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[[nl:Official Installation Guide]]
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{{out of date}}
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{{translateme}}
+
{{Article summary start}}
+
{{Article summary text| 1=
+
<p>Основна документація по інсталяції дистрибутиву Arch Linux.</p>
+
<p>Ця інструкція сумісна тільки з релізом 2010.05 або новішим.
+
Підтримується і розивається на [https://projects.archlinux.org/?p=aif.git aif git] <br />
+
Git запити, патчі та коментарі заохочуються
+
[https://www.archlinux.org/mailman/listinfo/arch-releng releng mailing list]</p>
+
<p>Ця інструкція доступна в теці /usr/share/aif/docs в прес-релізі та в
+
[[Official_Arch_Linux_Install_Guide_(Українська)|Аrch wiki(Українська)]]</p>}}
+
{{Article summary heading|Related articles}}
+
 
+
{{Article summary wiki|[[Beginners%27_Guide_(Українська)]] Керівництво для початківців}} (Якщо ти новачок в світі Arch)
+
{{Article summary end}}
+
<h1>Вступ</h1>
+
 
+
<h2>Що є Arch Linux?</h2>
+
 
+
<p>Arch Linux то є незалежно розроблюваний, i686 та x86_64 оптимізований дистрибутив Linux, що спочатку спирався на ідеї від CRUX. <br />
+
Розроблення зосереджується на балансі між простотою, елегантністю, правильністю коду та найновішим софтом. <br />
+
Його легкий та простий дизайн роблять нескладним його розширення та збирання у будь-яку систему, якої вам треба будувати.</p>
+
 
+
<h2>License</h2>
+
 
+
<p>Arch Linux and scripts are copyright</p>
+
 
+
<p>2002-2007 Judd Vinet</p>
+
 
+
<p>2007-2010 Aaron Griffin</p>
+
 
+
<p>and are licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL).</p>
+
 
+
<h1>Pre-Installation</h1>
+
 
+
<h2>Architectures</h2>
+
 
+
<p>Arch Linux is optimized for i686 and x86_64 processors and therefore will not
+
run on any lower or incompatible generations of x86 CPUs (i386, i486 or i586).
+
A Pentium Pro, Pentium II or AMD Athlon (K7) processor or higher is required.
+
(technically, cpu's without the cmov instruction such as AMD K6 and via C3 are also
+
i686, but we use gcc and it uses cmov instructions)
+
Before installing Arch Linux,
+
you should decide which installation method you would like to use.</p>
+
 
+
<h2>Available images</h2>
+
 
+
<p>Arch Linux provides isofiles which can be written to CD-roms or to disks and usb sticks</p>
+
 
+
<p>The Isolinux bootloader is used.
+
There are two variants of each installation medium which only differ
+
in terms of supplied packages.</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>The "core" images contain a snapshot of the core packages. <br />
+
These images are best suited for people who have an internet connection
+
which is slow or difficult to set up.</p></li>
+
<li><p>The "net" images contain no packages at all, and will use the network to
+
install packages. <br />
+
These images are preferred since you will end up with an up-
+
to-date system and they are best suited for people with fast internet
+
connections.</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>You can instruct the installer to obtain the packages via the internet (or
+
any network) using either of these images, and all images can also be used as
+
fully functioning recovery environments. <br />
+
The images run like any regular installed Arch Linux system. <br />
+
In fact, they're exactly the same, just installed to a CD or USB image instead
+
of a hard disk. <br />
+
They include the entire "base" package set, as well as various
+
networking utilities and drivers and have the aif package installed. <br />
+
If there's something else you happen to need
+
at runtime, just get your Internet connection up and install it using pacman. <br />
+
A short pacman command reference is available at the end of this document.</p>
+
 
+
<p>All images are available in a i686, x86_64 or dual variant. The latter contains both and lets you choose
+
an architecture at boot.</p>
+
 
