Difference between revisions of "Official Installation Guide (한국어)"
(AIF 한글로 변경)
|Line 94:||Line 94:|
<p>더 자세한 정보는 AIF readme 파일을 참조하세요.</p>
<p>더 자세한 정보는 AIF readme 파일을 참조하세요.</p>
<li><p>[http://www.archlinux.org/download/ ] .</p></li>
<li><p>Archux, OSDisc .</p></li>
<p>sha1sum --check sha1sums.txt</p>
<p>sha1sum --check sha1sums.txt</p>
<li><p>ISO CD-CD-, USB dd :</p>
<p>dd if=archlinux-XXX.iso of=/dev/sdX</p></li>
<p>dd if=archlinux-XXX.iso of=/dev/sdX</p></li>
<p>/dev//dev/. <br />
<p>CD-. . , Isolinux . .</p>
<p>, . <br />
<li>non-US , <code>km</code>.</li>
<li><code>aif -p partial-configure-network</code></li>
<p>(, aif README, aif )</p>
<p>() () , <br />
. <br />
Revision as of 15:41, 23 March 2012
Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki (아치를 처음 접하셨으면 이 문서를 보세요.) Template:Article summary end 공식설치 가이드는 aif.git에서 관리합니다.
최신 버전의 설치가이드는 이곳에서 볼 수 있습니다.
(비공식) 초급자 가이드에서는 설치와 설정 절차까지 철저히 다룹니다.
- 1 아치 리눅스 소개
- 2 설치 전에
- 3 아치 리눅스 설치하기
- 3.1 설치본으로 설치하기
- 3.2 PXE(네트워크 부팅) 사용하기
- 3.3 Performing the installation
- 3.3.1 Interactive Installation Procedure
- 3.3.2 Set Editor
- 220.127.116.11 Set Clock
- 18.104.22.168 Prepare Hard Drive
- 22.214.171.124 Select Packages
- 126.96.36.199 Install Packages
- 188.8.131.52 Configure System
- 184.108.40.206 Install Bootloader
- 220.127.116.11 Exit Install
- 3.3.3 Automatic Installation Procedure
- 3.3.4 Customizing Installations
- 4 Your new system
- 5 More information
아치 리눅스 소개
아치 리눅스가 무엇입니까?
아치 리눅스는 독립적으로 개발된 리눅스 배포판이며, i686과 x86-64에 최적화되어있습니다. 이것은 원래 CRUX의 아이디어에 기초한 것입니다.
아치 리눅스의 개발은 단순함, 우아함, 코드의 정확함(code-correctness), 최첨단 소프트웨어의 균형을 맞추는데 초점을 맞췄습니다.
아치 리눅스는 가볍고 단순하게 설계되었기에, 여러분이 구성하려는 시스템의 종류와는 상관없이 그것에 맞게 확장하고 변경하기 쉽습니다.
아치 리눅스와 스크립트는 다음 저작권의 보호를 받습니다.
2002-2007 Judd Vinet
2007-2010 Aaron Griffin
그리고 GNU General Public License (GPL) 라이센스에 따릅니다.
아치 리눅스의 아키텍처
아치 리눅스는 i686과 x86_64 프로세서에 최적화되어 있습니다. 따라서 x86 CPU 중 i386, i486, i586과 같은 이전 프로세서들에 과는 호환되지 않습니다. 펜티엄 프로, 펜티엄 II 또는 AMD 애슬론(K7) 프로세서 도는 더 성능이 좋은 프로세서가 요구됩니다. (기술적으로 cmov 명령이 없는 AMD K6, VIA C3 같은 CPU도 i686입니다만, 우리는 GCC에서 사용되는 cmov 명령어를 사용합니다.) 아치 리눅스를 설치하기전에 여러분이 좋아하는 설치방법을 선택하세요.
사용 가능한 이미지 포멧들
아치 리눅스는 CD나 USB에 저장이 가능한 iso 파일 포멧을 지원합니다.
이때 Isolinux 부트로더가 사용됩니다. 두가지 수단으로 설치가 가능한대, 사실 지원된 패키지만 다를 뿐입니다.
"core" 이미지에는 core 패키지 스냅샷이 들어있습니다.
이 이미지는 인터넷 속도가 매우 느리거나, 인터넷을 접속하기 어려운 분들에게 가장 적합합니다.
