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[[Category:Package management]]
 
[[Category:Package management]]
 
[[Category:About Arch]]
 
[[Category:About Arch]]
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[[ar:Official repositories]]
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[[cs:Official repositories]]
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[[es:Official repositories]]
 
[[fr:Depots]]
 
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[[ja:Official Repositories]]
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[[ja:公式リポジトリ]]
[[nl:Official Repositories]]
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[[nl:Official repositories]]
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[[pt:Official repositories]]
 
[[ro:Depozitele oficiale]]
 
[[ro:Depozitele oficiale]]
[[ru:Official Repositories]]
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[[ru:Official repositories]]
[[tr:Resmi_Depolar]]
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[[tr:Resmi Depolar]]
[[zh-CN:Official Repositories]]
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[[zh-cn:Official repositories]]
[[zh-TW:Official Repositories]]
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[[zh-tw:Official repositories]]
{{Article summary start}}
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{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary text|Software repositories contain software compiled and packaged by developers and Trusted Users, readily accessible via pacman. This article outlines the official repositories provided and supported by Arch Linux developers.}}
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{{Related|Mirrors}}
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
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{{Related|Arch User Repository}}
{{Article summary text|{{Package management overview}}}}
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{{Related|Unofficial user repositories}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
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{{Related|PKGBUILD}}
{{Article summary wiki|Mirrors}}
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{{Related|makepkg}}
{{Article summary wiki|Arch User Repository}}
+
{{Related|pacman}}
{{Article summary wiki|Unofficial User Repositories}}
+
{{Related|Arch Build System}}
{{Article summary end}}
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{{Related articles end}}
 +
A [[Wikipedia:software repository|software repository]] is a storage location from which software packages are retrieved for installation.
  
A [[Wikipedia:software repository|software repository]] is a storage location from which software packages may be retrieved and installed on a computer. Arch Linux [[Package Maintainer|package maintainers]] (developers and [[Trusted Users]]) maintain a number of official repositories containing software packages for essential and popular software, readily accessible via [[pacman]]. This article outlines these officially supported repositories.
+
Arch Linux '''official repositories''' contain essential and popular software, readily accessible via [[pacman]]. They are maintained by [[Arch terminology#Package maintainer|package maintainers]].
  
== Historical background ==
+
Packages in the official repositories are constantly upgraded: when a package is upgraded, its old version is removed from the repository. There are no major Arch releases: each package is upgraded as new versions become available from upstream sources. Each repository is always coherent, i.e. the packages that it hosts always have reciprocally compatible versions.
  
Most of the repository splits are for historical reasons. Originally, when Arch Linux was used by very few users, there was only one repository known as ''[official]'' (now '''[core]'''). At the time, [official] basically contained Judd Vinet's preferred applications. It was designed to contain one of each "type" of program -- one DE, one major browser, etc.
+
== Repositories ==
  
There were users back then that did not like Judd's selection, so since the [[Arch Build System]] is so easy to use, they created packages of their own. These packages went into a repository called ''[unofficial]'', and were maintained by developers other than Judd. Eventually, the two repositories were both considered equally supported by the developers, so the names [official] and [unofficial] no longer reflected their true purpose. They were subsequently renamed to ''[current]'' and ''[extra]'' sometime near the release version 0.5.
+
=== core ===
  
Shortly after the 2007.8.1 release, [current] was renamed [core] in order to prevent confusion over what exactly it contains. The repositories are now more or less equal in the eyes of the developers and the community, but [core] does have some differences. The main distinction is that packages used for Installation CDs and release snapshots are taken only from [core]. This repository still gives a complete Linux system, though it may not be the Linux system you want.
+
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../core/os/}} on your favorite [[mirror]].
  