+
<h2>AIF, the installation tool</h2>
+
 
+
<p>Arch Linux uses AIF aka 'Arch Linux Installation Framework' to perform
+
installations. <br />
+
This tool - written in bash - consists of some libraries to perform various
+
functions (installing packages, setting up disks etc) and some so called
+
procedures which use these libraries to provide an easy means to do
+
an installation or to smaller related tasks ('partial procedures').
+
These procedures are shipped by default:</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>interactive: An interactive installation procedure, which asks you some
+
          questions, guides you through an installation and helps you
+
          configuring the target system by automatically changing some
+
          settings for you depending on what you did earlier
+
          (eg network settings) <br />
+
          The installed system will initially have only a customisable
+
          set of "base" packages installed with whatever utilities
+
          and drivers you need to get online. <br />
+
          Then once you've
+
          successfully booted the installed system, you'll run a full
+
          system upgrade and install any other packages you want.
+
          (aliased as <code>/arch/setup</code>)</li>
+
<li>automatic:  An automated, deploy-tool-alike procedure designed for
+
          low-to zero interactivity. <br />
+
          uses profiles for configuration of the target system. <br />
+
          See /usr/share/aif/examples/ for example profile files.
+
          The examples implement quite generic scenarios but you're
+
          free to change them how you like to install extra packages,
+
          do configuration tweaks, etc.</li>
+
<li>base:        basic, little-interactivity installation with some
+
          common defaults. <br />
+
          This procedure is used by the others to inherit from,
+
          it is NOT meant to be used directly by end users</li>
+
<li>partial-configure-network: exposes the network configuration step from
+
                        the interactive procedure, to help you setup
+
                        the network in the live environment</li>
+
<li>partial-disks: Process disk subsystem or do a rollback</li>
+
<li>partial-keymap: change your keymap/console font settings. (aliased as <code>km</code>)</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>The benefit of procedures such as partial-keymap and
+
partial-configure-network over direct usage of tools such as loadkeys or
+
ifconfig is that when running the interactive procedure, you will get asked
+
if you want to apply your settings to the config files of the target system.</p>
+
 
+
<p>If you want to go further, you can also:</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>write your own procedures from scratch or by overriding certain parts of
+
other procedures</li>
+
<li>write your own libraries, to provide new, reusable functionality</li>
+
<li>create your own configs for the procedures that support them (eg automatic)</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>For more information, consult the readme of AIF.</p>
+
 
+
<h2>Acquiring Arch Linux</h2>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>You can download Arch Linux from any of the mirrors listed on the
+
[https://www.archlinux.org/download/ download] page.</p></li>
+
<li><p>You may also purchase an installation CD from Archux, OSDisc or LinuxCD
+
and have it shipped anywhere in the world.</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<h2>Preparing the Installation Media</h2>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>Download your chosen medium through torrent (preferred) or from your favorite mirror.</p></li>
+
<li><p>Download iso/<release>/sha1sums.txt</p></li>
+
<li><p>Verify the integrity of the .iso image using sha1sum:</p>
+
 
+
<p>sha1sum --check sha1sums.txt</p>
+
 
+
<p>archlinux-XXX.iso: OK</p></li>
+
<li><p>Burn the ISO image to a CD-R or CD-RW using any software of your choice, or if using a USB mass storage device, such as a thumb drive,
+
using dd or similar raw-write software:</p>
+
 
+
<p>dd if=archlinux-XXX.iso of=/dev/sdX</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>Make sure to use /dev/sdX and not /dev/sdX1. <br />
+
This command will irrevocably delete all files on your USB stick,
+
so make sure you don't have any important files on it before doing this.</p>
+
 
+
<h1>Installing Arch Linux</h1>
+
 
+
<h2>Using the Install Media</h2>
+
 
+
<h3>Pre-boot</h3>
+
 
+
<p>Make sure your BIOS is set in a way to allow booting from your CD-ROM or USB
+
device. <br />
+
Reboot your computer with the Arch Linux Installation CD in the drive
+
or the USB stick plugged in the port. Once the installation medium has started
+
booting you will see the Arch Linux logo and a grub menu waiting for your
+
selection. <br />
+
Most likely you can just hit enter at this point. <br />
+
If Grub hangs, you're one of the unlucky few whose CD-rom drive doesn't work
+
with grub and you should try the isolinux image.</p>
+
 
+
<h3>Post-boot</h3>
+
 
+
<p>At the end of the boot procedure, you should be at a login prompt with some
+
simple instructions at the top of the screen. <br />
+
You should login as root. At this point you can
+
optionally perform manual preparations and commence the actual installation</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>If you prefer a non-US keymap or specific consolefont, type <code>km</code> to change
+
any of these.</li>
+
<li>If for some reason you need network access before starting the installer
+
(the interactive procedure lets you configure the network for NET
+
installations) <br />
+
you can type <code>aif -p partial-configure-network</code></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>For both items, changed settings will be remembered to be optionally applied
+
to the target system when using the interactive procedure.</p>
+
 
+
<p>There is also an <code>arch</code> login which can be usefull if you want to do things
+
as non-privileged user. <br />
+
Most people don't need this.</p>
+
 
+
<p>You will find that everything you need to perform this installation
+
(a copy of this guide, aif README, shortcuts to common aif procedures)
+
can be found in /arch</p>
+
 
+
<h2>Using PXE (Network booting)</h2>
+
 
+
<h3>Server</h3>
+
 
+
<p>On another machine running (Arch) Linux (live or normal), <br />
+
you need to install and configure a dhcp and tftpd daemon.
+
Dnsmasq is a fine choice which can do both. <br />
+
You also need a nbd (network block device) daemon so the client can load
+
the needed files.</p>
+
 
+
<p>You can find more info on the wiki
+
[[Archiso-as-pxe-server|Community contributed documentation]]</p>
+
 
