Difference between revisions of "Official repositories"

From ArchWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(keep it simple, link directly to the fellows page instead of an article that in turn links there)
(→‎Stable repositories: base is now a meta package)
 
(102 intermediate revisions by 30 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[Category:Package management]]
 
[[Category:Package management]]
 
[[Category:About Arch]]
 
[[Category:About Arch]]
[[ar:Official Repositories]]
+
[[ar:Official repositories]]
[[cs:Official Repositories]]
+
[[cs:Official repositories]]
[[es:Official Repositories]]
+
[[es:Official repositories]]
 
[[fr:Depots]]
 
[[fr:Depots]]
[[it:Official Repositories]]
+
[[it:Official repositories]]
[[ja:Official Repositories]]
+
[[ja:公式リポジトリ]]
[[nl:Official Repositories]]
+
[[nl:Official repositories]]
[[pt:Official Repositories]]
+
[[pt:Official repositories]]
[[ro:Depozitele oficiale]]
+
[[ru:Official repositories]]
[[ru:Official Repositories]]
+
[[zh-hans:Official repositories]]
[[tr:Resmi_Depolar]]
+
[[zh-hant:Official repositories]]
[[zh-CN:Official Repositories]]
 
[[zh-TW:Official Repositories]]
 
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related articles start}}
{{Related|Mirrors}}
+
{{Related|Arch Build System}}
 
{{Related|Arch User Repository}}
 
{{Related|Arch User Repository}}
{{Related|Unofficial User Repositories}}
 
{{Related|PKGBUILD}}
 
 
{{Related|makepkg}}
 
{{Related|makepkg}}
 +
{{Related|Mirrors}}
 
{{Related|pacman}}
 
{{Related|pacman}}
{{Related|Arch Build System}}
+
{{Related|PKGBUILD}}
 +
{{Related|Unofficial user repositories}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
A [[Wikipedia:software repository|software repository]] is a storage location from which software packages are retrieved for installation.
 
A [[Wikipedia:software repository|software repository]] is a storage location from which software packages are retrieved for installation.
  
'''Official repositories''' containing essential and popular software, readily accessible via [[pacman]].
+
Arch Linux '''official repositories''' contain essential and popular software, readily accessible via [[pacman]]. They are maintained by [[Arch terminology#Package maintainer|package maintainers]].
  
They are maintained by [[Package Maintainer|package maintainers]].
+
Packages in the official repositories are constantly upgraded: when a package is upgraded, its old version is removed from the repository. There are no major Arch releases: each package is upgraded as new versions become available from upstream sources. Each repository is always coherent, i.e. the packages that it hosts always have reciprocally compatible versions.
  
== Repositories ==
+
== Stable repositories ==
  
 
=== core ===
 
=== core ===
Line 35: Line 33:
 
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../core/os/}} on your favorite [[mirror]].
 
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../core/os/}} on your favorite [[mirror]].
  
core contains packages for:
+
''core'' contains packages for:
  
 
* booting Arch Linux
 
* booting Arch Linux
* [[Network Configuration|connecting to the Internet]]
+
* [[Network configuration|connecting to the Internet]]
* [[Creating Packages|building packages]]
+
* [[Creating packages|building packages]]
* management and repair of supported [[File Systems|file systems]]
+
* management and repair of supported [[file systems]]
 
* the system setup process (e.g. {{Pkg|openssh}})
 
* the system setup process (e.g. {{Pkg|openssh}})
as well as dependencies of the above (not necessarily makedepends)
+
as well as dependencies of the above (not necessarily [[makedepends]]) and the {{Pkg|base}} [[meta package]].
  
''core'' has fairly strict quality requirements. Developers/users need to signoff on updates before package updates are accepted. For packages with low usage, a reasonable exposure is enough: informing people about update, requesting signoffs, keeping in testing up to a week depending on the severity of the change, lack of outstanding bug reports, along with the implicit signoff of the package maintainer.
+
''core'' has fairly strict quality requirements. Developers/users need to signoff on updates before package updates are accepted. For packages with low usage, a reasonable exposure is enough: informing people about update, requesting signoffs, keeping in [[#testing]] up to a week depending on the severity of the change, lack of outstanding bug reports, along with the implicit signoff of the package maintainer.
  