Now, sometime around 0.5 or 0.6, they found there were a lot of packages that the developers did not want to maintain. One of the developers (Xentac) set up the "Trusted User Repositories", which were unofficial repositories in which trusted users could place packages they had created. There was a ''[staging]'' repository where packages could be promoted into the official repositories by one of the Arch Linux developers, but other than this, the developers and trusted users were more or less distinct.
+
''core'' contains packages for:
  
This worked for a while, but not when trusted users got bored with their repositories, and not when untrusted users wanted to share their own packages. This led to the development of the [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR]. The TUs were conglomerated into a more closely knit group, and they now collectively maintain the '''[community]''' repository. The Trusted Users are still a separate group from the Arch Linux developers, and there is not a lot of communication between them. However, popular packages are still promoted from [community] to '''[extra]''' on occasion. The [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR] also allows untrusted users to submit PKGBUILDs.
+
* booting Arch Linux
 +
* [[Network configuration|connecting to the Internet]]
 +
* [[Creating packages|building packages]]
 +
* management and repair of supported [[file systems]]
 +
* the system setup process (e.g. {{Pkg|openssh}})
 +
as well as dependencies of the above (not necessarily makedepends)
  
After a kernel in '''[core]''' [https://www.archlinux.org/news/please-avoid-kernel-261614-1/ broke many user systems], the "core signoff policy" was introduced. Since then, all package updates for [core] need to go through a '''[testing]''' repository first, and only after multiple signoffs from other developers are they allowed to move. Over time, it was noticed that various [core] packages had low usage, and user signoffs or even lack of bug reports became informally accepted as criteria to accept such packages.
+
''core'' has fairly strict quality requirements. Developers/users need to signoff on updates before package updates are accepted. For packages with low usage, a reasonable exposure is enough: informing people about update, requesting signoffs, keeping in testing up to a week depending on the severity of the change, lack of outstanding bug reports, along with the implicit signoff of the package maintainer.
  
In late 2009/the beginning of 2010, with the advent of some new filesystems and the desire to support them during installation, along with the realization that [core] was never clearly defined (just "important packages, handpicked by developers"), the repository received a more accurate description (see below).
+
{{Note|To create a local repository with packages from ''core'' (or other repositories) without an internet connection see [[Pacman tips#Installing_packages_from_a_CD.2FDVD_or_USB_stick|Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick]].}}
  
== [core] ==
+
=== extra ===
  
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../core/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
+
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../extra/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
  
It has fairly strict quality requirements:
+
''extra'' contains all packages that do not fit in ''core''. Example: Xorg, window managers, web browsers, media players, tools for working with languages such as Python and Ruby, and a lot more.
  
* Developers and/or users need to signoff on updates before package updates are accepted.
+
=== community ===
  
* For packages with low usage, a reasonable exposure (i.e. inform people about update, request signoffs, keep in testing up to a week depending on the severity of the change, lack of outstanding bug reports, along with the implicit signoff of the package maintainer) is enough.
+
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../community/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
  
It contains packages which:
+
''community'' contains packages that have been adopted by [[Trusted Users]] from the [[Arch User Repository]]. Some of these packages may eventually make the transition to the [[#core|core]] or [[#extra|extra]] repositories as the developers consider them crucial to the distribution.
  
:* are needed to boot any kind of supported Arch system.
+
=== multilib ===
:* may be needed to connect to the Internet.
+
:* are essential for package building.
+
:* can manage and check/repair supported filesystems.
+
:* virtually anyone will want or need early in the system setup process (e.g. {{Pkg|openssh}}).
+
:* are dependencies (but not necessarily makedepends) of the above.
+
  
{{Note|This repository used to be included in the core installation media, so you could build a fully working base system without Internet access. This is no longer the case. Internet access is now required in order to install a new system. See [[Pacman_Tips#Installing_packages_from_a_CD.2FDVD_or_USB_stick|here]] if you would like to create a local repository with packages from [core] or from any of the other repositories.}}
+
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../multilib/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
  
== [extra] ==
+
''multilib'' contains 32 bit software and libraries that can be used to run and build 32 bit applications on 64 bit installs (e.g. {{Pkg|wine}}, {{Pkg|skype}}, etc).
  
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../extra/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
+
For more information, see [[Multilib]].
  
It contains all packages that do not fit in [core]. Example: Xorg, window managers, web browsers, media players, tools for working with languages such as Python and Ruby, and a lot more.
+
=== testing ===
  
== [community] ==
+
{{Warning|Be careful when enabling the ''testing'' repositories. Your system may break after performing an update. Only experienced users who know how to deal with potential system breakage should use it.}}
  
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../community/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
+
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../testing/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
  
It contains packages from the [[Arch User Repository]] which gained enough votes to be adopted by a [[Trusted_Users|Trusted User]].
+
''testing'' contains packages that are candidates for the ''core'' or ''extra'' repositories.
  
