Difference between revisions of "Official Installation Guide (Português)"
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This is a moving target, so consult the AIF readme for more information.</p>
This is a moving target, so consult the AIF readme for more information.</p>
, login root.
Revision as of 19:15, 26 February 2012Template:Article summary start
Este manual foi traduzido com base no guia em inglês criado em 25/02/2012.
O guia que está sempre atualizado é mantido na página Official_Installation_Guide.
- 1 Introdução
- 2 Pre-Instalação
- 3 Instalando Arch Linux
- 3.1 Utilizando a Media de Instalação
- 3.2 Using PXE (Network booting)
- 3.3 Performing the installation
- 3.3.1 Interactive Installation Procedure
- 3.3.2 Set Editor
- 184.108.40.206 Set Clock
- 220.127.116.11 Prepare Hard Drive
- 18.104.22.168 Select Packages
- 22.214.171.124 Install Packages
- 126.96.36.199 Configure System
- 188.8.131.52 Install Bootloader
- 184.108.40.206 Exit Install
- 3.3.3 Automatic Installation Procedure
- 3.3.4 Customizing Installations
- 4 Seu novo sistema
- 5 Maiores Informações
O que é Arch Linux?
Arch Linux é desenvolvido de forma independente para i686 e x86_64 a
distribuição otimizada que foi originalmente baseada em idéias de CRUX.
O desenvolvimento está focado em um equilíbrio de simplicidade, elegância e correção de código- para o software de borda.
O seu design leve e simples faz com que seja fácil de estender e moldar o sistema da forma que desejar.
Arch Linux e os scripts possuem copyright
2002-2007 Judd Vinet
2007-2010 Aaron Griffin
e são licenciados sob a GNU General Public License (GPL).
Arch Linux está otimizado para processadores i686 e x86_64, porém não será executado
em gerações mais baixas ou gerações incompatíveis de processadores x86 (i386, i486 or i586).
Os processadores Pentium Pro, Pentium II or AMD Athlon (K7) ou superiores são necessários. Antes de instalar o Arch Linux, você deve escolher o método de instalação que gostaria de usar.
Arch Linux fornece isofiles que podem ser escritas em CD-ROMs ou discos e dispositivos USB
O Isolinux é carregado na inicialização do boot.
- Na imagem do "core" existe um snapshot dos pacotes básicos.
Estas imagens são mais adequados para as pessoas que têm uma ligação à Internet que é lento ou difícil de configurar.
- Na imagem de "rede" não contêm todos os pacotes, e sempre irá utilizar a rede para instalar os pacotes.
Todas as imagens podem também ser usados como ambientes de recuperação.
As imagens correm como qualquer sistema instalado Arch Linux.
Na verdade, eles são exatamente o mesmo, apenas instalado em uma imagem de CD ou USB em vez de um disco rígido.
Eles incluem toda a "base" e conjunto de pacotes, bem como vários utilitários e drivers de rede.
Se há alguma que você precise em tempo de execução, é só pegar sua conexão com a Internet e instalá-lo usando pacman.
A referência de comando curta pacman está disponível no final deste documento.
Todas as imagens estão disponíveis em i686, x86_64 ou ambas. Este último contém e permite que você escolha uma arquitetura no boot.
AIF, a instalação da ferramenta
Arch Linux usa AIF aka 'Arch Linux Installation Framework' para suas instalalções.
Essa ferrametna - escrita em bash - consistem num conjunto de bibliotecas para executar diversas funções (instalações de pacotes, configurações, etc) e procedimentos que utilizam estas biliotecas para fornecer de forma fácil as instalações ou tarefas relacionadas. Estes procedimentos são enviados por padrão:
- interactive: Um procedimento de instalação interativa, que lhe pede algumas
perguntas, orienta você através de uma instalação e ajuda você a
configuração do sistema de destino alterando automaticamente algumas
definições dependendo do que você fez anteriormente
(por exemplo, configurações de rede)
O sistema instalado terá inicialmente personalizável apenas uma parte do conjunto "base" de pacotes instalados alguns utilitários e os drivers que você precisa para ficar on-line.