"net" 이미지에는 패키지가 없습니다. 그래서 패키지를 설치할 때 인터넷과 연결이 되어있어야 합니다.
최신판을 설치하려면, 두 경우 모두 netinstall를 사용하면 됩니다. "core" 이미지에서는 굳이 사용할 필요가 없습니다. 모든 이미지로 시스템을 복구할 수 있습니다. 설치된 아치 리눅스 시스템처럼 실행이 됩니다.
사실, 설치 이미지들은 설치된 아치 리눅스 시스템과 똑같습니다. 단지 저장 매체가 HDD가 아닌, CD나 USB일 뿐입니다.
여기에는 "base" 패키지 세트뿐만 아니라, 다양한 네트워킹 유틸과 드라이버가 들어있으며, aif 패키지도 설치되어 있습니다.
만약 실행하다가 뭔가 더 필요한 것이 생긴다면, 인터넷을 연결하고 pacman을 사용하여 설치하면됩니다.
pacman 명령의 간략한 사용 방법은 이 문서 끝 부분에 있습니다.
i686, x86_64 또는 dual 아키텍처용 이미지가 모두 준비되어 있습니다. Dual 아키텍처용 이미지는 i686, x86_64 둘 다를 포함하고 있으며, 부팅할 때 아키텍처를 선택할 수 있습니다. (역자주: Dual 아키텍처 - i686과 x86_64를 모두 지원하는 아키텍처를 말함.)
아치 리눅스는 설치를 수행하기 위해서 아치 리눅스 설치 프레임워크인 AIF를 이용합니다.
bash로 짜인 이 도구는 패키지의 설치, 디스크의 준비 등 다양한 기능을 수행하기 위한 몇 가지 라이브러리와 몇가지의 프로시저로 구성되어 있습니다. 프로시저는 라이브러리를 사용하여 설치나 좀 더 작은 규모의 관련 작업(부분적 프로시저)을 위한 쉬운 방법을 제공합니다.
- 대화식(interacitve): 대화식 설치 절차는 몇 가지 질문을 통해 설치 과정을 안내하며, 시스템을 구성할 수 있도록 도와줍니다. 설정 값들은 당신이 그전에 설정한 것 (예를 들면 네트워크 설정 등)에 따라 자동으로 변경됩니다.
설치된 시스템은 기본 패키지를 기준으로 취향에 맞게 설정된 것들이 설치되며, 필요한 유틸리티나 드라이버들은 온라인을 통하여 설치할 수 있습니다.
일단 설치된 시스템이 제대로 부팅된다면 전체 시스템 업그레이드를 수행할 수 있고, 원하는 다른 패키지를 설치할 수도 있습니다. (
/arch/setup을 실행하면 됩니다.)
- 자동(automatic): 사용자 개입을 최소화하도록 설계된, 자동화된 배포 도구와 비슷한 프로시저가 제공됩니다.
시스템 구성을 위해 프로파일을 사용합니다.
프로파일 예제는 /usr/share/aif/examples/ 폴더 아래의 파일을 참조하세요.
- 기본(base): 일반적인 기본값을 이용하여, 거의 자동화된(선택 또는 입력이 필요없는) 기본 설치를 제공합니다.
이 프로시저는 이것을 상속하는 다른 프로시저에 의해 사용되며, 이것은 최종 사용자에게 직접 사용됨을 의미하는 것은 아닙니다.
- partial-configure-network: 대화형 프로시저에서 네트워크 구성 단계를 따로 때네어 사용자의 설치 환경에서 네트워크를 설정할 수 있도록 해줍니다.
- partial-disks: 디스크 서브시스템을 처리하거나 롤백을 처리합니다.
- partial-keymap: 키맵이나 콘솔의 글꼴 설정을 변경합니다.(
km를 실행하면 됩니다.)
loadkeys나 ifconfig와 같은 도구를 사용하는 것보다는 partial-keymap이나 partial-configure-network와 같은 프로시저를 사용함으로써 좋은 점은 대화형 프로시저를 실행하기 전에 시스템의 설정파일에 여러분이 원하는 설정 적용 여부를 선택할 수 있습니다.
만약 뭔가를 더 해보고 싶으시다면, 다음 것들도 가능합니다.:
- 처음부터 스스로, 또는 다른 프로시저 일부를 재작성함으로써 자신만의 프로시저를 작성해보세요.
