify the device which shall be mounted as the root filesystem on
  bootup. If you don't know what is supposed to be entered here, change
  to another terminal and type mount to see a list of all currently
  mounted drives, and look for the line which displays a device name
  mounted on /mnt type [...]. The device path at the beginning of this
  very line should be entered in the root lines of your lilo.conf.
  Change if necessary, and keep the pata issue in mind!
  The boot line should be okay by default in most cases. Unless you have
  a weird boot manager setup in mind with multiple OSes, the device
  referenced here should be having the same prefix your root lines have,
  but not end with a number. For example, a root of /dev/hda3 means you
  probably want to install LILO into the Master Boot Record of the hard
  disk, so you would set boot to /dev/hda, which references the disk as
  a whole. During installation, the boot device must be the current name
  of the device where you want to write the boot sector to; This may
  differ from the name of the device after the first boot, thanks to the
  pata transition! Check carefully what device to write to during the
  installation stage, for example with the mount command.
  To prevent some serious grief, you should make sure you know how to
  restore the bootsector of your other OSes, for example with Windows's
  FIXBOOT/FIXMBR tools.
  To be on the safe side, you should keep the option lba32 listed. This
  will prevent some geometry issues from happening.
  In some cases, depending on your BIOS, LILO will not run on bootup and
  spill out an error code infinitely. In most cases you either removed
  the lba32 option, or your hardware setup is a little special, meaning
  that maybe your CD-ROM drive is primary master and the hard disk you
  installed secondary slave. This can very well confuse your BIOS, and
  thus stop the boot process. To prevent that you can try and make the
  install drive the primary master on your IDE bus. If you've got a
  mixed IDE and SCSI system and the problem persists, you'll probably
  need some experimentation with the disk and bios options of LILO to
  provide a working mapping; The disk drives in your system are numbered
  sequentially by your BIOS, starting with 0x80. If you're lucky your
  SCSI controller tells you which drive has which BIOS ID, but usually
  you're not. How the drives are effectively numbered is depending on
  your BIOS, so in the worst case you can only guess until it works. A
  typical disk line would look like this:

boot=/dev/hda disk=/dev/hda bios=0x80

  The disk option maps a BIOS ID to the disk device known to linux. Note
  that there is still no guarantee that things will work as other things
  can be wrong, so do not despair if all your tries fail, but rather try
  rearranging your hardware in a way that's not totally odd. In this
  area too much can go wrong and needs special handling to be explained
  here. In most cases the lba32 option will suffice anyway. Old hard
  drives will usually need a little more special care until they do as
  told.
  Don't become fidgety when reading this section, I (Dennis) just
  happened to stumble over this problem when experimenting with a rather
  odd system, and figured it'd be a good idea to mention this show
  stopper and workarounds here. You probably won't ever experience this,
  as you should be using GRUB anyway.
  How to recreate a LILO boot sector with only a rescue disk is
  explained later in this document.
   /etc/conf.d/*
  During setup, this is totally unimportant. Consider this as reference
  for the interested.
  Some daemon scripts will have a matching configuration file in this
  directory that contains some more-or-less useful default values. When
  a daemon is started, it will first source the settings from it's
  config file within this directory, and then source the /etc/rc.conf.
  This means you can easily centralize all your daemon configuration
  options in your /etc/rc.conf simply by setting an appropriate variable
  value, or split up your configuration over multiple files if you
  prefer a decentralized approach to this issue. Isn't life great if
  it's all just simple scripting?
   /etc/profile
  This script is run on each user login to initialize the system. It is
  kept quite simple under Arch Linux, as most things are. You may wish
  to edit or customize it to suit your needs.
 Boot Scripts
  Arch Linux uses a fairly simple bootup sequence quite similar to
  *BSDs. The first boot script to run is /etc/rc.sysinit. When it's
  done, /etc/rc.multi will be called (in a normal bootup). The last
  script to run will be /etc/rc.local. When started in runlevel 1, the
  single user mode, the script /etc/rc.single is run instead of
  /etc/rc.multi. You will not find an endless symlink collection in the
  /etc/rc?.d/ directories to define the bootup sequence for all possible
  runleves. In fact, due to this approach Arch only really has three
  runlevels, if you take starting up X in runlevel 5 into account. The
  boot scripts are using the variables and definitions found in the
  /etc/rc.conf file and also a set of general functions defined in the
  /etc/rc.d/functions script. If you plan to write your own daemon
  files, you should consider having a look at this file and existing
  daemon scripts.
  Boot Script Overview
   1. /etc/rc.sysinit
   2. /etc/rc.single
   3. /etc/rc.multi
   4. /etc/rc.local
   5. /etc/rc.shutdown
   6. /etc/rc.local.shutdown
   7. /etc/rc.d/*
   /etc/rc.sysinit
  The main system boot script. It does boot-critical things like
  mounting filesystems, running udev, activating swap, loading modules,
  setting localization parameters, etc. You will most likely never need
  to edit this file!
   /etc/rc.single
  Single-user startup. Not used in a normal boot-up. If the system is
  started in single-user mode, for example with the kernel parameter 1
  before booting or during normal multi-user operation with the command
  init 1, this script makes sure no daemons are running except for the
  bare minimum; syslog-ng and udev. The single-user mode is useful if
  you need to make any changes to the system while making sure that no
  remote user can do anything that might cause data loss or damage.
  For desktop users, this mode usually is useless as crud. You should
  have no need to edit this script, either.
   /etc/rc.multi
  Multi-user startup script. It starts all daemons you configured in the
  DAEMONS array (set in /etc/rc.conf) after which it calls
  /etc/rc.local. You shouldn't feel a pressing need to edit this file.
   /etc/rc.local
  Local multi-user startup script. It is a good place to put any
  last-minute commands you want the system to run at the very end of the
  bootup process. This is finally the one and only script you should
  modify if needed, and you have total freedom on what to add to this
  script.
  Most common system configuration tasks, like loading modules, changing
  the console font or setting up devices, usually have a dedicated place
  where they belong. To avoid confusion, you should make sure that
  whatever you intend to add to your rc.local isn't feeling just as home
  in /etc/profile.d/ or any other already existant config location
  instead.
   /etc/rc.shutdown
  System shutdown script. It stops daemons, unmounts filesystems,
  deactivates the swap, etc. Just don't touch.
   /etc/rc.local.shutdown
  Analogous to the /etc/rc.local file, this file may contain any
  commands you want to run right before the common rc.shutdown is
