Open Sound System (Español)

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El Open Sound System es una arquitectura de sonido alternativa para sistemas compatibles con UNIX y POSIX. OSS versión 3 era el sistema original de sonido para Linux y estaba incluido en el kernel hasta que fue suplantado por ALSA en 2002, el año en que OSS versión 4 se convirtió en un producto propietario. Luego, OSSv4 volvió a ser software libre en 2007 cuando 4Front Technologies liberó el código bajo la licencia GPL.

Este artículo muestra como instalar y configurar OSS en su ordenador.

Comparación con ALSA

OSS tiene algunos ventajas y desventajas comparado con ALSA (Arquitectura avanzada de sonido de Linux).

Ventajas de OSS (usuarios)

  • Incluye un mixer de sonido transparente como el dmix de ALSA, pero en espacio de kernel, lo que significa que muchas aplicaciones pueden acceder al aparato de audio en el mismo momento y con mayor rendimiento que ALSA.
  • Control sobre el nivel del volumen de cada aplicación
  • Algunos aparatos viejos tienen mejor soporte, como Creative X-Fi.
  • El tiempo de respuesta inicial en las aplicaciones, en la mayoría de los casos, es mejor.
  • Mejor soporte para las aplicaciones que utilizan OSS API. Muchas aplicaciones todavía usan este API, y no necesitan emulación como con ALSA.

Ventajas de OSS (Productores)

  • El API es más limpio, más fácil de usar y también mejor documentado.
  • Suporte para controlador en espacio del usuario.
  • Accesibilidad; OSS también funciona con BSDs y Solaris.
  • Portabilidad; OSS es más fácil de portar para otros sistemas operativos.

Ventajas de ALSA

  • Mejor soporte para aparatos de audio USB. Con OSS la producción de sonido es experimental y la introducción de sonido no está soportada.
  • Soporte para aparatos de audio Bluetooth.
  • Soporte para AC'97 y HDAudio dial-up soft-modems como Si3055.
  • Mejor soporte para aparatos MIDI. Con OSS tendrá que usar software sintetizador como Timidity o Fluidsynth.
  • Soporte para suspender. OSS y los programas asociados tendrán que cerrarse todos antes de suspender.
  • Mejor soporte para detección de clavijera. En algunas tarjetas madres HD, usuarios tendrán que apagar el altavoz al introducir los audifonos.

Instalacion

Instala OSS con pacman:

# pacman -S oss

Esto instalará los archivos de OSS, e iniciará el programa de instalación de OSS que va a incapacitar temporalmente los modulos de ALSA, después instalará los modulos de OSS para el kernel. Pero, como ALSA es activado durante el inicio del sistema, tendrá que incapacitarlo para que no impida a OSS el arranque. Eso se hace al editar Template:Filename añadiendo:

MODULES=(!soundcore ...

Ahora añade el modulo de OSS:

MODULES=(!soundcore ... oss)

Si su usuario no toma parte en el grupo de audio, añádalo:

# gpasswd -a usuario audio

Ponga OSS en marcha:

# /etc/rc.d/oss start

En caso de que OSS no pueda detectar su aparado de sonido, corra:

# ossdetect -v

Después use Template:Codeline para reactivarlo.

Comprobación

¡Atención! El nivel inicial del volumen es muy alto. Por eso no use audífonos y, si es posible, baje físicamente el nivel del altavoz antes de ejecutar la prueba.

Compruebe OSS corriendo:

$ osstest

Debería oír música durante la prueba. Si no hay audio, trate de ajustar el nivel del volumen o mire la sección con problemas (Nota del traductor: troubleshooting -> problemas?)

Vea qué aparatos han sido detectados corriendo:

$ ossinfo

Debería ver su aparatos bajo una de las secciones Device objects o Audio Devices. Si el aparato que quiere utilizar no está más abajo en la lista, tiene que editar la configuración en /usr/lib/oss/etc/installed_drivers. Es necesario que el driver del aparato que quiere usar esté en los topes de la lista. También es necesario hacer soundoff y soundon para reiniciar OSS. Si eso no produce el efecto deseado, comente todos los conductores salvo los preferidos.

Control del volumen

Para controlar el nivel del volumen de los diferentes aparatos, se tiene que ajustar niveles de los mixers. El mixer de la consola se llama Template:Codeline. Es muy parecido al audio mixer de BSD (mixerctl). El mixer gráfico se llama Template:Codeline y exige instalar el paquete Template:Package Official.