== [multilib] ==
+
New packages go into ''testing'' if:
  
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../multilib/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
+
* They are destined for the ''core'' repo. Everything in ''core'' must go through ''testing''
  
It contains 32 bit software and libraries that can be used to run and build 32 bit applications on 64 bit installs (e.g. {{Pkg|wine}}, {{Pkg|skype}}, etc).
+
* They are expected to break something on update and need to be tested first.
  
For more information, see [[Multilib]].
+
''testing'' is the only repository that can have name collisions with any of the other official repositories. If enabled, it has to be the first repository listed in your {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} file.
  
== [testing] ==
+
{{Note|''testing'' is not for the "newest of the new" package versions. Part of its purpose is to hold package updates that have the potential to break the system, either by being part of the ''core'' set of packages, or by being critical in other ways. As such, users of ''testing'' are strongly encouraged to subscribe to the [https://mailman.archlinux.org/mailman/listinfo/arch-dev-public arch-dev-public mailing list], watch the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewforum.php?id=49 testing repository forum], and to [[Reporting bug guidelines|report all bugs]].}}
  
{{Warning|Be careful when enabling the [testing] repository. Your system may break after performing an update. Only experienced users who know how to deal with potential system breakage should use it.}}
+
If you enable ''testing'', you must also enable ''community-testing''. If you enable any other testing repository listed in the following subsections, you must also enable ''testing''.
  
This repository can be found in {{ic|.../testing/os/}} on your favorite mirror.
+
==== community-testing ====
  
It's special because it contains packages that are candidates for the [core] or [extra] repositories.
+
This repository is similar to the ''testing'' repository, but for packages that are candidates for the ''community'' repository.
  
New packages go into [testing] if:
+
==== multilib-testing ====
  
* They are expected to break something on update and need to be tested first.
+
This repository is similar to the ''testing'' repository, but for packages that are candidates for the ''multilib'' repository.
  
* They require other packages to be rebuilt. In this case, all packages that need to be rebuilt are put into [testing] first and when all rebuilds are done, they are moved back to the other repositories.
+
==== gnome-unstable ====
  
This is the only repository that can have name collisions with any of the other official repositories. If enabled, it has to be the first repository listed in your {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} file.
+
This repository contains the latest version of the [[GNOME]] desktop environment, before it moves to the main ''testing'' repository.
  
Note that it's not for the "newest of the new" package versions. Part of its purpose is to hold package updates that have the potential to '''cause system breakage''', either by being part of the [core] set of packages, or by being critical in other ways. As such, users of the [testing] repository are '''strongly encouraged''' to subscribe to the [https://mailman.archlinux.org/mailman/listinfo/arch-dev-public arch-dev-public] mailing list, watch the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewforum.php?id=49 <nowiki>[testing]</nowiki> Repository Forum], and to [https://bugs.archlinux.org/ report] all bugs.
+
To enable it, add the following lines to {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}. The ''gnome-unstable'' entry should be first in the list of repositories (''i.e.'', above the ''testing'' entry).
 +
 
 +
[gnome-unstable]
 +
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
 +
 
 +
Please report packaging related bugs in our [https://bugs.archlinux.org/ bug tracker], while anything else should be reported upstream to [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/ GNOME Bugzilla].
 +
 
 +
==== kde-unstable ====
 +
 
 +
This repository contains the latest ''beta'' or ''Release Candidate'' of [[KDE]] Plasma and Applications.
 +
 
 +
To enable it, add the following lines to {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}. The ''kde-unstable'' entry should be first in the list of repositories (''i.e.'', above the ''testing'' entry).
 +
 
 +
[kde-unstable]
 +
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
 +
 
 +
Make sure [[KDE#Bugs|you make bug reports]] if you find any problems.
 +
 
 +
==== Disabling testing repositories ====
 +
 
 +
If you enabled testing repositories, but later on decided to disable them, you should:
 +
 
 +
# Remove (comment out) them from {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}
 +
# Perform a {{ic|# pacman -Syyuu}} to "rollback" your updates from these repositories.
 +
 
 +
The second item is optional, but keep it in mind if you notice any problems.
 +
 
 +
== Historical background ==
  
If you enable [testing], you must also enable [community-testing].
+
Most of the repository splits are for historical reasons. Originally, when Arch Linux was used by very few users, there was only one repository known as '''official''' (now ''core''). At the time, ''official'' basically contained Judd Vinet's preferred applications. It was designed to contain one of each "type" of program -- one DE, one major browser, etc.
  