  executed. Please note that this file does not exist by default, and
  for it to work properly, it must be set as executable.
   /etc/rc.d/*
  This directory contains the daemon scripts referred to from the
  rc.conf's DAEMONS array. In addition to being called on bootup, you
  can use these scripts when the system is running to manage the
  services of your system. For example the command
  1. /etc/rc.d/postfix stop
  will stop the postfix daemon. Of course a script only exists when the
  appropriate package has been installed (in this case postfix). With a
  basic system install, you don't have many scripts in here, but rest
  assured that all relevant daemon scripts end up here. This directory
  is pretty much the equivalent to the /etc/rc3.d/ or /etc/init.d/
  directories of other distributions, without all the symlink hassle.
 User Management
  Users and groups can be added and deleted with the standard commands
  provided in the util-linux package: useradd, userdel, groupadd,
  groupdel, passwd, and gpasswd. The typical way of adding a user is
  similar to this procedure:
  1. useradd -m -s /bin/bash johndoe
  2. passwd johndoe
  The first command will add the user named johndoe to the system,
  create a home directory for him at /home/johndoe, and place some
  default login files in his home directory. It will also set his login
  shell to be /bin/bash. The second command will ask you for a password
  for the johndoe user. A password is required to activate the account.
  As an alternative to the useradd command, the adduser script is also
  available to interactively create new users on your system simply by
  answering questions.
  See the manpages for more information on the remaining commands. It is
  a good idea to create one or multiple normal users for your day-to-day
  work to fully use the available security features and minimize
  potential damage that may be the result of using the root user for
  anything but system administration tasks.
 Internet Access
  Due to a lack of developers for dialup issues, connecting Arch to the
  Internet with a dialup line is requiring a lot of manual setup. If at
  all possible, set up a dedicated router which you can then use as a
  default gateway on the Arch box.
  There are quite a few dialup related documents in the Arch Linux Wiki
   Analog Modem
  To be able to use a Hayes-compatible, external, analog modem, you need
  to at least have the ppp package installed. Modify the file
  /etc/ppp/options to suit your needs and according to man pppd. You
  will need to define a chat script to supply your username and passwort
  to the ISP after the initial connection has been established. The
  manpages for pppd and chat have examples in them that should suffice
  to get a connection up and running if you're either experienced or
  stubborn enough. With udev, your serial ports usually are /dev/tts/0
  and /dev/tts/1.
  Instead of fighting a glorious battle with the plain pppd, you may opt
  to install wvdial or a similar tool to ease the setup process
  considerably.
  In case you're using a so called WinModem, which is basically a PCI
  plugin card working as an internal analog modem, you should indulge in
  the vast information found on the LinModem homepage.
   ISDN
  Setting up ISDN is done in three steps:
   1. Install and configure hardware
   2. Install and configure the ISDN utilities
   3. Add settings for your ISP
  The current Arch stock kernels include the necessary ISDN modules,
  meaning that you won't need to recompile your kernel unless you're
  about to use rather odd or old ISDN hardware. After physically
  installing your ISDN card in your machine or plugging in your USB
  ISDN-Box, you can try loading the modules with modprobe. Nearly all
  passive ISDN PCI cards are handled by the hisax module which needs two
  parameters; type and protocol. You must set protocol to '1' if your
  country uses the 1TR6 standard, '2' if it uses EuroISDN (EDSS1), '3'
  if you're hooked to a so called leased-line without D-channel, and '4'
  for US NI1.
  Details on all those settings and how to set them is included in the
  kernel documentation, more specifically in the isdn subdirectory,
  available online. The type parameter depends on your card; A list of
  all possible types is to be found in the README.HiSax kernel
  documentation. Choose your card and load the module with the
  appropriate options like this:
  1. modprobe hisax type=18 protocol=2
  This will load the hisax module for my (Dennis) ELSA Quickstep
  1000PCI, being used in Germany with the EDSS1 protocol. You should
  find helpful debugging output in your /var/log/everything.log file in
  which you should see your card being prepared for action. Please note
  that you will probably need to load some usb modules before you can
  work with an external USB ISDN Adapter.
  Once you confirmed that your card works with certain settings, you can
  add the module options to your /etc/modprobe.conf:

alias ippp0 hisax options hisax type=18 protocol=2

  Alternatively you can only add the options line here, and add hisax to
  your MODULES array in the rc.conf. Your choice, really, but this
  example has the advantage that the module will not be loaded until
  it's really needed.
  That being done you should have working, supported hardware. Now you
  need the basic utilities to actually use it!
  Install the isdn4k-utils package, and read the manpage to isdnctrl,
  it'll get you started. Further down in the manpage you will find
  explanations on how to create a configuration file that can be parsed
  by isdnctrl, as well as some helpful setup examples.
  Please note that you have to add your SPID to your MSN setting
  seperated by a colon if you use US NI1.
  After you configured your ISDN card with the isdnctrl utility, you
  should be able to dial into the machine you specified with the
  PHONE_OUT parameter, but fail the username and password
  authentication. To make this work add your username and password to
  /etc/ppp/pap-secrets or /etc/ppp/chap-secrets as if you were
  configuring a normal analogous PPP link, depending on which protocol
  your ISP uses for authentication. If in doubt, put your data into both
  files.
  If you set up everything correctly, you should now be able to
  establish a dialup connection with isdnctrl dial ippp0 as root. If you
  have any problems, remember to check the logfiles!
   DSL (PPPoE)
  These instructions are only relevant to you if your PC itself is
  supposed to manage the connection to your ISP. You do not need to do
  anything but define a correct default gatewayif you are using a
  seperate router of some sort to do the grunt work.
  Before you can use your DSL online connection, you will have to
  physically install the network card that is supposed to be connected
  to the DSL-Modem into your computer. After adding your newly installed
  network card to the modprobe.conf or the MODULES array, you should
  install the rp-pppoe package and run the pppoe-setup script to
  configure your connection. After you have entered all required data,
  you can connect and disconnect your line with
  1. /etc/rc.d/adsl start
  and
  1. /etc/rc.d/adsl stop
  respectively. The setup usually is rather easy and straightforward,
  but feel free to read the manpages for hints. If you want to
  automatically dial in on bootup, add adsl to your DAEMONS array.