- 새롭고 재사용 가능한 기능을 제공할 수 있도록 자신만의 라이브러리를 작성해보세요.
- 자동화를 지원하기 위한 프로시저에서 자신만의 설정을 만들어보세요.
더 자세한 정보는 AIF readme 파일을 참조하세요.
아치 리눅스 구하기.
다운로드 페이지에 나열된 미러 사이트들로부터 아치 리눅스를 내려받을 수 있습니다.
Archux, OSDisc 또는 LinuxCD로부터 설치 CD를 구매할 수 있습니다. 이곳에서는 세계 어디에나 배송합니다.
설치 본 준비하기
토런트(권장합니다.)를 통하거나 선호하는 미러 사이트를 통해 필요한 설치 본을 내려받으세요.
iso/<release>/sha1sums.txt 를 내려받으세요.
sha1sum을 이용하여 .iso 이미지가 원본과 같은지 확인하세요.:
sha1sum --check sha1sums.txt
ISO 이미지를 CD-R이나 CD-RW로 구우세요. 또한, USB 메모리를 이용하셔도 됩니다. 이때 dd 명령어 혹은 CD 굽는 프로그램을 이용해서 만드셔도 됩니다.:
dd if=archlinux-XXX.iso of=/dev/sdX
/dev/sdX1이 아니라 /dev/sdX로 한 것을 잊지 마세요.
이 명령어는 USB 메모리에 있던 모든 내용을 지워 버리기에 복원할 수 없습니다. 명령을 내리기 전에 USB 메모리에 중요한 파일이 없는지 확인하세요.
아치 리눅스 설치하기
CD-ROM이나 USB로 부팅할 수 있도록 BIOS가 세팅되어 있어야 합니다. 아치 리눅스 설치 CD를 넣거나, USB를 꽂고 컴퓨터를 다시 부팅하세요. 일단 설치 본(CD나 USB)으로 부팅이 시작되면, 아치 리눅스 로고와 Isolinux 메뉴가 나옵니다. Isolinux에서 여러분은 선택하면 됩니다. 그냥 엔터키를 치셔도 됩니다.
부팅 절차가 끝나면, 여러분의 화면 최상단에 간단한 명령과 함께 로그인 프롬프트가 나옵니다.
루트(root)로 부팅하세요. 이때부터 원하는 프로그램을 직접 빌드가 가능하며, 설치를 시작할 수도 있습니다.
- non-US keymap이나 특정한 consolefont를 선호한다면, 이를 바꾸기 위해서
- 설치를 시작하기 전에 네트워크 접속을 해야 하는 경우엔,
aif -p partial-configure-network를 타이핑하세요. (NET 설치를 위해 네트워크 설정할 수 있습니다.
두 항목 모두 사용할 경우, 여러분이 바꾼 설정이 최우선이 되며, 대화형 프로시저를 따라가는 과정에서 여러분이 선택하시는 것에 따라 적용이 됩니다.
루트 권한(non-privileged user)으로 작업하지 않으면
arch를 활용하시면 됩니다.
웬만해서는 필요하지 않을 겁니다.
설치할때 필요한 모든 것들이 /arch 에서 찾을 수 있습니다. (설치할때 필요한 설치 가이드와, aif README, aif 프로시저를 사용하기 위한 스크립트 등이 있습니다.)
PXE(네트워크 부팅) 사용하기
다른 컴퓨터에 (아치) 리눅스가 (라이브 또는 설치되어) 작동 중일 때,
DHCP와 tftpd 데몬을 설치하고 설정하십시오. Dnsmasq를 사용하면 무난하게 둘 다 설치할 수 있습니다.
또 nbd(nework block device)데몬도 필요합니다. 그래야지 클라이언트가 필요한 파일을 불러올 수 있습니다.
커뮤니티 기여 위키 문서에서 더욱 많은 정보를 찾을 수 있습니다.
(다음 섹션에서는 좀 더 상세한 내용을 다룹니다.)
Configure your system to try network booting (pxe) first. On most systems this happen by default. You will get an IP from the server and load all needed files over the network automatically. Once booted, you can proceed as normal.
Performing the installation
You can either use the interactive procedure or the automatic one.
See section [#Aif_the_installation_tool 2.3 AIF, the installation tool] or the AIF readme for more info.
Interactive Installation Procedure
aif -p interactive -d -l, which is the same) to start.
