Difference between revisions of "OpenLDAP Authentication"

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(moved the ssl instructions for slapd to the general OpenLDAP article)
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  ldapsearch -x -b 'dc=example,dc=org' '(objectclass=*)'
 
  ldapsearch -x -b 'dc=example,dc=org' '(objectclass=*)'
 
=== Configure TLS Encryption ===
 
 
It's a good idea to configure TLS to encrypt the exchange of information between client and server. This way passwords, which are normally sent plain-text, cannot be easily sniffed from the wire. In order to use TLS, we must first create a certificate. You can have a certificate signed, or create your own Certificate Authority (CA), but for our purposed, a self-signed certificate will suffice. '''IMPORTANT:''' OpenLDAP cannot use a certificate that has a password associated to it.
 
 
To create a ''self-signed'' certificate, type the following:
 
 
openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -out slapdcert.pem -keyout slapdkey.pem -days 365
 
 
You will be prompted for information about your ldap server. Much of the information can be left blank. The most important information is the common name. This must be set to the DNS name of your ldap server. If your LDAP server's IP address resolves to example.org but its server certificate shows a CN of bad.example.org, LDAP clients will reject the certificate and will be unable to negotiate TLS connections (apparently the results are wholly unpredictable).
 
 
Now that the certificate files have been created copy them to {{ic|/etc/openldap/ssl/}} (if this directory doesn't exist create it) and secure them. '''IMPORTANT:''' slapdcert.pem must be world readable because it contains the public key. slapdkey.pem on the other hand should only be readable for the ldap user for security reasons:
 
 
cp slapdcert.pem slapdkey.pem /etc/openldap/ssl/
 
chown ldap slapdkey.pem
 
chmod 400 slapdkey.pem
 
chmod 444 slapdcert.pem
 
 
Edit the daemon configuration file ({{ic|/etc/openldap/slapd.conf}}) to tell LDAP where the certificate files reside by adding the following lines:
 
 
# Certificate/SSL Section
 
TLSCipherSuite HIGH:MEDIUM:+SSLv2
 
TLSCertificateFile /etc/openldap/ssl/slapdcert.pem
 
TLSCertificateKeyFile /etc/openldap/ssl/slapdkey.pem
 
 
The TLSCipherSuite specifies a list of OpenSSL ciphers from which slapd will choose when negotiating TLS connections, in decreasing order of preference. In addition to those specific ciphers, you can use any of the wildcards supported by OpenSSL. '''NOTE:''' HIGH, MEDIUM, and +SSLv2 are all wildcards.
 
 
To see which ciphers are supported by your local OpenSSL installation, type the following:
 
 
openssl ciphers -v ALL
 
 
In order to tell OpenLDAP to start using encryption, edit /etc/conf.d/slapd, uncomment the SLAPD_SERVICES line and set it to the following:
 
 
SLAPD_SERVICES="ldaps:///"
 
 
This will cause OpenLDAP to accept encrypted. '''IMPORTANT:''' If you created a self-signed certificate above be sure to add the following line to /etc/openldap/ldap.conf or you won't be able connect to the server to test it:
 
 
TLS_REQCERT allow
 
 
Restart the server:
 
 
/etc/rc.d/slapd restart
 
 
Test that the server is encrypting traffic run the following command:
 
 
ldapsearch -x -H ldaps://example.org -b 'dc=example,dc=org' '(objectclass=*)'
 
  
  

Revision as of 23:40, 4 December 2012

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with LDAP Authentication.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: please use the second argument of the template to provide more detailed indications. (Discuss in Talk:OpenLDAP Authentication#)

Introduction and Concepts

This is a guide on how to configure an Archlinux installation to authenticate against an OpenLDAP server.The openldap backend can be either local (installed on the same computer) or network (i.e in a lab environment where central authentication is desired). The guide will be divided in two parts. The first part deals with how to setup OpenLDAP locally and the second with how to setup the NSS and PAM modules required for the authentication scheme to work. If you just want to configure Arch to authenticated against an already excisting LDAP server then you can skip to the second part.

OpenLDAP

OpenLDAP is an open-source server implementation of the LDAP protocol. It is mainly used as an authentication backend to various services (the most famous one being Samba, which is used to emulate a domain controller) and basically holds the user data. The closest analogue to real life, would be the telephone directory. Another generalised explanation of what an LDAP server does is that it is a database (which it basically is, but it is not relational) which is optimised for accessing the data and not reading them.

Commands relate to OpenLDAP that begin with ldap (like ldapsearch) are client-side utilities while commands that begin with slap (like slapcat) are server-side. Arch packages both in the openldap package, so you need to install it regardless of o local or network OpenLDAP install.

NSS and PAM

NSS (which stands for Name Service Switch) is a system mechanism to configure different sources for common configuration databases. For example, /etc/passwd is a file type source for the passwd database.

PAM (which stands for Pluggable Authentication Module) is a machanism Linux (and most *nixes) uses to extend it's authentication schemes based on different plugins.

So to summarize, we need to configure NSS to use the OpenLDAP server as a source for the passwd shadow and other configuration databases and then configure PAM to use these sources to authenticate it's users.