Package Management

 Pacman
  pacman is the package manager which tracks all the software installed
  on your system. It has simple dependency support and uses the standard
  gzipped tar archive format for all packages. Some common tasks are
  explained below with the respective commands in long and short option
  form. For an up to date explanation of pacman's options, read man
  pacman. This overview is merely scratching the surface of pacman's
  current capabilities.
  Typical tasks:
   1. Adding a new package with a package file
   2. Upgrading a package with a package file
   3. Removing packages
   4. Refreshing the package list
   5. Upgrading the system
   6. Adding/Upgrading a package from the repositories
   7. List installed packages
   8. Check if a specific package is installed
   9. Display specific package info
  10. Display list of files contained in package
  11. Find out which package a specific file belongs to
   Adding a new package with a package file
  1. pacman --add foo.pkg.tar.gz
  2. pacman -A foo.pkg.tar.gz
  This will install the foo.pkg.tar.gz package on the system. If
  dependencies are missing, pacman will exit with an error and report
  the missing deps, but not attempt to resolve the dependencies
  automatically. Look at the --sync option if you expect this
  functionality. Adding multiple package files is possible, and if the
  listed files depend on each other, the packages will be automatically
  installed in the correct order.
   Upgrading a package with a package file
  1. pacman --upgrade foo.pkg.tar.gz
  2. pacman -U foo.pkg.tar.gz
  This does essentially the same as the --add operation, but will
  additionally upgrade an already-installed package at no extra cost. I
  can personally not imagine a case where you'd prefer --add over this
  --upgrade function, unless you want pacman to exit if a package is
  already installed.
   Removing packages
  1. pacman --remove foo
  2. pacman -R foo
  This will remove all files belonging to the package named foo, except
  for configuration files that have been edited. Only supply the name of
  the package to this command, without the pkg.tar.gz suffix.
  To remove any and all trace of a package, add the --nosave option to
  the above command.
   Refreshing the package list
  1. pacman --sync --refresh
  2. pacman -Sy
  This will retrieve a fresh master package list from the repositories
  defined in the /etc/pacman.conf file and uncompress it into the
  database area. You should use this before using --sysupgrade to make
  sure you get the newest packages. Depending on your pacman.conf
  settings, this command may require a working internet connection to
  access FTP/HTTP-based repositories. This option is quite similar to
  Debian's apt-get update command.
   Upgrading the system
  1. pacman --sync --sysupgrade
  2. pacman -Su
  This command will upgrade all packages that are out-of-date on your
  system by comparing the local package version to the versions in the
  master package list that gets downloaded with the --refresh command.
  It's a good idea to run this regularly to keep your system up to date.
  Note that this command does NOT implicitly refresh the master package
  list, so it's usually wiser to combine both commands into one like
  this:
  1. pacman --sync --refresh --sysupgrade
  2. pacman -Syu
  With these options pacman will automatically retrieve the current
  master package list and do a full system upgrade to the latest
  packages with all dependencies being automagically resolved. You will
  want to run this quite often.
   Adding/Upgrading a package from the repositories
  1. pacman --sync foo
  2. pacman -S foo
  Retrieve and install package foo, complete with all dependencies it
  requires. Before using any sync option, make sure you refreshed the
  package list, or add --refresh or -y to the options to do it before
  the installation attempt. Unlike --add, the --sync option does not
  differ between installing and upgrading packages. Depending on your
  pacman.conf settings this function requires working internet access.
  Receiving strange errors when downloading packages from the server,
  ie. broken downloads or files that aren't found, usually are either
  caused by not refreshing the package list with --sync, or if you're
  unlucky enough to try downloading from a mirror while it's synching
  it's contents, and is thusly in an inconsistent state.
   List installed packages
  1. pacman --query
  2. pacman -Q
  Displays a list of all installed packages in the system.
   Check if a specific package is installed
  1. pacman --query foo
  2. pacman -Q foo
  Instead of grepping the full list for a name, you can append the name
  of the package you are looking for to the query command. This command
  will display the name and version of the foo package if it is
  installed, nothing otherwise.
   Display specific package info
  1. pacman --query --info foo
  2. pacman -Qi foo
  Displays information on the installed package foo (size, install date,
  build date, dependencies, conflicts, etc.). To display this
  information for a package file that is not yet installed, add the
  --file or -p option, respectively:
  1. pacman --query --info --file foo.pkg.tar.gz
  2. pacman -Qip foo.pkg.tar.gz
   Display list of files contained in package
  1. pacman --query --list foo
  2. pacman -Ql foo
  Lists all files belonging to package foo.
   Find out which package a specific file belongs to
  1. pacman --query --owns /path/to/file
  2. pacman -Qo /path/to/file
  This query displays the name and version of the package which contains
  the file referenced by it's full path as a parameter. Just using the
  file name without the path will not yield results.
 Accessing Repositories
  A package repository is a collection of packages and a package
  meta-info file that can reside in a local directory or on a remote
  FTP/HTTP server. The default repository for an Arch system is the
  current repository. This is kept up to date by developers with the
  latest version of most software and stays fairly bleeding-edge.
  Many users also choose to activate the extra package repository which
  contains more packages that are not part of Arch's core package set.
  You can activate this repo by uncommenting the appropriate lines in
  your /etc/pacman.conf. This repository is activated by default.
  You can also build, maintain and use your own package repositories.
  See the pacman manpage for instructions.
  If you install from CD-ROM and end up having problems accessing the
  Internet, you may need to install additional packages from the CD.
  Refer to the FAQs, specifically FAQ #3 later in this document, to find
  out how to define a repository that uses the installation CD-ROM as a
  package source.