Em seguida, uma vez que inicializado com êxito o sistema instalado, você vai passar por um sistema de atualização e instalação de outros pacotes que você deseja. (alias como
- automatic: Um sistema automatizado, o processo de implantação 'deploy-tool-alike'
projetada para a interatividade zero.
Usa perfis para a configuração do sistema de destino. Veja /usr/share/FIA/examples/ para arquivos de perfil de exemplo. Os exemplos implementam cenários bastante genéricos, mas você é livre para alterá-los como você deseja instalar pacotes extras, fazer ajustes de configuração, etc.
- base: basic, little-interactivity installation with some
This procedure is used by the others to inherit from, it is NOT meant to be used directly by end users
- partial-configure-network: exposes the network configuration step from the interactive procedure, to help you setup the network in the live environment
- partial-disks: Process disk subsystem or do a rollback
- partial-keymap: change your keymap/console font settings. (aliased as
The benefit of procedures such as partial-keymap and partial-configure-network over direct usage of tools such as loadkeys or ifconfig is that when running the interactive procedure, you will get asked if you want to apply your settings to the config files of the target system.
If you want to go further, you can also:
- write your own procedures from scratch or by overriding certain parts of other procedures
- write your own libraries, to provide new, reusable functionality
- create your own configs for the procedures that support them (eg automatic)
END Incomplete ------------
Para maiores informações, consulte o README do AIF.
Obtendo Arch Linux
Você pode baixar o Arch Linux de diferentes fontes listadas na seguinte download página.
Você pode comprar um CD de instalação Archux, OSDisc ou LinuxCD e obter em qualquer lugar do mundo.
Preparando Media de Instalação
Escolha e baixa a imagem torrent (preferencialmente) ou de sua fonte favorita.
Baixe o iso/<release>/sha1sums.txt
Verifique a integridade da imagem obtida usando sha1sum:
sha1sum --check sha1sums.txt
Grave a imagem ISO em um CD-R ou CD-RW usando um programa de sua escolha, ou se utilizar um dispositivo de armazenamento USB mass, usando o binário dd ou um programa de escrita raw:
dd if=archlinux-XXX.iso of=/dev/sdX
Certifique-se de usar o caminho do dispositivo e não da partição (/dev/sdX e NÃO /dev/sdX1).
Esse comando vai sobrescrever os arquivos existentes no dispositivo USB, utilize apenas se não houverem arquivos importantes no dispositivo.
Instalando Arch Linux
Utilizando a Media de Instalação
Certifique-se que a BIOS está configurada para iniciar por seu CD-ROM ou dispositivo USB. Reinicie seu computador com o CD de Instalação Arch Linux, por exemplo. Após inicialização da instalação, você irá ver a logo do Arch Linux e o menu do Isolinux aguardando você selecionar. Muito provavelmente você pode simplesmente pressionar enter neste momento.
Incomplete ( i need sleep ) ---------------
At the end of the boot procedure, you should be at a login prompt with some
simple instructions at the top of the screen.
You should login as root. At this point you can optionally perform manual preparations and commence the actual installation
- If you prefer a non-US keymap or specific consolefont, type
kmto change any of these.
- If for some reason you need network access before starting the installer
(the interactive procedure lets you configure the network for NET
you can type
aif -p partial-configure-network
For both items, changed settings will be remembered to be optionally applied to the target system when using the interactive procedure.
There is also an
arch login which can be usefull if you want to do things
as non-privileged user.
Most people don't need this.
You will find that everything you need to perform this installation (a copy of this guide, aif README, shortcuts to common aif procedures) can be found in /arch
Using PXE (Network booting)
On another machine running (Arch) Linux (live or normal),
you need to install and configure a dhcp and tftpd daemon. Dnsmasq is a fine choice which can do both.