{{Note|To create a local repository with packages from ''core'' (or other repositories) without an internet connection see [[Pacman_Tips#Installing_packages_from_a_CD.2FDVD_or_USB_stick|Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick]].}}
+
{{Tip|To create a local repository with packages from ''core'' (or other repositories) without an internet connection see [[Pacman tips#Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick]]}}
  
 
=== extra ===
 
=== extra ===
Line 58: Line 56:
 
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../community/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
 
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../community/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
  
''community'' contains packages from the [[Arch User Repository]] which gained enough votes to be adopted by a [[Trusted_Users|Trusted User]].
+
''community'' contains packages that have been adopted by [[Trusted Users]] from the [[Arch User Repository]]. Some of these packages may eventually make the transition to the [[#core|core]] or [[#extra|extra]] repositories as the developers consider them crucial to the distribution.
  
 
=== multilib ===
 
=== multilib ===
Line 64: Line 62:
 
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../multilib/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
 
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../multilib/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
  
''multilib'' contains 32 bit software and libraries that can be used to run and build 32 bit applications on 64 bit installs (e.g. {{Pkg|wine}}, {{Pkg|skype}}, etc).
+
''multilib'' contains 32-bit software and libraries that can be used to run and build 32-bit applications on 64-bit installs (e.g. {{Pkg|wine}}, {{Pkg|steam}}, etc).
  
For more information, see [[Multilib]].
+
With the multilib repository enabled, the 32-bit compatible libraries are located under {{ic|/usr/lib32/}}.
 +
 
 +
==== Enabling multilib ====
 +
 
 +
To enable multilib repository, uncomment the {{ic|[multilib]}} section in {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|1=/etc/pacman.conf|2=
 +
[multilib]
 +
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}
 +
 
 +
Then [[upgrade]] the system and install the desired multilib packages.
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|Run {{ic|pacman -Sl multilib}} to list all packages in the ''multilib'' repository. 32-bit library package names begin with {{ic|lib32-}}.}}
 +
 
 +
==== Disabling multilib ====
 +
 
 +
Execute the following command to remove all packages that were installed from ''multilib'':
 +
 
 +
# pacman -R $(comm -12 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(pacman -Slq multilib | sort))
 +
 
 +
If you have conflicts with gcc-libs reinstall the {{pkg|gcc-libs}} package and the {{Grp|base-devel}} group.
 +
 
 +
Comment out the {{ic|[multilib]}} section in {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|1=/etc/pacman.conf|2=
 +
#[multilib]
 +
#Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}
 +
 
 +
Then [[upgrade]] the system.
 +
 
 +
== Testing repositories ==
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|
 +
* Be careful when enabling the ''testing'' repositories. Your system may break after performing an update. Only experienced users who know how to deal with potential system breakage should use it.
 +
* If you enable ''testing'', you must also enable ''community-testing''. If you enable any other testing repository listed in the following subsections, you must also enable both ''testing'' and ''community-testing''.}}
  
 
=== testing ===
 
=== testing ===
 
{{Warning|Be careful when enabling the ''testing'' repository. Your system may break after performing an update. Only experienced users who know how to deal with potential system breakage should use it.}}
 
  
 
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../testing/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
 
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../testing/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
Line 77: Line 107:
  
 
New packages go into ''testing'' if:
 
New packages go into ''testing'' if:
 +
 +
* They are destined for the ''core'' repo. Everything in ''core'' must go through ''testing''
  
 
* They are expected to break something on update and need to be tested first.
 
* They are expected to break something on update and need to be tested first.
  