Controles primarios de ossxmix:

 / High Definition Audio ALC262 \    --------------------------------> 1
/________________________________\________________________________
|                                                                 \
| [x] vmix0-enable [vmix0-rate: 48.000kHz]      vmix0-channels    |--> 2
|                                               [ Stereo [v] ]    |
|                                                                 |
|  __codec1______________________________________________________ |
| |  _jack______________________________________________________ ||--> 3
| | |  _int-speaker_________________   _green_________________  |||
| | | |                             | |                       | |||
| | | |  _mode_____ | |             | |  _mode_____   | |     | |||
| | | | [ mix [v] ] o o [x] [ ]mute | | [ mix  [v] ]  o o [x] | |||
| | | |             | |             | |               | |     | |||
| | | |_____________________________| |_______________________| |||
| | |___________________________________________________________|||
| |______________________________________________________________||
| ___vmix0______________________________________________________  |
| |  __mocp___  O O   _firefox_  O O  __pcm7___  O O            | |--> 4
| | |         | O O  |         | x x |         | O O            | |
| | | | |     | x O  | | |     | x x | | |     | O O            | |
| | | o o [x] | x x  | o o [x] | x x | o o [x] | O O            | |
| | | | |     | x x  | | |     | x x | | |     | O O            | |
| | |_________| x x  |_________| x x |_________| O O            | |
| |_____________________________________________________________| |
|_________________________________________________________________|
  1. Una pestaña por cada aparato de sonido.
  2. La configuración especifica del vmix (virtual mixer) aparece abajo. Eso incluye Sampling rate y prioridad del mixer.
  3. Estas son las configuraciones (introducción y producción) de la clavijera de tu aparato de sonido. Cada controlador del mixer que está mostrado aquí lo provee su tarjeta de sonido.
  4. Aplicación vmix mixer controlados y niveles de sonido. Si la aplicación no produce sonido por el momento, será etiquetada como pcm08, pcm09, etcétera, pero en cuanto la aplicación produce sonido, aparecerá el nombre.

Color Definitions

For high definition (HD) audio, Template:Codeline will color jack configurations by their pre-defined jack colors:

Color Type Connector
green front channels (stereo output) 3.5mm TRS
black rear channels (stereo output) 3.5mm TRS
grey side channels (stereo output) 3.5mm TRS
gold center and subwoofer (dual output) 3.5mm TRS
blue line level (stereo input) 3.5mm TRS
pink microphone (mono input) 3.5mm TS

Saving Mixer Levels

Los niveles del mixer son guardados cuando apagas la computadora. Si quieres guardar los niveles inmediatamente, haz como root:

# savemixer

Template:Codeline puede ser usando para guardar los niveles del mixer en un archivo con el sufijo Template:Codeline y cambiado o restaurado con el prefijo Template:Codeline .

Other Mixers

Otros mezcladores que tienen soporte para OSS:

  • GNOME - Gnome volume control
  • KDE - Kmix - el soporte OSS esta siendo desarrollado.

Configuring Applications for OSS

Skype

El paquete skype solo incluye soporte para ALSA. Para obtener un Skype OSS-capaz, instale el paquete skype-oss:

# pacman -S skype-oss

Si estás usando x86_64, puedes obtener el paquete bin32-skype-oss desde AUR.

Wine

  • Run winecfg.
$ winecfg
  • Go to the Audio tab.
  • Select OSS Driver.

Gajim

By default Gajim uses Template:Codeline to play a sound. To change this go in Advanced Settings and search for the Template:Codeline variable. The ossplay program included in the oss package is a good replacement:

Template:Codeline

MOC

To use MOC with OSS v4.1 you must change section OSSMixerDevice to OSSMixerDevice==/dev/ossmix in your config (located in /home/yourusername/.moc). And now MOC should work with OSS v4.1. Or you can compile moc-svn package from AUR (he got support for new vmix). For issue with interface change OSSMixerChannel===to OSSMixerChannel===Any channel and after start mocp press w (change to sofware mixex) that will help and you can change the volume power.

Applications that use Gstreamer

Remove pulseaudio and gstreamer*-pulse programs and libraries.