You also need a nbd (network block device) daemon so the client can load the needed files.
You can find more info on the wiki Community contributed documentation
(this section could be a bit more elaborate)
Configure your system to try network booting (pxe) first. On most systems this happen by default. You will get an IP from the server and load all needed files over the network automatically. Once booted, you can proceed as normal.
Performing the installation
You can either use the interactive procedure or the automatic one.
See section [#Aif_the_installation_tool 2.3 AIF, the installation tool] or the AIF readme for more info.
Interactive Installation Procedure
aif -p interactive -d -l, which is the same) to start.
After the welcome message and disclaimer you will be presented with the main installation menu. You can use UP and DOWN arrow to navigate menus. Use TAB to switch between buttons and ENTER to select. At any point during the install process, you can switch to your 7th virtual console (ALT-F7) to view the output from the commands the setup is running. Use (ALT-F1) to get back to your first console where the installer is running, and any F-key in between if you need to open another console to intervene manually for any reason.
As a first step you must choose repositories where to install Arch Linux from. If you have a fast Internet connection, you might prefer enabling network mirrors to ensure you get the latest packages instead of using the potentially outdated CD or USB image contents. If you're using a NET image you don't have much choice ;-). You can also mount your own repositories in the filesystem tree manually. If you are using a core image and don't have a fast internet connection, you probably want to use the included core archive, unless it's very outdated. The only requirement is you select a core repository. You can combine local and remote repositories but only do this if you know what you're doing. (combining an older core archive with newer packages from a network mirror will result in broken packages)
Optional: only when using network mirror
The entry Setup Network will allow you to install and configure your network device. If you are using a wireless device you will still need to use the usual utilities to configure it manually, in which case this part of the installer isn't much use to you. A list of all currently available network devices is presented to you. If no ethernet device is available yet, or the one you wish to use is missing, either hit OK and go on to probe for it, or switch to another console and load the module manually. If you still can't configure your network card, make sure it's physically been properly installed, and that it is supported by the Linux kernel.
When the correct module is loaded, and your desired network card is listed, you should select the ethernet device you want to configure and you will be given the option to configure your network with DHCP. If your network uses DHCP, hit YES and let the installer do the rest. If you select NO, you will be asked to enter the networking information manually. Either way, your network should be successfully configured, and you may check connectivity using standard tools like ping on another console.
Choose Mirror will allow you to choose the preferred mirror to download the packages that will be installed in your Arch Linux system. You should choose a mirror situated near where you live, in order to achieve faster download speed. At some later point of the installation, you will be given the option to use the mirror you choose at this step, as the default mirror to download packages from.
*Note: * ftp.archlinux.org is throttled to 50 KB/s.
These menu entries are only available when choosing FTP Installation, for rather obvious reasons. After successful preparation, choose Return to Main Menu.
Allows you to change your editor preference. You'll have the choice between nano and vi (and pico/joe/vim if you install those in a separate console). You can skip this menu, but you will be asked again when needed.
Set Clock will allow you to set up your system clock and date. First you have to say if your hardwareclock is (or should be) in UTC or localtime. UTC is preferred, but if you have an OS installed which cannot handle UTC BIOS times correctly -like Windows- you'll have to choose localtime. Next the setup will want you to select your continent/country (timezone), and allow you to set the date and time (for which you can also use NTP if your network is up)
Prepare Hard Drive
Prepare Hard Drive will lead you into a submenu offering two alternatives of preparing your target drive(s) for installation, and a means to undo changes if you want to retry.
- Auto-prepare will automatically partition (and fully overwrite) one disk of your choice. It creates a simple layout with a /boot, swap, / and /home partition where you have some control over the used filesystems and sizes thereof.
- If you wish/need more control you can manually partition one or more hard disks and then manually specify a complete setup using the partitions on your disks. You can also use things such as lvm and dm_crypt here.