+
<p>(this section could be a bit more elaborate)</p>
+
 
+
<h3>Client</h3>
+
 
+
<p>Configure your system to try network booting (pxe) first.
+
On most systems this happen by default.
+
You will get an IP from the server and load all needed files over the network
+
automatically.  Once booted, you can proceed as normal.</p>
+
 
+
<h2>Performing the installation</h2>
+
 
+
<p>You can either use the interactive procedure or the automatic one. <br />
+
See section [#Aif_the_installation_tool 2.3 AIF, the installation tool]
+
or the AIF readme for more info.</p>
+
 
+
<h3>Interactive Installation Procedure</h3>
+
 
+
<p>Type <code>/arch/setup</code> (or <code>aif -p interactive</code>, which is the same) to start.</p>
+
 
+
<p>After the welcome message and disclaimer you will be presented with the main
+
installation menu. You can use UP and DOWN arrow to navigate menus. Use TAB to
+
switch between buttons and ENTER to select. At any point during the install
+
process, you can switch to your 7th virtual console (ALT-F7) to view the
+
output from the commands the setup is running. Use (ALT-F1) to get back to
+
your first console where the installer is running, and any F-key in between if
+
you need to open another console to intervene manually for any reason.</p>
+
 
+
<h4>Select Source</h4>
+
 
+
<p>As a first step you must choose the method you want to install Arch Linux. If
+
you have a fast Internet connection, you might prefer the NET installation to
+
ensure you get the latest packages instead of using the potentially outdated
+
CD or USB image contents.  If you're using a NET image you don't have much
+
choice ;-).</p>
+
 
+
<h5>CD-ROM or OTHER SOURCE</h5>
+
 
+
<p>When choosing a CD-ROM or OTHER SOURCE install you will only be able to
+
install packages contained on the CD, which may be quite old, or packages
+
stored on a medium you were able to mount (DVD, USB stick or similar)
+
somewhere in the filesystem tree manually. Of course it has the advantage that
+
you won't need an Internet connection, and is therefore the recommended choice
+
for dialup users or those unable or unwilling to download the entire package
+
set.</p>
+
 
+
<h5>NET (FTP/HTTP)</h5>
+
 
+
<h6>Setup Network</h6>
+
 
+
<p>The first entry Setup Network will allow you to install and configure your
+
network device. If you are using a wireless device you will still need to use
+
the usual utilities to configure it manually, in which case this part of the
+
installer isn't much use to you. A list of all currently available network
+
devices is presented to you. If no ethernet device is available yet, or the
+
one you wish to use is missing, either hit OK and go on to probe for it, or
+
switch to another console and load the module manually. If you still can't
+
configure your network card, make sure it's physically been properly
+
installed, and that it is supported by the Linux kernel.</p>
+
 
+
<p>When the correct module is loaded, and your desired network card is listed,
+
you should select the ethernet device you want to configure and you will be
+
given the option to configure your network with DHCP. If your network uses
+
DHCP, hit YES and let the installer do the rest. If you select NO, you will be
+
asked to enter the networking information manually. Either way, your network
+
should be successfully configured, and you may check connectivity using
+
standard tools like ping on another console.</p>
+
 
+
<h6>Choose Mirror</h6>
+
 
+
<p>Choose Mirror will allow you to choose the preferred mirror to download the
+
packages that will be installed in your Arch Linux system. You should choose a
+
mirror situated near where you live, in order to achieve faster download
+
speed. At some later point of the installation, you will be given the option
+
to use the mirror you choose at this step, as the default mirror to download
+
packages from.</p>
+
 
+
<p><em>*Note: *</em> ftp.archlinux.org is throttled to 50 KB/s.</p>
+
 
+
<p>These menu entries are only available when choosing FTP Installation, for
+
rather obvious reasons. After successful preparation, choose Return to Main
+
Menu.</p>
+
 
+
<h4>Set Clock</h4>
+
 
+
<p>Set Clock will allow you to set up your system clock and date.
+
First you have to say if your hardwareclock is (or should be) in UTC or
+
localtime.
+
UTC is preferred, but if you have an OS installed which cannot handle UTC
+
BIOS times correctly -like Windows- you'll have to choose localtime.
+
Next the setup will want you to select your continent/country (timezone),
+
and allow you to set the date and time (for which you can also use
+
[http://www.ntp.org/ NTP] if your network is up)</p>
+
 