To change the gstreamer setting to output the sound to OSS instead of the default ALSA, run:

gstreamer-properties

Change the Default Output plugin to custom and the change the pipeline to:

oss4sink

For the input:

oss4src
Note: It's not certain that the input will sound better with oss4src compared to osssrc, so change this only if it improves your input sound. < confirmation on this please >

If you are using phonon with the gstreamer backend you will need to set the environmental variable. To add to your current user:

export PHONON_GST_AUDIOSINK=oss4sink

Add this to your Template:Filename to be loaded on login.

Firefox >=3.5

Firefox 3.5 introduces the <video> and <audio> tag support and can play ogg media out of the box. However, it currently can't be compiled with ALSA and OSS support at the same time. So you need to install the xulrunner-oss package.

1. Stop firefox.
2. Remove the xulrunner package without dependency check: sudo pacman -Rd xulrunner
3. Install xulrunner-oss package from AUR using yaourt or ABS.
4. Start firefox.

Mplayer

If you are using gui (smplayer etc.) you will find the oss output at the audio settings. Using on cli you should specify the sound output: mplayer -ao oss /some/file/to/play.mkv If you don't want to brother typing it over and over again add "ao=oss" to your config file. (/home/$USER/.mplayer/config)

Other applications

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting HDAudio devices

Understanding why problems arise

If you have a HDAudio sound device, it's very likely that you will have to adjust some mixer settings before your sound works.

HDAudio devices are very powerful in the sense that they can contain a lot of small circuits (called widgets) that can be adjusted by software at any time. These controls are exposed to the mixer, and they can be used, for example, to turn the earphone jack into a sound input jack instead of a sound output jack.

However, there is a side effect, mainly because the HDAudio standard is more flexible than it perhaps should be, and because the vendors often only care to get their official drivers working.

Then, when using HDAudio devices, you often find disorganized mixer controls, that doesn't work at all by default, and you are forced to try every mixer control combination, until it works.

How to solve

Open ossxmix and try to change every mixer control in the middle area, that contains the sound card specific controls, as explained in the previous "The mixer" section.

You'll probably want to setup a program to record/play continously in the background (e.g. Template:Codeline for recording or Template:Codeline for playing), while changing mixer settings in ossxmix in the foreground.

  • Raise every volume control slider.
  • In each option box, try to change the selected option, trying all the possible combinations.
  • If you get noise, try to lower and/or mute some volume controls, until you find the source of the noise.

Please note again that you do not need to change any controls in the top area nor in the bottom area, as they are virtual vmix-related mixer controls.

  • Editing Template:Codeline uncommenting and changing hdaudio_noskip=0 to a value from 0-7 can give you more jack options in ossxmix

I had to edit mine to hdaudio_noskip=7 for my sub/rear speaker to work on my laptop, restart oss for the changes to take effect Template:Codeline

MMS sound cracking in totem

If your stream sounds with cracks or strange noise in totem like it did with me then you could try to play it with another backend like ffmpeg (mplayer). That "fixed" the issue for me. This will not fix the issue that somehow pops up in gstreamer when playing MMS streams but it will give you the option to play it with good sound quality. Playing it in mplayer is simple:

# mplayer mmsh://yourstreamurl

Microphone playing through output channels

OSS by default plays back the microphone through the speakers. To disable this in ossxmix find the misc section. Check off every "input-mix-mute" to disable this.

Troubleshooting other issues

  • If you get distorted sound, try lowering some volume control sliders.
  • If you need to change the default sound card, look at here.
  • If you have another issues, try searching or asking for help at the 4front forums.

Tips and tricks

Using multimedia keys with OSS

An easy way to mute/unmute and increase/decrease the volume is to use the Template:Codeline script available in AUR.

Once you installed it try to toggle the sound:

$ ossvol -t

Type Template:Codeline for the other commands.

If you don't know how to assign commands to your multimedia keys, see Extra Keyboard Keys.

Template:Codeline troubleshooting

If you get an error like:

Bad mixer control name(987) 'vol'

you need to edit the script (Template:Filename) and change the value of the Template:Codeline variable which is at the beginning of the script. For example mine is Template:Codeline.

  • Note if you are using xbindkeys for your multimedia keys adding this
"ossmix vmix0-outvol -- +1"

raise volume

"ossmix vmix0-outvol -- -1"

lower volume

to the raise/lower volume section of your .xbindkeysrc file is an easy way to adjust the volume

Changing the Sample Rate

Changing the output sample rate is not obvious at first. Sample rates can only be changed by the superuser and vmix must be unused by any programs when a change is requested. Before you follow any of these steps, ensure you are going through a receiver/amplifier and using quality speakers and not simply computer speakers. If you are only using computer speakers, don't bother changing anything here as you won't notice a difference.