== [community-testing] ==
+
There were users back then that did not like Judd's selection, so since the [[Arch Build System]] is so easy to use, they created packages of their own. These packages went into a repository called '''unofficial''', and were maintained by developers other than Judd. Eventually, the two repositories were both considered equally supported by the developers, so the names ''official'' and ''unofficial'' no longer reflected their true purpose. They were subsequently renamed to '''current''' and '''extra''' sometime near the release version 0.5.
  
This repository is like the [testing] repository, but for packages that are candidates for the [community] repository.
+
Shortly after the 2007.8.1 release, ''current'' was renamed '''core''' in order to prevent confusion over what exactly it contains. The repositories are now more or less equal in the eyes of the developers and the community, but ''core'' does have some differences. The main distinction is that packages used for Installation CDs and release snapshots are taken only from ''core''. This repository still gives a complete Linux system, though it may not be the Linux system you want.
  
If you enable it, you must also enable [testing].
+
Some time around 0.5/0.6, there were a lot of packages that the developers did not want to maintain. [https://www.archlinux.org/fellows/#jason Jason Chu] set up the "Trusted User Repositories", which were unofficial repositories in which trusted users could place packages they had created. There was a '''staging''' repository where packages could be promoted into the official repositories by one of the Arch Linux developers, but other than this, the developers and trusted users were more or less distinct.
  
== [multilib-testing] ==
+
This worked for a while, but not when trusted users got bored with their repositories, and not when untrusted users wanted to share their own packages. This led to the development of the [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR]. The TUs were conglomerated into a more closely knit group, and they now collectively maintain the '''community''' repository. The Trusted Users are still a separate group from the Arch Linux developers, and there is not a lot of communication between them. However, popular packages are still promoted from ''community'' to ''extra'' on occasion. The [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR] also allows untrusted users to submit PKGBUILDs.
  
This repository is like the [testing] repository, but for packages that are candidates for the [multilib] repository.
+
After a kernel in ''core'' [https://www.archlinux.org/news/please-avoid-kernel-261614-1/ broke many user systems], the "core signoff policy" was introduced. Since then, all package updates for ''core'' need to go through a '''testing''' repository first, and only after multiple signoffs from other developers are they allowed to move. Over time, it was noticed that various ''core'' packages had low usage, and user signoffs or even lack of bug reports became informally accepted as criteria to accept such packages.
  
If you enable it, you must also enable [testing].
+
In late 2009/the beginning of 2010, with the advent of some new filesystems and the desire to support them during installation, along with the realization that ''core'' was never clearly defined (just "important packages, handpicked by developers"), the repository received a more accurate description.

Latest revision as of 13:15, 18 June 2016

A software repository is a storage location from which software packages are retrieved for installation.

Arch Linux official repositories contain essential and popular software, readily accessible via pacman. They are maintained by package maintainers.

Packages in the official repositories are constantly upgraded: when a package is upgraded, its old version is removed from the repository. There are no major Arch releases: each package is upgraded as new versions become available from upstream sources. Each repository is always coherent, i.e. the packages that it hosts always have reciprocally compatible versions.

Repositories

core

This repository can be found in .../core/os/ on your favorite mirror.

core contains packages for:

as well as dependencies of the above (not necessarily makedepends)

core has fairly strict quality requirements. Developers/users need to signoff on updates before package updates are accepted. For packages with low usage, a reasonable exposure is enough: informing people about update, requesting signoffs, keeping in testing up to a week depending on the severity of the change, lack of outstanding bug reports, along with the implicit signoff of the package maintainer.

Note: To create a local repository with packages from core (or other repositories) without an internet connection see Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick.

extra

This repository can be found in .../extra/os/ on your favorite mirror.

extra contains all packages that do not fit in core. Example: Xorg, window managers, web browsers, media players, tools for working with languages such as Python and Ruby, and a lot more.

community

This repository can be found in .../community/os/ on your favorite mirror.

community contains packages that have been adopted by Trusted Users from the Arch User Repository. Some of these packages may eventually make the transition to the core or extra repositories as the developers consider them crucial to the distribution.

multilib

This repository can be found in .../multilib/os/ on your favorite mirror.

multilib contains 32 bit software and libraries that can be used to run and build 32 bit applications on 64 bit installs (e.g. wine, skype, etc).