After the welcome message and disclaimer you will be presented with the main installation menu. You can use UP and DOWN arrow to navigate menus. Use TAB to switch between buttons and ENTER to select. At any point during the install process, you can switch to your 7th virtual console (ALT-F7) to view the output from the commands the setup is running. Use (ALT-F1) to get back to your first console where the installer is running, and any F-key in between if you need to open another console to intervene manually for any reason.
As a first step you must choose repositories where to install Arch Linux from. If you have a fast Internet connection, you might prefer enabling network mirrors to ensure you get the latest packages instead of using the potentially outdated CD or USB image contents. If you're using a NET image you don't have much choice ;-). You can also mount your own repositories in the filesystem tree manually. If you are using a core image and don't have a fast internet connection, you probably want to use the included core archive, unless it's very outdated. The only requirement is you select a core repository. You can combine local and remote repositories but only do this if you know what you're doing. (combining an older core archive with newer packages from a network mirror will result in broken packages)
Optional: only when using network mirror
The entry Setup Network will allow you to install and configure your network device. If you are using a wireless device you will still need to use the usual utilities to configure it manually, in which case this part of the installer isn't much use to you. A list of all currently available network devices is presented to you. If no ethernet device is available yet, or the one you wish to use is missing, either hit OK and go on to probe for it, or switch to another console and load the module manually. If you still can't configure your network card, make sure it's physically been properly installed, and that it is supported by the Linux kernel.
When the correct module is loaded, and your desired network card is listed, you should select the ethernet device you want to configure and you will be given the option to configure your network with DHCP. If your network uses DHCP, hit YES and let the installer do the rest. If you select NO, you will be asked to enter the networking information manually. Either way, your network should be successfully configured, and you may check connectivity using standard tools like ping on another console.
Choose Mirror will allow you to choose the preferred mirror to download the packages that will be installed in your Arch Linux system. You should choose a mirror situated near where you live, in order to achieve faster download speed. At some later point of the installation, you will be given the option to use the mirror you choose at this step, as the default mirror to download packages from.
*Note: * ftp.archlinux.org is throttled to 50 KB/s.
These menu entries are only available when choosing FTP Installation, for rather obvious reasons. After successful preparation, choose Return to Main Menu.
Allows you to change your editor preference. You'll have the choice between nano and vi (and pico/joe/vim if you install those in a separate console). You can skip this menu, but you will be asked again when needed.
Set Clock will allow you to set up your system clock and date. First you have to say if your hardwareclock is (or should be) in UTC or localtime. UTC is preferred, but if you have an OS installed which cannot handle UTC BIOS times correctly -like Windows- you'll have to choose localtime. Next the setup will want you to select your continent/country (timezone), and allow you to set the date and time (for which you can also use NTP if your network is up)
Prepare Hard Drive
Prepare Hard Drive will lead you into a submenu offering two alternatives of preparing your target drive(s) for installation, and a means to undo changes if you want to retry.
- Auto-prepare will automatically partition (and fully overwrite) one disk of your choice. It creates a simple layout with a /boot, swap, / and /home partition where you have some control over the used filesystems and sizes thereof.
- If you wish/need more control you can manually partition one or more hard disks and then manually specify a complete setup using the partitions on your disks. You can also use things such as lvm and dm_crypt here.
- The Rollback feature will check which filesystems were created by either of these methods, unmount the relevant filesystems and destroy lvm and dm_crypt volumes if they were created by you. You need this option if you want to undo or redo a certain scheme. You will be prompted for this if you forget.
- AIF can help you set up new dm_crypt and lvm volumes, but not (yet) softraid.
- AIF currently doesn't help you creating volumegroups that span multiple physical volumes. (if you need this -unlikely- : use vgcreate)
- AIF supports reusing filesystems, but only if it can find the blockdevice. If you want to reuse a filesystem that is on top of lvm/dm_crypt/softraid, you'll need to bring up the volumes yourself.
Auto-Prepare will automatically partition a hard drive of your choice into a /boot, swap, a root partition, and a /home and then create filesystems on all four. These partitions will also be automatically mounted in the proper place. To be exact, this option will create:
- 32 MB ext2 /boot partition
- 256 MB swap partition
- 7.5 GB root partition
- /home partition with the remaining space
You will be prompted to modify the sizes to your requirements, but /home will always use the remaining disk space. You can customize the used filesystem for /boot and for both of root and /home at once.