By default the sample rate is 48000hz. There are several conditions in which you may want to change this. This all depends on your usage patterns. You want the sample rate you are using to match the media you use the most. If your computer has to change the sampling rate of the media to suit the hardware it is likely, though not guaranteed that you will have a loss in audio quality. This is most noticable in downsampling (ie. 96000hz → 48000hz). There is an article about this issue in "Stereophile" which was discussed on Apple's "CoreAudio API" mailing list if you wish to learn more about this issue.

Some example sample rates:

  • 44100hz - Sample rate of standard Red Book audio cds.
  • 88000hz - Sample rate of SACD high definition audio discs/downloads. It is rare that your motherboard will support this sample rate.
  • 96000hz - Sample rate of most high definition audio downloads. If your motherboard is an AC'97 motherboard, this is likely to be your highest bitrate.
  • 192000hz - Sample rate of BluRay, and some (very few) high definition downloads. Support for external audio reciever equipment is limited to high end audio. Not all motherboards support this. An example of a motherboard chipset that would support this includes Intel HDA audio.

To check what your sample rate is currently set to:

  1. Run "ossmix | grep rate".

You are likely to see "vmix0-rate <decimal value> (currently 48000) (Read-only)".

If you do not see a "vmix0-rate" (or "vmix1-rate", etc.) being outputted, than it probably means that vmix is disabled. In that case, OSS will use the rate requested by the program which uses the device, so this section doesn't apply. Exception: envy24(ht) cards have a setting envy24.rate which has a similiar function (see "oss_envy24" manpage). You can follow these steps, but at step 2, change with ossmix the value of "envy24.rate" as well.

Steps to affect the change:

  1. First, make sure your card is able to use the new rate. Run "ossinfo -v2" and see if the wanted rate is in the "Native sample rates" output.
  2. As root, run "/usr/lib/oss/scripts/killprocs.sh". Be aware, this will close any program that currently has an open sound channel (examples being media players, Firefox as of 3.5 if you have xulrunner-oss installed, and the gnome volume control).
  3. After all programs occupying vmix are terminated, run as root: "vmixctl rate /dev/dsp 96000" replacing the rate with your desired sample rate.
  4. Run "ossmix | grep rate" and check for "vmix0-rate <decimal value> (currently 96000) (Read-only)" to see if you were successful.

Changing the Default Sound Output

When running osstest, the first test passes for the first channel, but not for the stereo or right channel, it sounds distorted/hisses. If this is what your sound is like, then it's set to the wrong output.

      *** Scanning sound adapter #-1 ***
      /dev/oss/oss_hdaudio0/pcm0 (audio engine 0): HD Audio play front
      - Performing audio playback test... 
      <left> OK <right> OK <stereo> OK <measured srate 47991.00 Hz (-0.02%)> 

The left sounded good, the right and stereo were the distorted ones.

Let the test continue until you get a working output:

      /dev/oss/oss_hdaudio0/spdout0 (audio engine 5): HD Audio play spdif-out 
      - Performing audio playback test... 
      <left> OK <right> OK <stereo> OK <measured srate 47991.00 Hz (-0.02%)> 

If this passed the test on all left, right and stereo, proceed to next step.

So from here: Changing_the_default_sound_output you get the command to change the default output; change according to what works for you

      sudo ln -sf /dev/oss/oss_hdaudio0/spdout0 /dev/dsp_multich

With 5.1 surround, chose dsp_multichannel; with 2 channel, dsp should work.

Creative Sound Blaster X-Fi Surround 5.1 SB1090 USB

This information is completely from 4front-tech.com ; courtesy of kristian and Maxa. Thanks!!

It's surprising to learn that the external card does not work just because of a missing true return value in the function write_control_value(...) in ossusb_audio.c.

To fix this, a recompile of oss is nessasary, for now.

1. Grab the latest oss from the Arch Repo

http://repos.archlinux.org/wsvn/community/oss/repos/community-x86_64/

2. Extract it

3. cd to the folder, I renamed the folder to oss

4. run makepkg --nobuild

5. cd to src/kernel/drv/oss_usb/ ; edit the ossusb_audio.c ; add a Return 1 ; should look like so and SAVE

  static int
 write_control_value (ossusb_devc * devc, udi_endpoint_handle_t * endpoint,
            int ctl, int l, unsigned int v)
 {
   return 1;

6. do a makepkg --noextract

Now you must install the package with pacman -U ; remove oss first if already installed (pacman -Rd oss)

A simple systray applet

Want a applet to control volume like in GNOME? Form here I got a usable one.