- The Rollback feature will check which filesystems were created by either of these methods, unmount the relevant filesystems and destroy lvm and dm_crypt volumes if they were created by you. You need this option if you want to undo or redo a certain scheme. You will be prompted for this if you forget.
- AIF can help you set up new dm_crypt and lvm volumes, but not (yet) softraid.
- AIF currently doesn't help you creating volumegroups that span multiple physical volumes. (if you need this -unlikely- : use vgcreate)
- AIF supports reusing filesystems, but only if it can find the blockdevice. If you want to reuse a filesystem that is on top of lvm/dm_crypt/softraid, you'll need to bring up the volumes yourself.
Auto-Prepare will automatically partition a hard drive of your choice into a /boot, swap, a root partition, and a /home and then create filesystems on all four. These partitions will also be automatically mounted in the proper place. To be exact, this option will create:
- 32 MB ext2 /boot partition
- 256 MB swap partition
- 7.5 GB root partition
- /home partition with the remaining space
You will be prompted to modify the sizes to your requirements, but /home will always use the remaining disk space. You can customize the used filesystem for /boot and for both of root and /home at once.
AUTO-PREPARE WILL ERASE ALL DATA ON THE CHOSEN HARD DRIVE!
Manually partition Hard Drives
Here you can select the disk(s) you want to partition, and you'll be dropped into the cfdisk program where you can freely modify the partitioning information until you [Write] and [Quit]. You will need at least a root partition to continue the installation.
Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints
In this menu all recognized partitions are listed. On top of these you can create new filesystems. You should be aware of these things:
- All of this is just a model, everything will only be set up after you confirm.
- Not all blockdevices support all filesystems (Eg you cannot put an LVM volumegroup on something other then a LVM physical volume). The installer will automatically filter the list of possible filesystems and even select the one automatically for you if there's only one option.
- Some filesystems will cause new blockdevices to be created. This is the case for dm_crypt and lvm volumes. You will see them appear in the model and you can use them to put another filesystem on top of it.
- When asked for (optional) options to mkfs tools, pass
arguments which will literally be added when calling mkfs.
For example, to disable the journal on ext filesystems:
- don't do:
- but rather:
- don't do:
- Use 'dev' for the most straightforward way to refer to your disks in config files such as fstab and the grub menu.lst (plain devicefiles). Kernel updates can cause devices to be renamed, which can cause issues. 'uuid' is a hassle-free (albeit a bit ugly), solid way to refer to your disks, 'label' will use filesystem labels - which you can choose - and fallback to 'dev' if needed.
When filesystems setup is complete, you can select 'Done'. At this point a check will be run which will tell you any critical errors (such as no root filesystem) and/or give you some warnings which you may ignore (like no swap). If anything is found, you can go back to fix these issues, or continue at which point everything will be setup the way you asked.
For example, if you want a setup that uses LVM on top of dm_crypt, you would:
- make sure that you have a 2 partitions: a small one for the unencrypted boot (about 100M) and one for the rest of the (encrypted) system. (do this in "Manually partition hard drives")
- on your /dev/sdX1, make an ext2 filesystem with mountpoint /boot
- on your /dev/sdX2, make a dm_crypt volume, with label sdX2crypt (or whatever you want)
- /dev/mapper/sdX2crypt will appear. Put a LVM physical volume on this
- /dev/mapper/sdX2crypt+ appears. This is the representation of the physical volume. Put a volumegroup on this, with label cryptpool (or whatever you want)
- /dev/mapper/cryptpool appears. On this volumegroup you are able to put
multiple logical volumes. Make 2:
- one with size 5G: label this cryptroot
- one with size 10G: label this crypthome
- 2 new volumes appear:
- /dev/mapper/cryptpool-cryptroot: on this blockdevice, you can put your root filesystem, with mountpoint /.
- /dev/mapper/cryptpool-crypthome is the blockdevice on which you can put the filesystem with mountpoint /home.