* They require other packages to be rebuilt. In this case, all packages that need to be rebuilt are put into ''testing'' first and when all rebuilds are done, they are moved back to the other repositories.
+
''testing'' is the only repository that can have name collisions with any of the other official repositories. If enabled, it has to be the first repository listed in your {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} file.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|''testing'' is not for the "newest of the new" package versions. Part of its purpose is to hold package updates that have the potential to break the system, either by being part of the ''core'' set of packages, or by being critical in other ways. As such, users of ''testing'' are strongly encouraged to subscribe to the [https://mailman.archlinux.org/mailman/listinfo/arch-dev-public arch-dev-public mailing list], watch the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewforum.php?id&#61;49 testing repository forum], and to [[Reporting bug guidelines|report all bugs]]. You should also consider joining the [[Arch Testing Team]].}}
 +
 
 +
=== community-testing ===
 +
 
 +
This repository is similar to the ''testing'' repository, but for packages that are candidates for the ''community'' repository.
 +
 
 +
=== multilib-testing ===
 +
 
 +
This repository is similar to the ''testing'' repository, but for packages that are candidates for the ''multilib'' repository.
 +
 
 +
=== gnome-unstable ===
 +
 
 +
This repository contains testing packages for the next stable or stable release candidate version of the [[GNOME]] desktop environment, before they are moved to the main ''testing'' repository.
 +
 
 +
To enable it, add the following lines to {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
 +
 
 +
[gnome-unstable]
 +
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
 +
 
 +
The ''gnome-unstable'' entry should be first in the list of repositories (''i.e.'', above the ''testing'' entry).
 +
 
 +
Please report packaging related bugs in our [https://bugs.archlinux.org/ bug tracker], while anything else should be reported upstream to [https://gitlab.gnome.org GNOME Gitlab].
 +
 
 +
=== kde-unstable ===
 +
 
 +
This repository contains the latest ''beta'' or ''Release Candidate'' of [[KDE]] Plasma and Applications.
 +
 
 +
To enable it, add the following lines to {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
  
''testing'' is the only repository that can have name collisions with any of the other official repositories. If enabled, it has to be the first repository listed in your {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} file.
+
[kde-unstable]
 +
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
 +
 
 +
The ''kde-unstable'' entry should be first in the list of repositories (''i.e.'', above the ''testing'' entry).
 +
 
 +
Make sure [[Reporting bug guidelines|you make bug reports]] if you find any problems.
  
{{Note|''testing'' is not for the "newest of the new" package versions. Part of its purpose is to hold package updates that have the potential to break the system, either by being part of the ''core'' set of packages, or by being critical in other ways. As such, users of ''testing'' are strongly encouraged to subscribe to the [https://mailman.archlinux.org/mailman/listinfo/arch-dev-public arch-dev-public mailing list], watch the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewforum.php?id&#61;49 testing repository forum], and to [[Reporting Bug Guidelines|report all bugs]].}}
+
=== Disabling testing repositories ===
  
If you enable ''testing'', you must also enable ''community-testing''.
+
If you enabled testing repositories, but later on decided to disable them, you should:
  
==== community-testing ====
+
# Remove (comment out) them from {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}
 +
# Perform a {{ic|pacman -Syuu}} to "rollback" your updates from these repositories.
  
This repository is like the ''testing'' repository, but for packages that are candidates for the ''community'' repository.
+
The second item is optional, but keep it in mind if you notice any problems.
  
If you enable it, you must also enable ''testing''.
+
== Staging repositories ==
  
==== multilib-testing ====
+
{{Warning|Do not enable the ''staging'' repositories for any reason. Your system will unquestionably break after performing an update. This repository is only meant for backend developer use.}}
  
This repository is like the ''testing'' repository, but for packages that are candidates for the ''multilib'' repository.
+
This repository contains broken packages and is used solely by developers during rebuilds of many packages at once. In order to rebuild packages that depend on, for example, a new shared library, the shared library itself must first be built and uploaded to the staging repositories to be made available to other developers. As soon as all dependent packages are rebuilt, the group of packages is then moved to testing or to the main repositories, whichever is more appropriate.
  
If you enable it, you must also enable ''testing''.
+
See [https://lists.archlinux.org/pipermail/arch-dev-public/2010-August/017579.html] for more historical details.
  