AUTO-PREPARE WILL ERASE ALL DATA ON THE CHOSEN HARD DRIVE!
Manually partition Hard Drives
Here you can select the disk(s) you want to partition, and you'll be dropped into the cfdisk program where you can freely modify the partitioning information until you [Write] and [Quit]. You will need at least a root partition to continue the installation.
Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints
In this menu all recognized partitions are listed. On top of these you can create new filesystems. You should be aware of these things:
- All of this is just a model, everything will only be set up after you confirm.
- Not all blockdevices support all filesystems (Eg you cannot put an LVM volumegroup on something other then a LVM physical volume). The installer will automatically filter the list of possible filesystems and even select the one automatically for you if there's only one option.
- Some filesystems will cause new blockdevices to be created. This is the case for dm_crypt and lvm volumes. You will see them appear in the model and you can use them to put another filesystem on top of it.
- When asked for (optional) options to mkfs tools, pass
arguments which will literally be added when calling mkfs.
For example, to disable the journal on ext filesystems:
- don't do:
- but rather:
- don't do:
- Use 'dev' for the most straightforward way to refer to your disks in config files such as fstab and the grub menu.lst (plain devicefiles). Kernel updates can cause devices to be renamed, which can cause issues. 'uuid' is a hassle-free (albeit a bit ugly), solid way to refer to your disks, 'label' will use filesystem labels - which you can choose - and fallback to 'dev' if needed.
When filesystems setup is complete, you can select 'Done'. At this point a check will be run which will tell you any critical errors (such as no root filesystem) and/or give you some warnings which you may ignore (like no swap). If anything is found, you can go back to fix these issues, or continue at which point everything will be setup the way you asked.
For example, if you want a setup that uses LVM on top of dm_crypt, you would:
- make sure that you have a 2 partitions: a small one for the unencrypted boot (about 100M) and one for the rest of the (encrypted) system. (do this in "Manually partition hard drives")
- on your /dev/sdX1, make an ext2 filesystem with mountpoint /boot
- on your /dev/sdX2, make a dm_crypt volume, with label sdX2crypt (or whatever you want)
- /dev/mapper/sdX2crypt will appear. Put a LVM physical volume on this
- /dev/mapper/sdX2crypt+ appears. This is the representation of the physical volume. Put a volumegroup on this, with label cryptpool (or whatever you want)
- /dev/mapper/cryptpool appears. On this volumegroup you are able to put
multiple logical volumes. Make 2:
- one with size 5G: label this cryptroot
- one with size 10G: label this crypthome
- 2 new volumes appear:
- /dev/mapper/cryptpool-cryptroot: on this blockdevice, you can put your root filesystem, with mountpoint /.
- /dev/mapper/cryptpool-crypthome is the blockdevice on which you can put the filesystem with mountpoint /home.
- If you want swapspace, make a logical volume for swap and put a swap volume on it.
- That's it! If you select 'done' it should process the model and create your disk setup the way you specified. The cool part is that you can pick relatively small values for your volumes to start with, and if you need more space later you can grow the logical volume and the filesystem on top of it.
The rollback function will do everything necessary to "undo" changes you made in the 'Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints' or 'Autoprepare' step, to allow you completely redo your setup.
- unmount filesystems from the target system
- destroy/undo lvm and dm_crypt volumes.
It will not:
- undo any partitioning
- remove 'simple' filesystems such as ext3, xfs, swap etc.
The reason for this is simple: only things that might disturb subsequent hard disk preparations need to be undone.
Select Packages will let you select the packages you wish to install from the CD, USB or your NET mirror. First, you are prompted to select a bootloader package (the bootloader will be configured later on in the "Install Bootloader" stage). After this, you can select package groups from which you'd generally like to install packages, then fine-tune your coarse selection by (de)selecting individual packages from the groups you have chosen using the space bar. It is recommended that you install all the "base" packages, but not anything else at this point. The only exception to this rule is installing any packages you need for setting up Internet connectivity.
Once you're done selecting the packages you need, leave the selection screen and continue to the next step.
Install Packages will now install the base system and any other packages you selected with resolved dependencies onto your harddisk.
Configure System does multiple things:
- automatically preseed some configuration files (eg grub's menu.lst, mkinitcpio.conf's HOOKS, keymap settings in rc.conf, pacman mirror etc)
- preseed some configuration files after you agreed. (eg network settings)
- allow you to manually change important config files for your target system.