For more information, see Multilib.

testing

Warning: Be careful when enabling the testing repositories. Your system may break after performing an update. Only experienced users who know how to deal with potential system breakage should use it.

This repository can be found in .../testing/os/ on your favorite mirror.

testing contains packages that are candidates for the core or extra repositories.

New packages go into testing if:

  • They are destined for the core repo. Everything in core must go through testing
  • They are expected to break something on update and need to be tested first.

testing is the only repository that can have name collisions with any of the other official repositories. If enabled, it has to be the first repository listed in your /etc/pacman.conf file.

Note: testing is not for the "newest of the new" package versions. Part of its purpose is to hold package updates that have the potential to break the system, either by being part of the core set of packages, or by being critical in other ways. As such, users of testing are strongly encouraged to subscribe to the arch-dev-public mailing list, watch the testing repository forum, and to report all bugs.

If you enable testing, you must also enable community-testing. If you enable any other testing repository listed in the following subsections, you must also enable testing.

community-testing

This repository is similar to the testing repository, but for packages that are candidates for the community repository.

multilib-testing

This repository is similar to the testing repository, but for packages that are candidates for the multilib repository.

gnome-unstable

This repository contains the latest version of the GNOME desktop environment, before it moves to the main testing repository.

To enable it, add the following lines to /etc/pacman.conf. The gnome-unstable entry should be first in the list of repositories (i.e., above the testing entry).

[gnome-unstable]
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

Please report packaging related bugs in our bug tracker, while anything else should be reported upstream to GNOME Bugzilla.

kde-unstable

This repository contains the latest beta or Release Candidate of KDE Plasma and Applications.

To enable it, add the following lines to /etc/pacman.conf. The kde-unstable entry should be first in the list of repositories (i.e., above the testing entry).

[kde-unstable]
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

Make sure you make bug reports if you find any problems.

Disabling testing repositories

If you enabled testing repositories, but later on decided to disable them, you should:

  1. Remove (comment out) them from /etc/pacman.conf
  2. Perform a # pacman -Syyuu to "rollback" your updates from these repositories.

The second item is optional, but keep it in mind if you notice any problems.

Historical background

Most of the repository splits are for historical reasons. Originally, when Arch Linux was used by very few users, there was only one repository known as official (now core). At the time, official basically contained Judd Vinet's preferred applications. It was designed to contain one of each "type" of program -- one DE, one major browser, etc.

There were users back then that did not like Judd's selection, so since the Arch Build System is so easy to use, they created packages of their own. These packages went into a repository called unofficial, and were maintained by developers other than Judd. Eventually, the two repositories were both considered equally supported by the developers, so the names official and unofficial no longer reflected their true purpose. They were subsequently renamed to current and extra sometime near the release version 0.5.

Shortly after the 2007.8.1 release, current was renamed core in order to prevent confusion over what exactly it contains. The repositories are now more or less equal in the eyes of the developers and the community, but core does have some differences. The main distinction is that packages used for Installation CDs and release snapshots are taken only from core. This repository still gives a complete Linux system, though it may not be the Linux system you want.

Some time around 0.5/0.6, there were a lot of packages that the developers did not want to maintain. Jason Chu set up the "Trusted User Repositories", which were unofficial repositories in which trusted users could place packages they had created. There was a staging repository where packages could be promoted into the official repositories by one of the Arch Linux developers, but other than this, the developers and trusted users were more or less distinct.

This worked for a while, but not when trusted users got bored with their repositories, and not when untrusted users wanted to share their own packages. This led to the development of the AUR. The TUs were conglomerated into a more closely knit group, and they now collectively maintain the community repository. The Trusted Users are still a separate group from the Arch Linux developers, and there is not a lot of communication between them. However, popular packages are still promoted from community to extra on occasion. The AUR also allows untrusted users to submit PKGBUILDs.

After a kernel in core broke many user systems, the "core signoff policy" was introduced. Since then, all package updates for core need to go through a testing repository first, and only after multiple signoffs from other developers are they allowed to move. Over time, it was noticed that various core packages had low usage, and user signoffs or even lack of bug reports became informally accepted as criteria to accept such packages.

In late 2009/the beginning of 2010, with the advent of some new filesystems and the desire to support them during installation, along with the realization that core was never clearly defined (just "important packages, handpicked by developers"), the repository received a more accurate description.