 
== Historical background ==
 
== Historical background ==
 
=== official, unofficial, current & extra ===
 
  
 
Most of the repository splits are for historical reasons. Originally, when Arch Linux was used by very few users, there was only one repository known as '''official''' (now ''core''). At the time, ''official'' basically contained Judd Vinet's preferred applications. It was designed to contain one of each "type" of program -- one DE, one major browser, etc.
 
Most of the repository splits are for historical reasons. Originally, when Arch Linux was used by very few users, there was only one repository known as '''official''' (now ''core''). At the time, ''official'' basically contained Judd Vinet's preferred applications. It was designed to contain one of each "type" of program -- one DE, one major browser, etc.
Line 110: Line 175:
 
Shortly after the 2007.8.1 release, ''current'' was renamed '''core''' in order to prevent confusion over what exactly it contains. The repositories are now more or less equal in the eyes of the developers and the community, but ''core'' does have some differences. The main distinction is that packages used for Installation CDs and release snapshots are taken only from ''core''. This repository still gives a complete Linux system, though it may not be the Linux system you want.
 
Shortly after the 2007.8.1 release, ''current'' was renamed '''core''' in order to prevent confusion over what exactly it contains. The repositories are now more or less equal in the eyes of the developers and the community, but ''core'' does have some differences. The main distinction is that packages used for Installation CDs and release snapshots are taken only from ''core''. This repository still gives a complete Linux system, though it may not be the Linux system you want.
  
Some time around 0.5/0.6, there were a lot of packages that the developers did not want to maintain. [https://www.archlinux.org/fellows/#jason Jason Chu] set up the "Trusted User Repositories", which were unofficial repositories in which trusted users could place packages they had created. There was a '''staging''' repository where packages could be promoted into the official repositories by one of the Arch Linux developers, but other than this, the developers and trusted users were more or less distinct.
+
Some time around 0.5/0.6, there were a lot of packages that the developers did not want to maintain. [https://www.archlinux.org/people/developer-fellows/#jason Jason Chu] set up the "Trusted User Repositories", which were unofficial repositories in which trusted users could place packages they had created. There was a '''staging''' repository where packages could be promoted into the official repositories by one of the Arch Linux developers, but other than this, the developers and trusted users were more or less distinct.
  
 
This worked for a while, but not when trusted users got bored with their repositories, and not when untrusted users wanted to share their own packages. This led to the development of the [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR]. The TUs were conglomerated into a more closely knit group, and they now collectively maintain the '''community''' repository. The Trusted Users are still a separate group from the Arch Linux developers, and there is not a lot of communication between them. However, popular packages are still promoted from ''community'' to ''extra'' on occasion. The [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR] also allows untrusted users to submit PKGBUILDs.
 
This worked for a while, but not when trusted users got bored with their repositories, and not when untrusted users wanted to share their own packages. This led to the development of the [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR]. The TUs were conglomerated into a more closely knit group, and they now collectively maintain the '''community''' repository. The Trusted Users are still a separate group from the Arch Linux developers, and there is not a lot of communication between them. However, popular packages are still promoted from ''community'' to ''extra'' on occasion. The [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR] also allows untrusted users to submit PKGBUILDs.
  
After a kernel in ''core'' [https://www.archlinux.org/news/please-avoid-kernel-261614-1/ broke many user systems], the "core signoff policy" was introduced. Since then, all package updates for ''core'' need to go through a '''testing''' repository first, and only after multiple signoffs from other developers are they allowed to move. Over time, it was noticed that various ''core'' packages had low usage, and user signoffs or even lack of bug reports became informally accepted as criteria to accept such packages.
+
After a kernel in ''core'' [https://www.archlinux.org/news/please-avoid-kernel-261614-1/ broke many user systems], the "core signoff policy" was introduced. Since then, all package updates for ''core'' need to go through a '''testing''' repository first, and only after multiple signoffs from other developers are then allowed to move. Over time, it was noticed that various ''core'' packages had low usage, and user signoffs or even lack of bug reports became informally accepted as criteria to accept such packages.
  