- allow you to set the root password for the target.
- automatically run some tools which use the updated configuration (locales, mkinitcpio, time settings, etc)
These are the core configuration files for Arch Linux. If you need help configuring a specific service, please read the appropriate manpage or refer to any online documentation you need. In many cases, the Arch Linux Wiki and forums are a rich source for help as well.
This is the main configuration file for Arch Linux. It allows you to set your keyboard, timezone, hostname, network, daemons to run and modules to load at bootup, profiles, and more.
LOCALE: This sets your system language, which will be used by all i18n- friendly applications and utilities. See locale.gen below for available options. This setting's default is fine for US English users.
HARDWARECLOCK: Either UTC if your BIOS clock is set to UTC, or localtime if your BIOS clock is set to your local time. If you have an OS installed which cannot handle UTC BIOS times correctly, like Windows, choose localtime here, otherwise you should prefer UTC, which makes daylight savings time a non-issue and has a few other positive aspects.
USEDIRECTISA: If set to "yes" it tells hwclock to use explicit I/O instructions to access the hardware clock. Otherwise, hwclock will try to use the /dev/rtc device it assumes to be driven by the rtc device driver. This setting's default "no" is fine for people not using an ISA machine.
TIMEZONE: Specifies your time zone. Possible time zones are the relative path to a zoneinfo file starting from the directory /usr/share/zoneinfo. For example, a German timezone would be Europe/Berlin, which refers to the file /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin. If you don't know the exact name of your timezone file, worry about it later.
KEYMAP: Defines the keymap to load with the loadkeys program on bootup. Possible keymaps are found in /usr/share/kbd/keymaps. Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or X! Again, the default is fine for US users.
CONSOLEFONT: Defines the console font to load with the setfont program on bootup. Possible fonts are found in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts.
CONSOLEMAP: Defines the console map to load with the setfont program on bootup. Possible maps are found in /usr/share/kbd/consoletrans. Set this to a map suitable for the appropriate locale (8859-1 for Latin1, for example) if you're using an UTF-8 locale above, and use programs that generate 8-bit output. If you're using X11 for everyday work, don't bother, as it only affects the output of Linux console applications.
USECOLOR: Enable (or disable) colorized status messages during boot-up.
MOD_AUTOLOAD: If set to "yes", udev will be allowed to load modules as necessary upon bootup. If set to "no", it will not.
MODULES: In this array you can list the names of modules you want to load during bootup without the need to bind them to a hardware device as in the modprobe.conf. Simply add the name of the module here, and put any options into modprobe.conf if need be. Prepending a module with a bang ('!') will blacklist the module, and not allow it to be loaded.
USELVM: Set to "yes" to run a vgchange during sysinit, thus activating any LVM groups
HOSTNAME: Set this to the hostname of the machine, without the domain part. This is totally your choice, as long as you stick to letters, digits and a few common special characters like the dash.
INTERFACES: Here you define the settings for your networking interfaces. The default lines and the included comments explain the setup well enough. If you use DHCP, 'eth0="dhcp"' should work for you. If you do not use DHCP just keep in mind that the value of the variable (whose name must be equal to the name of the device which is supposed to be configured) equals the line which would be appended to the ifconfig command if you were to configure the device manually in the shell.
ROUTES: You can define your own static network routes with arbitrary names here. Look at the example for a default gateway to get the idea. Basically the quoted part is identical to what you'd pass to a manual route add command, therefore reading man route is recommended or simply leave this alone.
[/index.php/Network_Profiles NET_PROFILES]: Enables certain network profiles at bootup. Network profiles provide a convenient way of managing multiple network configurations, and are intended to replace the standard INTERFACES/ROUTES setup that is still recommended for systems with only one network configuration. If your computer will be participating in various networks at various times (eg, a laptop) then you should take a look at the /etc/network-profiles/ directory to set up some profiles. There is a template file included there that can be used to create new profiles. This now requires the netcfg package.
DAEMONS: This array simply lists the names of those scripts contained in /etc/rc.d/ which are supposed to be started during the boot process. If a script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not executed. If a script is prefixed with an "at" symbol (@), then it will be executed in the background, ie. the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion before continuing. Usually you do not need to change the defaults to get a running system, but you are going to edit this array whenever you install system services like sshd, and want to start these automatically during bootup.