Download this script and rename whatever you want, e.g.: ossvolctl. run the following command:

$chmod +x ossvolctl
#cp ossvolctl /usr/bin/ossvolctl

or

#install -Dm755 ossvolctl /usr/bin/ossvolctl

Start ossxmix docked to systray on startup

KDE 4

Create an application launcher file named ossxmix.desktop in you local application launchers directory (~/.local/share/applications/ then enter:

[Desktop Entry]
Name=Open Sound System Mixer
GenericName=Audio Mixer
Exec=ossxmix -b
Icon=audio-card
Categories=Application;GTK;AudioVideo;Player;
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Encoding=UTF-8

To add it to autostart when loading the desktop environment:

System Settings > Advanced tab > Autostart. Then click add program and choose it from the 'Multimedia' list.

Gnome

  • As Root create a file /usr/local/bin/ossxmix_bg with the following content:
#!/bin/bash
exec /usr/bin/ossxmix -b

Goto System > Preferences > Start Up Applications

  • Click Add, Type OSSMIX in Name field and /usr/local/bin/ossxmix_bg in Command field then click Add button.
  • Login and Logout to see the changes.

Record sound output from a program

Suspend and Hibernation

OSS does not automatically support suspend meaning that OSS must be manually stopped prior to suspending or hibernating.

OSS provides soundon and soundoff to enable and disable OSS, although any processes that use sound must be terminated first.

The following script is a rather basic method of automatically unloading OSS prior to suspending and reloading afterwards.

#!/bin/sh
. "${PM_FUNCTIONS}"

suspend_osssound()
{
 /usr/lib/oss/scripts/killprocs.sh
 /usr/sbin/soundoff
}

resume_osssound()
{
 /usr/sbin/soundon
}

case "$1" in
 hibernate|suspend)
 suspend_osssound
	;;
 thaw|resume)
	resume_osssound
	;;
 *) exit $NA
	;;
esac

Save the contents of the script (as root) into Template:Filename and make it executable. Template:Filename

Note: This script is rather basic and will terminate any application directly accessing OSS, save your work prior to suspending/hibernating.

OSS does not support suspending but we don't care or better s2ram works fine without stopping OSS. Just create a nice suspend script to /sbin/suspend and make it executable.

 #!/bin/bash

 if [ [ $EUID -ne 0 ] ]; then
 ## Checking if you are a root or not
   echo "This script must be run as root" 1>&2
   exit 1
 fi

 s2ram -f

 sleep 2

 /etc/rc.d/oss restart 2>/tmp/oss.txt

 if [ $? -gt 0 ]; then
 echo "OSS restart failed check /tmp/oss.txt for advice"
 fi

 exit 0

That's all your apps are fine and suspend works. \o/

Note: If you are using Opera you must kill operapluginwrapper before suspend. To do this add PID=`pidof operapluginwrapper`;kill -9 $PID before s2ram -f.

ALSA emulation

You can instruct alsa-lib to use OSS as its audio output system. This works as a sort of ALSA emulation.

Note, however, that this method may introduce additional latency in your sound output, and that the emulation is not complete and doesn't work with all applications. It doesn't work, for example, with programs that try to detect devices using ALSA.

So, as most applications support OSS directly, use this method only as a last resort.

In the future, more complete methods may be available for emulating ALSA, such as libsalsa and cuckoo.

Instructions

  • Install the alsa-plugins package.
# pacman -S alsa-plugins
pcm.oss {
   type oss
    device /dev/dsp
}

pcm.!default {
    type oss
    device /dev/dsp
}

ctl.oss {
    type oss
    device /dev/mixer
}

ctl.!default {
    type oss
    device /dev/mixer
}
Note: If you don't want to use OSS anymore, don't forget to revert changes that you do here in Template:Filename.

Experimental packages

Mercurial repository version

There is a oss-mercurial package in AUR. This package compiles and installs the latest OSS development version direcly from the Mercurial repository.

You can try this package if you want to contribute code to OSS or if only a very recent change in OSS code introduced support to your sound device.

If you want oss to take care of your flash sound you will need to install libflashsupport:

# pacman -S libflashsupport