+
<h4>Prepare Hard Drive</h4>
+
 
+
<p>Prepare Hard Drive will lead you into a submenu offering two alternatives of
+
preparing your target drive(s) for installation, and a means to undo changes if
+
you want to retry.</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>Auto-prepare will automatically partition (and fully overwrite) one disk
+
of your choice.
+
It creates a simple layout with a /boot, swap, / and /home partition where
+
you have some control over the used filesystems and sizes thereof.</li>
+
<li>If you wish/need more control you can manually partition one or more hard
+
disks and then manually specify a complete setup using the partitions on your
+
disks.  You can also use things such as lvm and dm_crypt here.</li>
+
<li>The Rollback feature will check which filesystems were created by either
+
of these methods, unmount the relevant filesystems and destroy lvm and
+
dm_crypt volumes if they were created by you.  You need this option if you
+
want to undo or redo a certain scheme.  You will be prompted for this if
+
you forget.</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>Notes:</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>AIF can help you set up new dm_crypt and lvm volumes, but not (yet) softraid.</li>
+
<li>AIF currently doesn't help you creating volumegroups that span multiple
+
physical volumes.  (if you need this -unlikely- : use vgcreate)</li>
+
<li>AIF supports reusing filesystems, but only if it can find the blockdevice.
+
If you want to reuse a filesystem that is on top of lvm/dm_crypt/softraid,
+
you'll need to bring up the volumes yourself.</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<h5>Auto-Prepare</h5>
+
 
+
<p>Auto-Prepare will automatically partition a hard drive of your choice
+
into a /boot, swap, a root partition, and a /home and then create filesystems
+
on all four. These partitions will also be automatically mounted
+
in the proper place. To be exact, this option will create:</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>32 MB ext2 /boot partition</li>
+
<li>256 MB swap partition</li>
+
<li>7.5 GB root partition</li>
+
<li>/home partition with the remaining space</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>You will be prompted to modify the sizes to your requirements, but /home will
+
always use the remaining disk space.  You can customize the used filesystem
+
for /boot and for both of root and /home at once.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>AUTO-PREPARE WILL ERASE ALL DATA ON THE CHOSEN HARD DRIVE!</strong></p>
+
 
+
<h5>Manually partition Hard Drives</h5>
+
 
+
<p>Here you can select the disk(s) you want to partition, and you'll be
+
dropped into the cfdisk program where you can freely modify the partitioning
+
information until you [Write] and [Quit]. You will need at least a root
+
partition to continue the installation.</p>
+
 
+
<h5>Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints</h5>
+
 
+
<p>In this menu all recognized partitions are listed.  On top of these you can
+
create new filesystems.
+
You should be aware of three things:</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>All of this is just a model, everything will only be set up after you confirm.</li>
+
<li>Not all blockdevices support all filesystems (Eg you cannot put an LVM
+
volumegroup on something other then a LVM physical volume).
+
The installer will automatically filter the list of possible filesystems
+
and even select the one automatically for you if there's only one option.</li>
+
<li>Some filesystems will cause new blockdevices to be created.
+
This is the case for dm_crypt and lvm volumes.
+
You will see them appear in the model and you can use them to put another
+
filesystem on top of it.</li>
+
<li>When asked for (optional) options to mkfs tools, pass
+
arguments which will literally be added when calling mkfs.
+
For example, to disable the journal on ext filesystems:
+
<ul>
+
<li>don't do: <code>^has_journal</code></li>
+
<li>but rather: <code>-O ^has_journal</code></li>
+
</ul></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>When filesystems setup is complete, you can select 'Done'.  At this point a
+
check will be run which will tell you any critical errors (such as no root
+
filesystem) and/or give you some warnings which you may ignore (like no
+
swap).
+
If anything is found, you can go back to fix these issues, or continue at
+
which point everything will be setup the way you asked.</p>
+
 
+
<p>For example, if you want a setup that uses LVM on top of dm_crypt, you would:</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>make sure that you have a 2 partitions: a small one for the unencrypted
+
boot (about 100M) and one for the rest of the (encrypted) system.
+
(do this in "Manually partition hard drives")</li>
+
<li>on your /dev/sdX1, make an ext2 filesystem with mountpoint /boot</li>
+
<li>on your /dev/sdX2, make a dm_crypt volume, with label sdX2crypt
+
(or whatever you want)</li>
+
<li>/dev/mapper/sdX2crypt will appear.  Put a LVM physical volume on this</li>
+
<li>/dev/mapper/sdX2crypt+ appears.  This is the representation of the
+
physical volume.  Put a volumegroup on this, with label cryptpool
+
(or whatever you want)</li>
+
<li>/dev/mapper/cryptpool appears.  On this volumegroup you are able to put
+
multiple logical volumes.  Make 2:
+
<ul>
+
<li>one with size 5G: label this cryptroot</li>
+
<li>one with size 10G: label this crypthome</li>
+
</ul></li>
+
<li>2 new volumes appear:
+
<ul>
+
<li>/dev/mapper/cryptpool-cryptroot: on this blockdevice, you can put your
+
root filesystem, with mountpoint /.</li>
+
<li>/dev/mapper/cryptpool-crypthome is the blockdevice on which you can put
+
the filesystem with mountpoint /home.</li>
+
</ul></li>
+
<li>If you want swapspace, make a logical volume for swap and put
+
a swap volume on it.</li>
+
<li>That's it! If you select 'done' it should process the model and create
+
your disk setup the way you specified.
+
The cool part is that you can pick relatively small
+
values for your volumes to start with, and if you need more space later
+
you can grow the logical volume and the filesystem on top of it.</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<h5>Rollbacks</h5>
+
 