Filesystem settings and mountpoints are configured here. The installer should have created the necessary entries. Ensure they are accurate and correct.
This file allows you to fine-tune the initial ramdisk for your system. The ramdisk is a gzipped image that is read by the kernel during bootup. Its purpose is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the root filesystem. This means it has to load any modules that are required to "see" things like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if you are booting off a USB/FW drive). Once the ramdisk loads the proper modules, either manually or through udev, it passes control to the Arch system and your bootup continues. For this reason, the ramdisk only needs to contain the modules necessary to access the root filesystem. It does not need to contain every module you would ever want to use. The majority of your everyday modules will be loaded later on by udev, during the init process.
By default, mkinitcpio.conf is configured to autodetect all needed modules for IDE, SCSI, or SATA systems through so-called HOOKS. The installer should also have inserted hooks like crypt, lvm, keymap and usbinput if relevant. This means the default initrd should work for almost everybody. You can edit mkinitcpio.conf and remove the subsystem HOOKS (ie, IDE, SCSI, RAID, USB, etc) that you don't need. You can customize even further by specifying the exact modules you need in the MODULES array and remove even more of the hooks, but proceed with caution.
If you're using RAID on your root filesystem, the RAID settings near the bottom must be configured. See the wiki pages for RAID and mkinitcpio for more info. If you're using a non-US keyboard, you should also add the 'keymap' hook, as well as the 'usbinput' hook if you are using a USB keyboard.
This tells the kernel which modules to load for system devices, and what options to set. For example, to have the kernel load the Realtek 8139 ethernet module when it starts the network (ie. tries to setup eth0), use this line:
alias eth0 8139too
Most people will not need to edit this file.
Use this file to manually setup your preferred nameserver(s). It should basically look like this:
search domain.tld nameserver 192.168.0.1 nameserver 192.168.0.2
Replace domain.tld and the ip addresses with your settings. The so-called search domain specifies the default domain that is appended to unqualified hostnames automatically. By setting this, a ping myhost will effectively become a ping myhost.domain.tld with the above values. These settings usually aren't mighty important, though, and most people should leave them alone for now. If you use DHCP, this file will be replaced with the correct values automatically when networking is started, meaning you can and should happily ignore this file.
This is where you stick hostname/ip associations of computers on your network. If a hostname isn't known to your DNS, you can add it here to allow proper resolving, or override DNS replies. You usually don't need to change anything here, but you might want to add the hostname and hostname + domain of the local machine to this file, resolving to the IP of your network interface. Some services, postfix for example, will bomb otherwise. If you don't know what you're doing, leave this file alone until you read man hosts.
This file contains a list of all supported locales and charsets available to you. When choosing a LOCALE in your /etc/rc.conf or when starting a program, it is required to uncomment the respective locale in this file, to make a "compiled" version available to the system, and run the locale-gen command as root to generate all uncommented locales and put them in their place afterwards. You should uncomment all locales you intend to use.
During the installation process, you do not need to run locale-gen manually, this will be taken care of automatically after saving your changes to this file. By default, all locales are enabled that would make sense by rc.conf's LOCALE= setting. To make your system work smoothly, you should edit this file and uncomment at least the one locale you're using in your rc.conf.
This file contains a list of mirrors from which pacman will download packages for the official Arch Linux repositories. The mirrors are tried in the order in which they are listed. The $repo macro is automatically expanded by pacman depending on the repository (core, extra, community or testing).
If you are performing an FTP installation, the mirror you used to download the packages from will be added on top of the mirror list, in order to be used as the default mirror in your new Arch Linux system.
Here you can customize pacman settings such as which repositories to use.
If you use encryption on a device which is not used to bring up your root, (and hence is not enabled by the encrypt hook in mkinitcpio.conf), you should configure the volume in this file.
Set Root Password
At this step, you must set the root password for your system. Choose this password carefully, preferably as a mixture of alphanumeric and special characters, since this password allows you to modify critical parts of your system.
When you are done editing the configuration files choose Return to return to the main menu. The setup will regenerate the initial ramdisk to enable the changes you made in mkinitcpio.conf.
Install Bootloader will install and help you configure the bootloader that you selected in the "Select Packages" stage.
An editor will open, allowing you to edit the appropriate bootloader configuration file which the installer has pre-populated. You should check and modify this file, if needed, to accommodate your boot setup.
/boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg (Syslinux) After checking your bootloader configuration for correctness, you'll be asked to allow the installer to Set the Boot Flag and install the Syslinux MBR.
/boot/grub/menu.lst (Grub) After checking your bootloader configuration for correctness, you'll be prompted for a disk to install the loader to. You should install GRUB to the MBR of the installation disk.
You will be shown a summary of the installation, listing the steps and whether they executed successfully or not. If all went well, exit the installer, type reboot at the command line, remove your installation media and cross your fingers!
Automatic Installation Procedure
With the automatic installation procedure, you can do scripted/automatic installations. See [#Aif_the_installation_tool 2.3 AIF, the installation tool] In /usr/share/aif/examples you will find example profiles which will need no or minimal editing in order to install a system:
- generic-install-on-sda this file demonstrates some things you can do (adding custom packages, setting timezone, update config files etc) it sets up a simple installation (with a structure similar to what you get with Auto-prepare) on /dev/sda
- fancy-install-on-sda very similar to generic-install-on-sda, but sets up a "filesystems on lvm on dm_crypt" system on /dev/sda
Note that these files are plain bash files, so if you want to define for
SYNC_URL it must be singlequoted to prevent bash expanding
aif -p automatic -c /path/to/configfile
Obviously, don't forget to change the hard disk names unless you want
to use /dev/sda.
Config file syntax
Config files will be sourced by the bash shell, so they need to be valid bash code.
PARTITIONS: Allows you to define partitions for your hard disk, separated by spaces.
- first comes the device file for the hard disk
- then for each partition you want: size in MiB (or '*' for all remaining space),filesystem type and optionally a '+' to toggle the bootable flag. separated by colons (':')
BLOCKDATA: In this multi-line variable you can describe for each partition you'll have how it should be used. Study the examples to see how it works.
You can also customize your installation experience by writing new procedures (possibly inheriting from current procedures) or config files for procedures that support it (eg automatic). You have all the aif libraries at your disposal and you can create new libraries. (see /usr/lib/aif) This is a moving target, so consult the AIF readme for more information.
Your new system
If all went well, you can reboot your system (make sure you don't boot again from the same USB disk or CD-ROM drive) and your new system will boot.
You'll notice that in the early userspace (the part that comes after the
bootloader) the hooks (as defined in mkinitcpio.conf) needed to get your root
filesystem are run.
If you have lvm, it will run the lvm hook. If you use encryption, it will run the keymap and encrypt hooks so you can enter your password to decrypt the volume.
Once the system is booted, login as root. By default the password is empty but in the interactive procedure you can change it.
Pacman is the package manager which tracks all the software installed on your system. It has simple dependency support and uses the standard gzipped tar archive format for all packages. Some common tasks you might need to use during installation, are explained below with their respective commands. For an extensive explanation of pacman's options, read man pacman or consult the Arch Linux Wiki.
Refreshing the package list
# pacman --sync --refresh
# pacman -Sy
This will retrieve a fresh master package list from the repositories defined in the /etc/pacman.conf file and decompress it into the database area.
Search the repositories for a package
# pacman --sync --search <regexp>
# pacman -Ss <regexp>
Search each package in the sync databases for names or descriptions that match regexp.
Display specific package info from the repository database
# pacman --sync --info foo
# pacman -Si foo
Displays information from the repository database on package foo (size, build date, dependencies, conflicts, etc.)
Adding a package from the repositories
# pacman --sync foo
# pacman -S foo
Retrieve and install package foo, complete with all dependencies it requires. Before using any sync option, make sure you refreshed the package list.
List installed packages
# pacman --query
# pacman -Q
Displays a list of all installed packages in the system.
Check if a specific package is installed
# pacman --query foo
# pacman -Q foo
This command will display the name and version of the foo package if it is installed, nothing otherwise.
Display specific package info
# pacman --query --info foo
# pacman -Qi foo
Displays information on the installed package foo (size, install date, build date, dependencies, conflicts, etc.)
Display list of files contained in package
# pacman --query --list foo
# pacman -Ql foo
Lists all files belonging to package foo.
Find out which package a specific file belongs to
# pacman --query --owns /path/to/file
# pacman -Qo /path/to/file
This query displays the name and version of the package which contains the file referenced by its full path as a parameter.
See Official Arch Linux Install Guide Appendix for some related unofficial documentation, new users may find useful.