- If you want swapspace, make a logical volume for swap and put a swap volume on it.
- That's it! If you select 'done' it should process the model and create your disk setup the way you specified. The cool part is that you can pick relatively small values for your volumes to start with, and if you need more space later you can grow the logical volume and the filesystem on top of it.
The rollback function will do everything necessary to "undo" changes you made in the 'Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints' or 'Autoprepare' step, to allow you completely redo your setup.
- unmount filesystems from the target system
- destroy/undo lvm and dm_crypt volumes.
It will not:
- undo any partitioning
- remove 'simple' filesystems such as ext3, xfs, swap etc.
The reason for this is simple: only things that might disturb subsequent hard disk preparations need to be undone.
Select Packages will let you select the packages you wish to install from the CD, USB or your NET mirror. First, you are prompted to select a bootloader package (the bootloader will be configured later on in the "Install Bootloader" stage). After this, you can select package groups from which you'd generally like to install packages, then fine-tune your coarse selection by (de)selecting individual packages from the groups you have chosen using the space bar. It is recommended that you install all the "base" packages, but not anything else at this point. The only exception to this rule is installing any packages you need for setting up Internet connectivity.
Once you're done selecting the packages you need, leave the selection screen and continue to the next step.
Install Packages will now install the base system and any other packages you selected with resolved dependencies onto your harddisk.
Configure System does multiple things:
- automatically preseed some configuration files (eg grub's menu.lst, mkinitcpio.conf's HOOKS, keymap settings in rc.conf, pacman mirror etc)
- preseed some configuration files after you agreed. (eg network settings)
- allow you to manually change important config files for your target system.
- allow you to set the root password for the target.
- automatically run some tools which use the updated configuration (locales, mkinitcpio, time settings, etc)
These are the core configuration files for Arch Linux. If you need help configuring a specific service, please read the appropriate manpage or refer to any online documentation you need. In many cases, the Arch Linux Wiki and forums are a rich source for help as well.
This is the main configuration file for Arch Linux. It allows you to set your keyboard, timezone, hostname, network, daemons to run and modules to load at bootup, profiles, and more.
LOCALE: This sets your system language, which will be used by all i18n- friendly applications and utilities. See locale.gen below for available options. This setting's default is fine for US English users.
HARDWARECLOCK: Either UTC if your BIOS clock is set to UTC, or localtime if your BIOS clock is set to your local time. If you have an OS installed which cannot handle UTC BIOS times correctly, like Windows, choose localtime here, otherwise you should prefer UTC, which makes daylight savings time a non-issue and has a few other positive aspects.
USEDIRECTISA: If set to "yes" it tells hwclock to use explicit I/O instructions to access the hardware clock. Otherwise, hwclock will try to use the /dev/rtc device it assumes to be driven by the rtc device driver. This setting's default "no" is fine for people not using an ISA machine.
TIMEZONE: Specifies your time zone. Possible time zones are the relative path to a zoneinfo file starting from the directory /usr/share/zoneinfo. For example, a German timezone would be Europe/Berlin, which refers to the file /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin. If you don't know the exact name of your timezone file, worry about it later.
KEYMAP: Defines the keymap to load with the loadkeys program on bootup. Possible keymaps are found in /usr/share/kbd/keymaps. Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or X! Again, the default is fine for US users.
CONSOLEFONT: Defines the console font to load with the setfont program on bootup. Possible fonts are found in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts.
CONSOLEMAP: Defines the console map to load with the setfont program on bootup. Possible maps are found in /usr/share/kbd/consoletrans. Set this to a map suitable for the appropriate locale (8859-1 for Latin1, for example) if you're using an UTF-8 locale above, and use programs that generate 8-bit output. If you're using X11 for everyday work, don't bother, as it only affects the output of Linux console applications.
USECOLOR: Enable (or disable) colorized status messages during boot-up.