+
<p>The rollback function will do everything necessary to "undo" changes you
+
made in the 'Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints'
+
or 'Autoprepare' step, to allow you completely redo your setup.</p>
+
 
+
<p>It will:</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>unmount filesystems from the target system</li>
+
<li>destroy/undo lvm and dm_crypt volumes.</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>It will not:</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>undo any partitioning</li>
+
<li>remove 'simple' filesystems such as ext3, xfs, swap etc.</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>The reason for this is simple: only things that might disturb subsequent
+
hard disk preparations need to be undone.</p>
+
 
+
<h4>Select Packages</h4>
+
 
+
<p>Select Packages will let you select the packages you wish to install from the
+
CD, USB or your NET mirror. You have the opportunity to specify whole package
+
groups from which you'd generally like to install packages, then fine-tune
+
your coarse selection by (de)selecting individual packages from the groups you
+
have chosen using the space bar. It is recommended that you install all the
+
"base" packages, but not anything else at this point. The only exception to
+
this rule is installing any packages you need for setting up Internet
+
connectivity.</p>
+
 
+
<p>Once you're done selecting the packages you need, leave the selection screen
+
and continue to the next step.</p>
+
 
+
<h4>Install Packages</h4>
+
 
+
<p>Install Packages will now install the base system and any other packages you
+
selected with resolved dependencies onto your harddisk.</p>
+
 