Arch Build System (ABS)

 Binary vs. Source
  Where pacman is responsible for the binary side of the package world,
  ABS is responsible for the source side: It helps you to build your own
  custom packages from source code, also letting you rebuild Arch Linux
  packages with your own customizations. The procedure usually goes as
  follows:
   1. Synchronize your ABS tree with the server.
   2. Create a new directory in /var/abs/local/ named after the package
      you are going to create.
   3. Copy the PKGBUILD.proto prototype from /var/abs/ into your newly
      created directory, remove the .proto suffix, and edit it to fit
      the new package.
   4. Run makepkg in the working directory with the PKGBUILD file.
   5. Install the newly built package with pacman.
   6. Send the package to your friends for bragging rights (or give it
      to an Archer so s/he can stick it in the master ABS tree).
 Synchronizing Your ABS Tree
  You can synchronize all the required package building files in
  /var/abs by running the abs script as root. It requires the cvsup
  package to operate and will complain if you don't have it installed. A
  working internet connection is also required, of course. Using CVS as
  the transfer medium allows you to follow different version trees
  within ABS - this can be configured in /etc/abs/supfile.arch. For
  example, the default supfile is set to track the current package tree,
  which is bleeding-edge and the recommended source to follow. You can
  also follow specific versions. See the comments in the supfiles for
  more info.
  ABS supports multiple repositories, which can be enabled or disabled
  in /etc/abs/abs.conf. By default, abs will follow the current and
  extra repositories, but not anything else.
  You will also see an /etc/abs/supfile.extra file. This will give you
  access to all the unofficial build scripts that were not included in
  the main ABS repository. If you do not want to use this repository,
  you can delete the file, but usually it makes more sense to edit
  abs.conf accordingly instead, and disable the repositories you don't
  need.
 How to Build Packages
  The build process is thoroughly explained in the makepkg manpage. Read
  it for instructions on building your own packages. If that's not
  helping you, keep your eyes peeled for tutorials in the Wiki, or ask
  for help in the forums or IRC.
 Package Guidelines
  When building package for Arch Linux, you should adhere to the package
  guidelines below, especially if you would like to contribute your new
  package to Arch Linux.
   Package Naming
    * Package names should consist of alphanumeric characters only; all
      letters should be lowercase.
    * Package versions should be the same as the version released by the
      author. Versions can include letters if need be (eg, nmap's
      version was 2.54beta32 a good while ago). Version tags may not include
      hyphens!  Letters, numbers, and periods only.
    * Package releases are specific to Arch Linux packages. These allow
      users to differentiate between newer and older package builds.
      When a new package version is first released, the release count
      starts at 1. Then as fixes and optimizations are made, the package
      will be re-released to the AL public and the release number will
      increment. When a new version comes out, the release count resets
      to 1. Package release tags follow the same naming restrictions as
      version tags.
   Directories
  Configuration files should be placed in the /etc directory. If there's
  more than one configuration file, it's customary to use a subdirectory
  in order to keep the /etc area as clean as possible. Use
  /etc/{pkgname}/ where {pkgname} is the name of your package (or a
  suitable alternative, eg, apache uses /etc/httpd/).
  Package files should follow these general directory guidelines:
  /etc             System-essential configuration files
  /usr/bin         Application binaries
  /usr/sbin        System binaries
  /usr/lib         Libraries
  /usr/include     Header files
  /usr/lib/{pkg}   Modules, plugins, etc.
  /usr/man         Manpages
  /usr/share/{pkg} Application data
  /etc/{pkg}       Configuration files for {pkg}
  /opt
  Packages that do not fit cleanly into Linux filesystem layout can be
  placed here. If a package's files can be cleanly placed into the above
  directories, then do so. If there are other high-level directories
  that do not fit, then you should use /opt.
  For example, the acrobat package has Browser, Reader, and Resource
  directories sitting at the same level as the bin directory. This
  doesn't fit into a normal Linux filesystem layout, so we place all the
  files in a subdirectory of /opt.
  Clear as mud? Good.
   makepkg Duties
  When you use makepkg to build a package for you, it does the following
  automatically:
   1. Checks if package dependencies are installed
   2. Downloads source files from servers
   3. Unpacks source files
   4. Does any necessary patching
   5. Builds the software and installs it in a fake root
   6. Removes /usr/doc, /usr/info, /usr/share/doc, and /usr/share/info
      from the package
   7. Strips symbols from binaries
   8. Strips debugging symbols from libraries
   9. Generates the package meta file which is included with each
      package
  10. Compresses the fake root into the package file
  11. Stores the package file in the configured destination directory
      (cwd by default)
   Other
  Do not introduce new variables into your PKGBUILD build scripts,
  unless the package cannot be built without doing so, as these could
  possibly conflict with variables used in makepkg itself. If a new
  variable is absolutely required, prefix the variable name with an
  underscore.
  Avoid using /usr/libexec/ for anything. Use /usr/lib/{pkgname}
  instead.
  The "Packager" field from the package meta file can be customized by
  the package builder by modifying the appropriate option in the
  /etc/makepkg.conf file, or alternatively by exporting the PACKAGER
  environment variable before building packages with makepkg:
  1. export PACKAGER="John Doe <your.email>"
   Submitting Packages
  If you'd like to submit packages, please take a look at the Arch User
  Repository and their guidelines. New packages should be submitted to
  the AUR.
  If you're submitting a package, please do the following:
   1. Please add a comment line to the top of your PKGBUILD file that
      follows this format:
  1. Contributor: Your Name <your.email>
   2. Verify the package dependencies (eg, run ldd on dynamic
      executables, check tools required by scripts, etc.). It's also a
      good idea to use the namcap utility, written by Jason Chu
      jason@archlinux.org, to analyze the sanity if your package. namcap
      will tell you about bad permissions, missing dependencies,
      un-needed dependencies, and other common mistakes. You can install
      the namcap package with pacman as usual.
   3. All packages should come as a compressed tar file containing a
      directory with the newly built package, the PKGBUILD, filelist,
      and additional files (patches, install, ...) in it. The archive
      name should at least contain the name of the package.
   4. Read the appropriate documents regarding the AUR, and the newest
      version of the packaging guildelines on the AUR Homepage.