MOD_AUTOLOAD: If set to "yes", udev will be allowed to load modules as necessary upon bootup. If set to "no", it will not.
MODULES: In this array you can list the names of modules you want to load during bootup without the need to bind them to a hardware device as in the modprobe.conf. Simply add the name of the module here, and put any options into modprobe.conf if need be. Prepending a module with a bang ('!') will blacklist the module, and not allow it to be loaded.
USELVM: Set to "yes" to run a vgchange during sysinit, thus activating any LVM groups
HOSTNAME: Set this to the hostname of the machine, without the domain part. This is totally your choice, as long as you stick to letters, digits and a few common special characters like the dash.
INTERFACES: Here you define the settings for your networking interfaces. The default lines and the included comments explain the setup well enough. If you use DHCP, 'eth0="dhcp"' should work for you. If you do not use DHCP just keep in mind that the value of the variable (whose name must be equal to the name of the device which is supposed to be configured) equals the line which would be appended to the ifconfig command if you were to configure the device manually in the shell.
ROUTES: You can define your own static network routes with arbitrary names here. Look at the example for a default gateway to get the idea. Basically the quoted part is identical to what you'd pass to a manual route add command, therefore reading man route is recommended or simply leave this alone.
[/index.php/Network_Profiles NET_PROFILES]: Enables certain network profiles at bootup. Network profiles provide a convenient way of managing multiple network configurations, and are intended to replace the standard INTERFACES/ROUTES setup that is still recommended for systems with only one network configuration. If your computer will be participating in various networks at various times (eg, a laptop) then you should take a look at the /etc/network-profiles/ directory to set up some profiles. There is a template file included there that can be used to create new profiles. This now requires the netcfg package.
DAEMONS: This array simply lists the names of those scripts contained in /etc/rc.d/ which are supposed to be started during the boot process. If a script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not executed. If a script is prefixed with an "at" symbol (@), then it will be executed in the background, ie. the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion before continuing. Usually you do not need to change the defaults to get a running system, but you are going to edit this array whenever you install system services like sshd, and want to start these automatically during bootup.
Filesystem settings and mountpoints are configured here. The installer should have created the necessary entries. Ensure they are accurate and correct.
This file allows you to fine-tune the initial ramdisk for your system. The ramdisk is a gzipped image that is read by the kernel during bootup. Its purpose is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the root filesystem. This means it has to load any modules that are required to "see" things like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if you are booting off a USB/FW drive). Once the ramdisk loads the proper modules, either manually or through udev, it passes control to the Arch system and your bootup continues. For this reason, the ramdisk only needs to contain the modules necessary to access the root filesystem. It does not need to contain every module you would ever want to use. The majority of your everyday modules will be loaded later on by udev, during the init process.
By default, mkinitcpio.conf is configured to autodetect all needed modules for IDE, SCSI, or SATA systems through so-called HOOKS. The installer should also have inserted hooks like crypt, lvm, keymap and usbinput if relevant. This means the default initrd should work for almost everybody. You can edit mkinitcpio.conf and remove the subsystem HOOKS (ie, IDE, SCSI, RAID, USB, etc) that you don't need. You can customize even further by specifying the exact modules you need in the MODULES array and remove even more of the hooks, but proceed with caution.
If you're using RAID on your root filesystem, the RAID settings near the bottom must be configured. See the wiki pages for RAID and mkinitcpio for more info. If you're using a non-US keyboard, you should also add the 'keymap' hook, as well as the 'usbinput' hook if you are using a USB keyboard.
This tells the kernel which modules to load for system devices, and what options to set. For example, to have the kernel load the Realtek 8139 ethernet module when it starts the network (ie. tries to setup eth0), use this line:
alias eth0 8139too
Most people will not need to edit this file.