+
<h4>Configure System</h4>
+
 
+
<p>Configure System does multiple things:</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>automatically preseed some configuration files (eg grub's menu.lst,
+
mkinitcpio.conf's HOOKS, keymap settings in rc.conf, pacman mirror etc)</li>
+
<li>preseed some configuration files after you agreed. (eg network settings)</li>
+
<li>allow you to manually change important config files for your target system.
+
You'll be asked which text editor you want to use.
+
You have the choice between nano, joe and vi</li>
+
<li>allow you to set the root password for the target.</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p><strong>Configuration Files</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>These are the core configuration files for Arch Linux.
+
If you need help configuring a specific service, please read the appropriate
+
manpage or refer to any online documentation you need.
+
In many cases, the Arch Linux [https://wiki.archlinux.org/ Wiki] and
+
[https://bbs.archlinux.org/ forums] are a rich source for help as well.</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>/etc/rc.conf</li>
+
<li>[[Fstab| /etc/fstab]]</li>
+
<li>/etc/mkinitcpio.conf</li>
+
<li>/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf</li>
+
<li>/etc/resolv.conf</li>
+
<li>/etc/hosts</li>
+
<li>/etc/hosts.deny</li>
+
<li>/etc/hosts.allow</li>
+
<li>/etc/locale.gen</li>
+
<li>/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist</li>
+
<li>/etc/pacman.conf</li>
+
<li>/etc/crypttab</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/rc.conf</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>This is the main configuration file for Arch Linux. It allows you to set your
+
keyboard, timezone, hostname, network, daemons to run and modules to load at
+
bootup, profiles, and more.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>LOCALE:</strong> This sets your system language, which will be used by all i18n-
+
friendly applications and utilities. See locale.gen below for available
+
options. This setting's default is fine for US English users.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>HARDWARECLOCK:</strong> Either UTC if your BIOS clock is set to UTC, or localtime
+
if your BIOS clock is set to your local time. If you have an OS installed
+
which cannot handle UTC BIOS times correctly, like Windows, choose localtime
+
here, otherwise you should prefer UTC, which makes daylight savings time a
+
non-issue and has a few other positive aspects.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>USEDIRECTISA:</strong> If set to "yes" it tells hwclock to use explicit I/O
+
instructions to access the hardware clock. Otherwise, hwclock will try to use
+
the /dev/rtc device it assumes to be driven by the rtc device driver. This
+
setting's default "no" is fine for people not using an ISA machine.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>TIMEZONE:</strong> Specifies your time zone. Possible time zones are the relative
+
path to a zoneinfo file starting from the directory /usr/share/zoneinfo. For
+
example, a German timezone would be Europe/Berlin, which refers to the file
+
/usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin. If you don't know the exact name of your
+
timezone file, worry about it later.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>KEYMAP:</strong> Defines the keymap to load with the loadkeys program on bootup.
+
Possible keymaps are found in /usr/share/kbd/keymaps. Please note that this
+
setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or X!
+
Again, the default is fine for US users.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>CONSOLEFONT:</strong> Defines the console font to load with the setfont program on
+
bootup. Possible fonts are found in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>CONSOLEMAP:</strong> Defines the console map to load with the setfont program on
+
bootup. Possible maps are found in /usr/share/kbd/consoletrans. Set this
+
to a map suitable for the appropriate locale (8859-1 for Latin1, for example)
+
if you're using an UTF-8 locale above, and use programs that generate 8-bit
+
output. If you're using X11 for everyday work, don't bother, as it only
+
affects the output of Linux console applications.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>USECOLOR:</strong> Enable (or disable) colorized status messages during boot-up.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>MOD_AUTOLOAD:</strong> If set to "yes", udev will be allowed to load modules as
+
necessary upon bootup. If set to "no", it will not.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>MODULES:</strong> In this array you can list the names of modules you want to load
+
during bootup without the need to bind them to a hardware device as in the
+
modprobe.conf. Simply add the name of the module here, and put any options
+
into modprobe.conf if need be. Prepending a module with a bang ('!') will
+
blacklist the module, and not allow it to be loaded.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>USELVM:</strong> Set to "yes" to run a vgchange during sysinit, thus activating any
+
LVM groups</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>HOSTNAME:</strong> Set this to the hostname of the machine, without the domain
+
part. This is totally your choice, as long as you stick to letters, digits and
+
a few common special characters like the dash.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>INTERFACES:</strong> Here you define the settings for your networking interfaces.
+
The default lines and the included comments explain the setup well enough. If
+
you use DHCP, 'eth0="dhcp"' should work for you. If you do not use DHCP just
+
keep in mind that the value of the variable (whose name must be equal to the
+
name of the device which is supposed to be configured) equals the line which
+
would be appended to the ifconfig command if you were to configure the device
+
manually in the shell.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>ROUTES:</strong> You can define your own static network routes with arbitrary names
+
here. Look at the example for a default gateway to get the idea. Basically the
+
quoted part is identical to what you'd pass to a manual route add command,
+
therefore reading man route is recommended or simply leave this alone.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>[/index.php/Network_Profiles  NET_PROFILES]:</strong> Enables certain network profiles at bootup. Network
+
profiles provide a convenient way of managing multiple network configurations,
+
and are intended to replace the standard INTERFACES/ROUTES setup that is still
+
recommended for systems with only one network configuration. If your computer
+
will be participating in various networks at various times (eg, a laptop) then
+
you should take a look at the /etc/network-profiles/ directory to set up some
+
profiles. There is a template file included there that can be used to create
+
new profiles. This now requires the netcfg package.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>DAEMONS:</strong> This array simply lists the names of those scripts contained in
+
/etc/rc.d/ which are supposed to be started during the boot process. If a
+
script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not executed. If a script is
+
prefixed with an "at" symbol (@), then it will be executed in the background,
+
ie. the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion before
+
continuing. Usually you do not need to change the defaults to get a running
+
system, but you are going to edit this array whenever you install system
+
services like sshd, and want to start these automatically during bootup.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>[[Fstab| /etc/fstab]]</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>Filesystem settings and mountpoints are configured here. The installer
+
should have created the necessary entries. Ensure they are accurate and
+
correct.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/mkinitcpio.conf</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>This file allows you to fine-tune the initial ramdisk for your system. The
+
ramdisk is a gzipped image that is read by the kernel during bootup. Its
+
purpose is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the root
+
filesystem. This means it has to load any modules that are required to "see"
+
things like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if you are booting off a
+
USB/FW drive). Once the ramdisk loads the proper modules, either manually or
+
through udev, it passes control to the Arch system and your bootup continues.
+
For this reason, the ramdisk only needs to contain the modules necessary to
+
access the root filesystem. It does not need to contain every module you would
+
ever want to use. The majority of your everyday modules will be loaded later
+
on by udev, during the init process.</p>
+
 
+
<p>By default, mkinitcpio.conf is configured to autodetect all needed modules for
+
IDE, SCSI, or SATA systems through so-called HOOKS. The installer should
+
also have inserted hooks like crypt, lvm, keymap and usbinput if relevant.
+
This means the default initrd should work for almost everybody.
+
You can edit mkinitcpio.conf and remove the subsystem HOOKS
+
(ie, IDE, SCSI, RAID, USB, etc) that you don't need.
+
You can customize even further by specifying the exact modules you need
+
in the MODULES array and remove even more of the hooks, but proceed with
+
caution.</p>
+
 
+
<p>If you're using RAID on your root filesystem, the RAID settings near the
+
bottom must be configured.  See the wiki pages for
+
RAID and mkinitcpio for more info. If you're using
+
a non-US keyboard, you should also add the 'keymap' hook, as well as the
+
'usbinput' hook if you are using a USB keyboard.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>This tells the kernel which modules to load for system devices, and
+
what options to set. For example, to have the kernel load the Realtek 8139
+
ethernet module when it starts the network (ie. tries to setup eth0), use this
+
line:</p>
+
 