 
In late 2009/the beginning of 2010, with the advent of some new filesystems and the desire to support them during installation, along with the realization that ''core'' was never clearly defined (just "important packages, handpicked by developers"), the repository received a more accurate description.
 
In late 2009/the beginning of 2010, with the advent of some new filesystems and the desire to support them during installation, along with the realization that ''core'' was never clearly defined (just "important packages, handpicked by developers"), the repository received a more accurate description.

Latest revision as of 07:51, 8 October 2019

A software repository is a storage location from which software packages are retrieved for installation.

Arch Linux official repositories contain essential and popular software, readily accessible via pacman. They are maintained by package maintainers.

Packages in the official repositories are constantly upgraded: when a package is upgraded, its old version is removed from the repository. There are no major Arch releases: each package is upgraded as new versions become available from upstream sources. Each repository is always coherent, i.e. the packages that it hosts always have reciprocally compatible versions.

Stable repositories

core

This repository can be found in .../core/os/ on your favorite mirror.

core contains packages for:

as well as dependencies of the above (not necessarily makedepends) and the base meta package.

core has fairly strict quality requirements. Developers/users need to signoff on updates before package updates are accepted. For packages with low usage, a reasonable exposure is enough: informing people about update, requesting signoffs, keeping in #testing up to a week depending on the severity of the change, lack of outstanding bug reports, along with the implicit signoff of the package maintainer.

Tip: To create a local repository with packages from core (or other repositories) without an internet connection see Pacman tips#Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick

extra

This repository can be found in .../extra/os/ on your favorite mirror.

extra contains all packages that do not fit in core. Example: Xorg, window managers, web browsers, media players, tools for working with languages such as Python and Ruby, and a lot more.

community

This repository can be found in .../community/os/ on your favorite mirror.

community contains packages that have been adopted by Trusted Users from the Arch User Repository. Some of these packages may eventually make the transition to the core or extra repositories as the developers consider them crucial to the distribution.

multilib

This repository can be found in .../multilib/os/ on your favorite mirror.

multilib contains 32-bit software and libraries that can be used to run and build 32-bit applications on 64-bit installs (e.g. wine, steam, etc).

With the multilib repository enabled, the 32-bit compatible libraries are located under /usr/lib32/.

Enabling multilib

To enable multilib repository, uncomment the [multilib] section in /etc/pacman.conf:

/etc/pacman.conf
[multilib]
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

Then upgrade the system and install the desired multilib packages.

Tip: Run pacman -Sl multilib to list all packages in the multilib repository. 32-bit library package names begin with lib32-.

Disabling multilib

Execute the following command to remove all packages that were installed from multilib:

# pacman -R $(comm -12 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(pacman -Slq multilib | sort))

If you have conflicts with gcc-libs reinstall the gcc-libs package and the base-devel group.

Comment out the [multilib] section in /etc/pacman.conf:

/etc/pacman.conf
#[multilib]
#Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

Then upgrade the system.

Testing repositories

Warning:
  • Be careful when enabling the testing repositories. Your system may break after performing an update. Only experienced users who know how to deal with potential system breakage should use it.
  • If you enable testing, you must also enable community-testing. If you enable any other testing repository listed in the following subsections, you must also enable both testing and community-testing.

testing

This repository can be found in .../testing/os/ on your favorite mirror.

testing contains packages that are candidates for the core or extra repositories.

New packages go into testing if:

  • They are destined for the core repo. Everything in core must go through testing
  • They are expected to break something on update and need to be tested first.

testing is the only repository that can have name collisions with any of the other official repositories. If enabled, it has to be the first repository listed in your /etc/pacman.conf file.