Frequently Asked Questions

  The FAQs listed here are only covering any problems that may keep you
  from booting or installing an initial Arch Linux system. If you have
  questions regarding further usage of the system utilities, X11 setup,
  etc. or how to configure your hardware, please head over to the Wiki.
  If you think an issue is not covered here that should be, please
  notify the author of this document, whose address is to be found at
  the very top of this file.
 During package installation, pacman fails to resolve dependencies for package
 A because package B is not in the package set
  Unless something is very broken and thus very likely to be reported by
  multiple people soon, you probably just forgot to mount your target
  partitions properly. This causes pacman to decompress the package
  database into the initial ramdisk, which fills up quite nicely and
  ultimatively leads to this error.
  Make sure that you use the DONE and not the CANCEL option offered by
  the Filesystem Mountpoints menu to apply your choices. This error
  should not happen if you use the Auto-Prepare feature; If it does
  nevertheless, please report this as a bug.
 How can I install packages from the install CD with pacman --sync (so it
 resolves dependencies for me)?
  If you would rather have packages install from the CD instead of
  downloading them, then mount the install CD somewhere (eg. /mnt/cd)
  and add this line right below the [current] line in /etc/pacman.conf:

Server = file:///mnt/cd

  Replace /mnt/cd with the mountpoint you chose. Then use pacman --sync
  as you normally would - It will now check the /mnt/cd directory first
  for packages.
 How can I create multiple swap partitions during the install?
  Naturally you won't be able to use the Auto-Prepare feature if you
  want to create and use multiple swap partitions. Create the partitions
  manually instead, and create as many swap partitions as your little
  heart desires. Go through the rest of the disk preparation steps,
  don't mind that you're only asked for one swap partition during the
  mount-point setting. Once you're through with the install and are
  about to edit your system configuration files, you can edit the fstab
  file and include a line for every swap device you created earlier.
  Simply copy the automatically generated swap line, and modify the
  referenced device according to your setup. The additional swaps will
  be activated after the bootup when swapon -a is being run by the
  initscripts. Make sure you ran mkswap on all of your swap partitions
  manually, or else your system will complain on bootup!
  If, for any odd reason, you can not wait until after the installation
  with activating multiple swap partitions or files, you will have to
  open a shell on one of the virtual terminals and issue the swapon
  <device> for every swap drive or file you partitioned/readied before
  with mkswap. Then continue as explained above with the install.
  In case you are honestly contemplating setting up multiple swap files
  or drives, you should keep in mind that a kernel that needs to swap is
  actually crying bitterly for more RAM, not more swap space. Please
  keep your penguin well fed. Thank you.
 How do I reconfigure LILO from the rescue system?
  As a first step you simply boot from the Arch Install CD or disks. If
  your partitions are intact and don't need checking, you can try
  choosing one of the recovery boot options according to your partition
  layout, or fiddle with the GRUB boot manager settings on your own to
  get your existing system to boot properly. That will boot directly
  into your system, and you can skip all but the last step of actually
  reconfiguring and running LILO.
  If you cannot boot your old root directly, boot from the CD as if you
  were going to start an installation. Once you're in a shell, you mount
  the root partition of your harddisk into the /mnt directory, for
  example like this:
  1. mount /dev/hda3 /mnt
  Then you mount any other partitions to their respective mount points
  within that root of yours, for example a /boot partition:
  1. mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/boot
  Now you need to mount a /dev tree in the /mnt area, where LILO will be
  able to find it:
  1. /mnt/bin/mount --bind /dev /mnt/dev
  Once everything is mounted, make this /mnt directory your new root
  with the chroot /mnt command. This will start a new shell and drop you
  into the /mnt directory, which will be considered your / from then on.
  Now you can edit /etc/lilo.conf to your liking and run lilo to fix
  anything that needs fixing. Simply type exit when you want to break
  out of this root again, back into the original file tree. You can now
  reboot and test your changes.
 I can't ssh into my machine!
  Edit your /etc/hosts.deny file. The default configuration will reject
  all incoming connections, not only ssh connections.
 How should I load modules during boot now?
  If you want to load a module unconditionally without a specific device
  binding, add the name of the module to the MODULES array of your
  /etc/rc.conf. For on demand loading on device access, add it as usual
  with the alias and optioncommands to your /etc/modprobe.conf, in the
  rare cases that the automatisms employed by udev don't cut
  it. To pass any options to a module you want to load through the
  MODULES array, only add the appropriate options line to your
  /etc/modprobe.conf.
 Kernel refuses to boot because of "lost interrupt"
  Kernel refuses to boot. It locks at:

IRQ probe failed for hda hda lost interrupt

  This or a similar error occurs for some HD controllers on kernel
  2.6.x. A workaround is to pass the acpi=off option to the kernel at
  boot time.
 I get "access denied" errors trying to play music or read DVDs
  Add your user to the optical and audio groups.
  1. gpasswd -a johndoe optical
  2. gpasswd -a johndoe audio
  Logout, then login again as that user (eg. johndoe) so the group
  changes can take effect, and the device permissions shouldn't be a
  problem anymore.
  If you have a DVD drive, you may want to create a /dev/dvd symlink to
  your real DVD device. Usually udev does this for you already, but this
  will serve well as an example for setting up similar symlinks.
  For example, if your DVD drive is accessible through /dev/sdc, you can
  do the following as root:
  1. cat >>/etc/udev/rules.d/00.rules <<EOF

> KERNEL="sdc", NAME="sdc", SYMLINK="dvd" > EOF

  1. /etc/start_udev
  2. mount /dev/pts
  3. mount /dev/shm