+
<pre> alias eth0 8139too
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<p>Most people will not need to edit this file.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/resolv.conf</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>Use this file to manually setup your preferred nameserver(s). It
+
should basically look like this:</p>
+
 
+
<pre> search domain.tld
+
 
+
nameserver 192.168.0.1
+
 
+
nameserver 192.168.0.2
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<p>Replace domain.tld and the ip addresses with your settings. The so-called
+
search domain specifies the default domain that is appended to unqualified
+
hostnames automatically. By setting this, a ping myhost will effectively
+
become a ping myhost.domain.tld with the above values. These settings usually
+
aren't mighty important, though, and most people should leave them alone for
+
now. If you use DHCP, this file will be replaced with the correct values
+
automatically when networking is started, meaning you can and should happily
+
ignore this file.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/hosts</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>This is where you stick hostname/ip associations of computers on your network.
+
If a hostname isn't known to your DNS, you can add it here to allow proper
+
resolving, or override DNS replies. You usually don't need to change anything
+
here, but you might want to add the hostname and hostname + domain of the
+
local machine to this file, resolving to the IP of your network interface.
+
Some services, postfix for example, will bomb otherwise. If you don't know
+
what you're doing, leave this file alone until you read man hosts.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/hosts.deny</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>This file denies network services access. By default all network services are
+
denied.</p>
+
 
+
<pre> ALL: ALL: DENY
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/hosts.allow</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>This file allows network services access. Enter the services you want to allow
+
here. eg. to allow all machines to connect via ssh:</p>
+
 
+
<pre> sshd: ALL: ALLOW
+
</pre>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/locale.gen</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>This file contains a list of all supported locales and charsets available to
+
you. When choosing a LOCALE in your /etc/rc.conf or when starting a program,
+
it is required to uncomment the respective locale in this file, to make a
+
"compiled" version available to the system, and run the locale-gen command as
+
root to generate all uncommented locales and put them in their place
+
afterwards. You should uncomment all locales you intend to use.</p>
+
 
+
<p>During the installation process, you do not need to run locale-gen manually,
+
this will be taken care of automatically after saving your changes to this
+
file. By default, all locales are enabled that would make sense by rc.conf's
+
LOCALE= setting. To make your system work smoothly, you should edit this file
+
and uncomment at least the one locale you're using in your rc.conf.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>This file contains a list of mirrors from which pacman will download packages
+
for the official Arch Linux repositories. The mirrors are tried in the order
+
in which they are listed. The $repo macro is automatically expanded by pacman
+
depending on the repository (core, extra, community or testing).</p>
+
 
+
<p>If you are performing an FTP installation, the mirror you used to download the
+
packages from will be added on top of the mirror list, in order to be used as
+
the default mirror in your new Arch Linux system.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/pacman.conf</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>Here you can customize pacman settings such as which repositories to use.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/etc/crypttab</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>If you use encryption on a device which is not used to bring up your root,
+
(and hence is not enabled by the encrypt hook in mkinitcpio.conf), you should
+
configure the volume in this file.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>Set Root Password</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>At this step, you must set the root password for your system. Choose this
+
password carefully, preferably as a mixture of alphanumeric and special
+
characters, since this password allows you to modify critical parts of your
+
system.</p>
+
 
+
<p>When you are done editing the configuration files choose Return to return to
+
the main menu. The setup will regenerate the initial ramdisk to enable the
+
changes you made in mkinitcpio.conf.</p>
+
 
+
<h4>Install Bootloader</h4>
+
 
+
<p>Install Bootloader will install a bootloader on your hard drive, either GRUB
+
or NONE in case you have a bootloader already installed and want to use that
+
one instead. If you choose to install GRUB, the setup script will want you to
+
examine the appropriate configuration file to confirm the proper settings.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>/boot/grub/menu.lst</strong></p>
+
 
+
<p>You should check and modify this file to accommodate your boot setup if you
+
want to use GRUB, otherwise you will have to modify your existing bootloader's
+
configuration file. The installer will have pre-populated this file using UUID
+
entries which you may have to change in the same cases you'd need to change
+
them in your fstab.</p>
+
 
+
<p>After checking your bootloader configuration for correctness, you'll be
+
prompted for a partition to install the loader to. Unless you're using yet
+
another boot loader, you should install GRUB to the MBR of the installation
+
disk, which is usually represented by the appropriate device name without a
+
number suffix.</p>
+
 
+
<h4>Exit Install</h4>
+
 
+
<p>Exit the Installer, remove the media you used for the installation, type
+
reboot at the command line and cross your fingers!</p>
+
 