Use this file to manually setup your preferred nameserver(s). It should basically look like this:
search domain.tld nameserver 192.168.0.1 nameserver 192.168.0.2
Replace domain.tld and the ip addresses with your settings. The so-called search domain specifies the default domain that is appended to unqualified hostnames automatically. By setting this, a ping myhost will effectively become a ping myhost.domain.tld with the above values. These settings usually aren't mighty important, though, and most people should leave them alone for now. If you use DHCP, this file will be replaced with the correct values automatically when networking is started, meaning you can and should happily ignore this file.
This is where you stick hostname/ip associations of computers on your network. If a hostname isn't known to your DNS, you can add it here to allow proper resolving, or override DNS replies. You usually don't need to change anything here, but you might want to add the hostname and hostname + domain of the local machine to this file, resolving to the IP of your network interface. Some services, postfix for example, will bomb otherwise. If you don't know what you're doing, leave this file alone until you read man hosts.
This file contains a list of all supported locales and charsets available to you. When choosing a LOCALE in your /etc/rc.conf or when starting a program, it is required to uncomment the respective locale in this file, to make a "compiled" version available to the system, and run the locale-gen command as root to generate all uncommented locales and put them in their place afterwards. You should uncomment all locales you intend to use.
During the installation process, you do not need to run locale-gen manually, this will be taken care of automatically after saving your changes to this file. By default, all locales are enabled that would make sense by rc.conf's LOCALE= setting. To make your system work smoothly, you should edit this file and uncomment at least the one locale you're using in your rc.conf.
This file contains a list of mirrors from which pacman will download packages for the official Arch Linux repositories. The mirrors are tried in the order in which they are listed. The $repo macro is automatically expanded by pacman depending on the repository (core, extra, community or testing).
If you are performing an FTP installation, the mirror you used to download the packages from will be added on top of the mirror list, in order to be used as the default mirror in your new Arch Linux system.
Here you can customize pacman settings such as which repositories to use.
If you use encryption on a device which is not used to bring up your root, (and hence is not enabled by the encrypt hook in mkinitcpio.conf), you should configure the volume in this file.
Set Root Password
At this step, you must set the root password for your system. Choose this password carefully, preferably as a mixture of alphanumeric and special characters, since this password allows you to modify critical parts of your system.
When you are done editing the configuration files choose Return to return to the main menu. The setup will regenerate the initial ramdisk to enable the changes you made in mkinitcpio.conf.
Install Bootloader will install and help you configure the bootloader that you selected in the "Select Packages" stage.
An editor will open, allowing you to edit the appropriate bootloader configuration file which the installer has pre-populated. You should check and modify this file, if needed, to accommodate your boot setup.
/boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg (Syslinux) After checking your bootloader configuration for correctness, you'll be asked to allow the installer to Set the Boot Flag and install the Syslinux MBR.
/boot/grub/menu.lst (Grub) After checking your bootloader configuration for correctness, you'll be prompted for a disk to install the loader to. You should install GRUB to the MBR of the installation disk.
You will be shown a summary of the installation, listing the steps and whether they executed successfully or not. If all went well, exit the installer, type reboot at the command line, remove your installation media and cross your fingers!
Automatic Installation Procedure
With the automatic installation procedure, you can do scripted/automatic installations. See [#Aif_the_installation_tool 2.3 AIF, the installation tool] In /usr/share/aif/examples you will find example profiles which will need no or minimal editing in order to install a system:
- generic-install-on-sda this file demonstrates some things you can do (adding custom packages, setting timezone, update config files etc) it sets up a simple installation (with a structure similar to what you get with Auto-prepare) on /dev/sda
- fancy-install-on-sda very similar to generic-install-on-sda, but sets up a "filesystems on lvm on dm_crypt" system on /dev/sda
Note that these files are plain bash files, so if you want to define for
SYNC_URL it must be singlequoted to prevent bash expanding
aif -p automatic -c /path/to/configfile
Obviously, don't forget to change the hard disk names unless you want
to use /dev/sda.