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: (Discuss in Talk:OpenLDAP Authentication#)

OpenLDAP Setup

Installation

You can read about installation and basic configuration in the OpenLDAP article. After you have completed that, return here.

Populate LDAP Tree with Base Data

Create a file called base.ldif with the following text:

# example.org
dn: dc=example,dc=org
objectClass: dcObject
objectClass: organization
o: Example Organization
dc: example

# Manager, example.org
dn: cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=org
cn: Manager
description: LDAP administrator
roleOccupant: dc=example,dc=org
objectClass: organizationalRole
objectClass: top

# People, example.org
dn: ou=People,dc=example,dc=org
ou: People
objectClass: top
objectClass: organizationalUnit

# Group, example.org
dn: ou=Group,dc=example,dc=org
ou: Group
objectClass: top
objectClass: organizationalUnit

Add it to your OpenLDAP Tree:

ldapadd -x -D "cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=org" -W -f base.ldif

Test to make sure the data was imported:

ldapsearch -x -b 'dc=example,dc=org' '(objectclass=*)'


Client Setup

OpenLDAP

Before you begin setting up PAM and NSS for ldap authentication, you should try to check if the LDAP server is available. You can do this easily with ldapsearch.

You can search an LDAP server with the following command:

ldapsearch -x -H <URL> -b <BASE>
Tip: -x is required in all client commands because SASL authentication probably hasn't been configured.

You can add the URL and BASE settings to /etc/openldap/ldap.conf in order to avoid writing the everytime. All client-side ldap utilities use this file to read some general variables.

Warning: If you created a self-signed certificate above you need to also add the following line or you will not be able connect to the server: TLS_REQCERT allow

NSS_LDAP

Install the nss_ldap module from the official repositories.

Edit /etc/nss_ldap.conf:

host <SERVER_IP>
base dc=example,dc=org
rootbinddn cn=admin,dc=example,dc=org
port 636
pam_login_attribute uid
pam_template_login_attribute uid
nss_base_passwd ou=People,dc=example,dc=org?one
nss_base_shadow ou=People,dc=example,dc=org?one
nss_base_group  ou=Group,dc=example,dc=org?one
ssl start_tls
ssl on

# This is only needed if you're using a self-signed certificate.
tls_checkpeer no

Edit /etc/nsswitch.conf:

passwd: files ldap
group: files ldap
shadow: files ldap

PAM_LDAP

Install the pam_ldap module from the official repositories.

Edit /etc/pam_ldap.conf:

host <SERVER_IP>
base dc=example,dc=org
rootbinddn cn=admin,dc=example,dc=org
port 636
pam_login_attribute uid
pam_template_login_attribute uid
nss_base_passwd ou=People,dc=example,dc=org?one
nss_base_shadow ou=People,dc=example,dc=org?one
nss_base_group  ou=Group,dc=example,dc=org?one
ssl start_tls
ssl on

# This is only needed if your using a self-signed certificate.
tls_checkpeer no

Edit /etc/pam.d/login:

auth            requisite       pam_securetty.so
auth            requisite       pam_nologin.so
auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so              
auth            required        pam_env.so
auth            required        pam_unix.so nullok try_first_pass
account         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
account         required        pam_access.so
account         required        pam_unix.so
session         required        pam_motd.so
session         required        pam_limits.so
session         optional        pam_mail.so dir=/var/spool/mail standard
session         optional        pam_lastlog.so
session         required        pam_unix.so

Edit /etc/pam.d/passwd:

password        sufficient      pam_ldap.so
password        required        pam_unix.so shadow md5 nullok

Edit /etc/pam.d/shadow:

auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so
auth            sufficient      pam_rootok.so
auth            required        pam_unix.so
account         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
account         required        pam_unix.so
session         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
session         required        pam_unix.so
password        sufficient      pam_ldap.so
password        required        pam_permit.so

edit /etc/pam.d/su:

auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so
auth            sufficient      pam_rootok.so
auth            required        pam_unix.so use_first_pass
account         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
account         required        pam_unix.so
session         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
session         required        pam_unix.so

edit /etc/pam.d/sshd:

auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so
auth            required        pam_securetty.so        #Disable remote root
auth            required        pam_unix.so try_first_pass
auth            required        pam_nologin.so
auth            required        pam_env.so
account         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
account         required        pam_unix.so
account         required        pam_time.so
password        sufficient      pam_ldap.so
password        required        pam_unix.so
session         required        pam_unix_session.so
session         required        pam_limits.so

edit /etc/pam.d/other:

auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so
auth            required        pam_unix.so
account         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
account         required        pam_unix.so
password        sufficient      pam_ldap.so
password        required        pam_unix.so
session         required        pam_unix.so

Name Service Cache Daemon

READ THIS FIRST: [NSCD Bugged in Arch Linux]

Fix nscd:

mkdir -p /var/db/nscd/
mkdir -p /var/run/nscd/

Run nscd:

/etc/rc.d/nscd start

Links and Resources

One of the best OpenLDAP clients: [phpLDAPadmin]

Debian OpenLDAP setup: [Using LDAP for single authentication]

How to integrate OpenLDAP for MacOSX, Windows and Linux: [Heterogeneous Network Authentication Introduction]