Note: testing is not for the "newest of the new" package versions. Part of its purpose is to hold package updates that have the potential to break the system, either by being part of the core set of packages, or by being critical in other ways. As such, users of testing are strongly encouraged to subscribe to the arch-dev-public mailing list, watch the testing repository forum, and to report all bugs. You should also consider joining the Arch Testing Team.

community-testing

This repository is similar to the testing repository, but for packages that are candidates for the community repository.

multilib-testing

This repository is similar to the testing repository, but for packages that are candidates for the multilib repository.

gnome-unstable

This repository contains testing packages for the next stable or stable release candidate version of the GNOME desktop environment, before they are moved to the main testing repository.

To enable it, add the following lines to /etc/pacman.conf:

[gnome-unstable]
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

The gnome-unstable entry should be first in the list of repositories (i.e., above the testing entry).

Please report packaging related bugs in our bug tracker, while anything else should be reported upstream to GNOME Gitlab.

kde-unstable

This repository contains the latest beta or Release Candidate of KDE Plasma and Applications.

To enable it, add the following lines to /etc/pacman.conf:

[kde-unstable]
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

The kde-unstable entry should be first in the list of repositories (i.e., above the testing entry).

Make sure you make bug reports if you find any problems.

Disabling testing repositories

If you enabled testing repositories, but later on decided to disable them, you should:

  1. Remove (comment out) them from /etc/pacman.conf
  2. Perform a pacman -Syuu to "rollback" your updates from these repositories.

The second item is optional, but keep it in mind if you notice any problems.

Staging repositories

Warning: Do not enable the staging repositories for any reason. Your system will unquestionably break after performing an update. This repository is only meant for backend developer use.

This repository contains broken packages and is used solely by developers during rebuilds of many packages at once. In order to rebuild packages that depend on, for example, a new shared library, the shared library itself must first be built and uploaded to the staging repositories to be made available to other developers. As soon as all dependent packages are rebuilt, the group of packages is then moved to testing or to the main repositories, whichever is more appropriate.

See [1] for more historical details.

Historical background

Most of the repository splits are for historical reasons. Originally, when Arch Linux was used by very few users, there was only one repository known as official (now core). At the time, official basically contained Judd Vinet's preferred applications. It was designed to contain one of each "type" of program -- one DE, one major browser, etc.

There were users back then that did not like Judd's selection, so since the Arch Build System is so easy to use, they created packages of their own. These packages went into a repository called unofficial, and were maintained by developers other than Judd. Eventually, the two repositories were both considered equally supported by the developers, so the names official and unofficial no longer reflected their true purpose. They were subsequently renamed to current and extra sometime near the release version 0.5.

Shortly after the 2007.8.1 release, current was renamed core in order to prevent confusion over what exactly it contains. The repositories are now more or less equal in the eyes of the developers and the community, but core does have some differences. The main distinction is that packages used for Installation CDs and release snapshots are taken only from core. This repository still gives a complete Linux system, though it may not be the Linux system you want.

Some time around 0.5/0.6, there were a lot of packages that the developers did not want to maintain. Jason Chu set up the "Trusted User Repositories", which were unofficial repositories in which trusted users could place packages they had created. There was a staging repository where packages could be promoted into the official repositories by one of the Arch Linux developers, but other than this, the developers and trusted users were more or less distinct.

This worked for a while, but not when trusted users got bored with their repositories, and not when untrusted users wanted to share their own packages. This led to the development of the AUR. The TUs were conglomerated into a more closely knit group, and they now collectively maintain the community repository. The Trusted Users are still a separate group from the Arch Linux developers, and there is not a lot of communication between them. However, popular packages are still promoted from community to extra on occasion. The AUR also allows untrusted users to submit PKGBUILDs.

After a kernel in core broke many user systems, the "core signoff policy" was introduced. Since then, all package updates for core need to go through a testing repository first, and only after multiple signoffs from other developers are then allowed to move. Over time, it was noticed that various core packages had low usage, and user signoffs or even lack of bug reports became informally accepted as criteria to accept such packages.

In late 2009/the beginning of 2010, with the advent of some new filesystems and the desire to support them during installation, along with the realization that core was never clearly defined (just "important packages, handpicked by developers"), the repository received a more accurate description.