Config file syntax
Config files will be sourced by the bash shell, so they need to be valid bash code.
PARTITIONS: Allows you to define partitions for your hard disk, separated by spaces.
- first comes the device file for the hard disk
- then for each partition you want: size in MiB (or '*' for all remaining space),filesystem type and optionally a '+' to toggle the bootable flag. separated by colons (':')
BLOCKDATA: In this multi-line variable you can describe for each partition you'll have how it should be used. Study the examples to see how it works.
You can also customize your installation experience by writing new procedures (possibly inheriting from current procedures) or config files for procedures that support it (eg automatic). You have all the aif libraries at your disposal and you can create new libraries. (see /usr/lib/aif) This is a moving target, so consult the AIF readme for more information.
Seu novo sistema
Se deu tudo certo, você pode reiniciar o sistema (certifique-se de não iniciar novamente a partir do CD-ROM) e seu novo sistema vai iniciar
Você notará que no espaço do usuário os ganchos necessários para obter a sua raiz
sistema de arquivos são executados.
Você notará no início que no espaço do usuário (a parte que vem depois do
bootloader) os 'hooks' (como definido na mkinitcpio.conf) necessários para obter a sua raiz
sistema de arquivos são executados.
Se você possui lvm, o mesmo será executado no 'hook'. Se você usar criptografia, ele irá executar o 'keymap' e criptografar para que você possa entrar com sua senha para descriptografar o volume.
Uma vez que o sistema é inicializado, faça o login como root. Por padrão a senha é vazia mas você pode alterá-la
Gerenciamento de Pacotes
Pacman é o gerenciador de pacotes que acompanha o sistema instalado. Ele tem suporte as dependências e usa o padrão tar ou gzip como formato de arquivo para todos os pacotes. Algumas tarefas comuns que você pode precisar usar Durante a instalação, são explicados abaixo com os seus respectivos comandos. Para explanar as opções adicionais do pacman, leia em 'man pacman' ou consulte a página do manual Arch Linux Wiki.
Atualizar lista de repositório
# pacman --sync --refresh
# pacman -Sy
Este irá recuperar uma lista de pacotes dos repositórios definidos no arquivo /etc/pacman.conf e descompactá-lo para o banco de dados.
Busca de repositórios para o pacote
# pacman --sync --search <regexp>
# pacman -Ss <regexp>
Pesquisar por pacote nas bases de dados ou descrição que correspondam a 'regexp'.
Mostrar informações do pacote específico da base de banco do repositório
# pacman --sync --info foo
# pacman -Si foo
Displays information from the repository database on package foo (tamanho, data de criação, dependencias, conflitos, etc.)
Adiciona um pacote a partir do repositório
# pacman --sync foo
# pacman -S foo
Obter e instalar o pacote foo, com todas as dependências que ele requer. Antes de usar qualquer opção de sincronização, certifique-se que a lista de pacotes está atualizada.
Lista pacotes instalados
# pacman --query
# pacman -Q
Exibe uma lista de todos os pacotes instalados no sistema.
Verifica se o pacote especificado está instalado
# pacman --query foo
# pacman -Q foo
Este comando irá exibir o nome e versão do pacote foo se estiver instalado.
Exibir informações do pacote esperificado
# pacman --query --info foo
# pacman -Qi foo
Exibir informações do pacote foo (tamanho, data de instalação, data de criação, dependencias, conflitos, etc.)
Exibir lista de arquivos contidos no pacote
# pacman --query --list foo
# pacman -Ql foo
Lista todos os arquivos que pertencem ao 'foo'.
Descubra a qual pacote um arquivo específico pertence
# pacman --query --owns /path/to/file
# pacman -Qo /path/to/file
Esta consulta exibe o nome e versão dos pacotes contidos no arquivo referenciado pelo seu caminho.
Veja Official Arch Linux Install Guide Appendix para acessar documentação não oficial, pode user muito útil para novos usuários.