+
<h3>Automatic Installation Procedure</h3>
+
 
+
<p>With the automatic installation procedure, you can do scripted/automatic
+
installations.
+
See [#Aif_the_installation_tool 2.3 AIF, the installation tool]
+
In /usr/share/aif/examples you will find example profiles which will need
+
no or minimal editing in order to install a system:</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>generic-install-on-sda
+
this file demonstrates some things you can do (adding custom packages,
+
setting timezone, update config files etc)
+
it sets up a simple installation (with a structure similar to what you get
+
with Auto-prepare) on /dev/sda</li>
+
<li>fancy-install-on-sda
+
very similar to generic-install-on-sda,
+
but sets up a "filesystems on lvm on dm_crypt" system on /dev/sda</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>Note that these files are plain bash files, so if you want to define for
+
example <code>SYNC_URL</code> it must be singlequoted to prevent bash expanding <code>$repo</code></p>
+
 
+
<p>Invoke as <code>aif -p automatic -c /path/to/configfile</code>
+
Obviously, don't forget to change the hard disk names unless you want
+
to use /dev/sda.</p>
+
 
+
<h4>Config file syntax</h4>
+
 
+
<p>Config files will be sourced by the bash shell, so they need to be valid
+
bash code.</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>PARTITIONS:</strong> Allows you to define partitions for your hard disk,
+
separated by spaces.</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li>first comes the device file for the hard disk</li>
+
<li>then for each partition you want: size in MiB (or '*' for all remaining
+
space),filesystem type and optionally a '+' to toggle the bootable flag.
+
separated by colons (':')</li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p><strong>BLOCKDATA:</strong> In this multi-line variable you can describe for each
+
partition you'll have how it should be used.  Study the examples to see how
+
it works.</p>
+
 
+
<h3>Customizing Installations</h3>
+
 
+
<p>You can also customize your installation experience by writing new
+
procedures (possibly inheriting from current procedures) or config files for
+
procedures that support it (eg automatic).
+
You have all the aif libraries at your disposal and you can create new
+
libraries. (see /usr/lib/aif)
+
This is a moving target, so consult the AIF readme for more information.</p>
+
 
+
<h1>Your new system</h1>
+
 
+
<p>If all went well, you can reboot your system (make sure you don't boot again
+
from the same USB disk or CD-ROM drive) and your new system will boot.</p>
+
 
+
<p>You'll notice that in the early userspace (the part that comes after the
+
bootloader) the hooks (as defined in mkinitcpio.conf) needed to get your root
+
filesystem are run. <br />
+
If you have lvm, it will run the lvm hook.  If you use encryption, it will
+
run the keymap and encrypt hooks so you can enter your password to decrypt the
+
volume.</p>
+
 
+
<p>Once the system is booted, login as root.  By default the password is empty
+
but in the interactive procedure you can change it.</p>
+
 
+
<h1>More information</h1>
+
 
+
<h2>Package Management</h2>
+
 
+
<p>Pacman is the package manager which tracks all the software installed on your
+
system. It has simple dependency support and uses the standard gzipped tar
+
archive format for all packages. Some common tasks you might need to use
+
during installation, are explained below with their respective commands. For
+
an extensive explanation of pacman's options, read man pacman or consult the
+
Arch Linux [[Pacman|Wiki]].</p>
+
 
+
<p><strong>Typical tasks:</strong></p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>Refreshing the package list</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman --sync --refresh</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman -Sy</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>This will retrieve a fresh master package list from the repositories defined
+
in the /etc/pacman.conf file and decompress it into the database area.</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>Search the repositories for a package</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman --sync --search <regexp></p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman -Ss <regexp></p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>Search each package in the sync databases for names or descriptions that match
+
regexp.</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>Display specific package info from the repository database</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman --sync --info foo</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman -Si foo</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>Displays information from the repository database on package foo (size,
+
build date, dependencies, conflicts, etc.)</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>Adding a package from the repositories</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman --sync foo</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman -S foo</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>Retrieve and install package foo, complete with all dependencies it requires.
+
Before using any sync option, make sure you refreshed the package list.</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>List installed packages</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman --query</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman -Q</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>Displays a list of all installed packages in the system.</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>Check if a specific package is installed</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman --query foo</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman -Q foo</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>This command will display the name and version of the foo package if it is
+
installed, nothing otherwise.</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>Display specific package info</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman --query --info foo</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman -Qi foo</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>Displays information on the installed package foo (size, install date, build
+
date, dependencies, conflicts, etc.)</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>Display list of files contained in package</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman --query --list foo</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman -Ql foo</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>Lists all files belonging to package foo.</p>
+
 
+
<ul>
+
<li><p>Find out which package a specific file belongs to</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman --query --owns /path/to/file</p>
+
 
+
<p># pacman -Qo /path/to/file</p></li>
+
</ul>
+
 
+
<p>This query displays the name and version of the package which contains the
+
file referenced by its full path as a parameter.</p>
+
 
+
<h2>APPENDIX</h2>
+
 
+
<p>See [[Official_Arch_Linux_Install_Guide_Appendix|Official Arch Linux Install Guide Appendix]]
+
for some related unofficial documentation, new users may find useful.</p>
+

Latest revision as of 01:54, 21 December 2014