Difference between revisions of "Optical disc drive"

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This HOWTO covers a narrow scope for now: writing data onto DVDs using the command line.
 
This HOWTO covers a narrow scope for now: writing data onto DVDs using the command line.
  
==Required packages==
+
=== Required packages ===
 
# You still need the standard CD writing tools known as {{Pkg|cdrtools}} (which can be replaced by {{Pkg|cdrkit}}, if desired).
 
# You still need the standard CD writing tools known as {{Pkg|cdrtools}} (which can be replaced by {{Pkg|cdrkit}}, if desired).
 
# You also need the new DVD writing tools known as {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} found in the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]].
 
# You also need the new DVD writing tools known as {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} found in the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]].
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{{Tip|If you wish to use a graphical front-end, install {{Pkg|k3b}} or {{Pkg|brasero}}, and you need to read no further.}}
 
{{Tip|If you wish to use a graphical front-end, install {{Pkg|k3b}} or {{Pkg|brasero}}, and you need to read no further.}}
  
==Procedure==
+
=== Procedure ===
 
This HOWTO will use the command {{ic|growisofs}} from the {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} package. If you have ever written CDs from the command line before, you will know the process of first creating an iso9660 file ({{ic|mkisofs}}), and then burning it to CD ({{ic|cdrecord}}). {{ic|growisofs}} merges these steps, so you do not need extra storage space for the ISO file anymore. Another advantage is that multisession writing has been simplified.
 
This HOWTO will use the command {{ic|growisofs}} from the {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} package. If you have ever written CDs from the command line before, you will know the process of first creating an iso9660 file ({{ic|mkisofs}}), and then burning it to CD ({{ic|cdrecord}}). {{ic|growisofs}} merges these steps, so you do not need extra storage space for the ISO file anymore. Another advantage is that multisession writing has been simplified.
  
===Overview===
+
==== Overview ====
 
Essentially, writing a '''new''' DVD follows this procedure:
 
Essentially, writing a '''new''' DVD follows this procedure:
 
  $ growisofs -Z /dev/sr0 -r -J ''/path/to/files''
 
  $ growisofs -Z /dev/sr0 -r -J ''/path/to/files''
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as per [[CD Burning Tips]], then use the {{ic|growisofs}} example above to burn the ISO to a new blank disc.}}
 
as per [[CD Burning Tips]], then use the {{ic|growisofs}} example above to burn the ISO to a new blank disc.}}
  
===Example===
+
==== Example ====
  
 
Although the above might suffice for you, some users require extra settings to successfully write DVDs.
 
Although the above might suffice for you, some users require extra settings to successfully write DVDs.
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{{Note|{{ic|growisofs}} is basically just a front-end to {{ic|mkisofs}}. That means that any option for {{ic|mkisofs}} also works with {{ic|growisofs}}. See the {{ic|mkisofs}} man page for details.}}
 
{{Note|{{ic|growisofs}} is basically just a front-end to {{ic|mkisofs}}. That means that any option for {{ic|mkisofs}} also works with {{ic|growisofs}}. See the {{ic|mkisofs}} man page for details.}}
  
==Re-writable DVDs==
+
=== Re-writable DVDs ===
  
 
The process for burning re-writable discs is almost the same as for normal DVDs. However, keep in mind that virgin DVD+RW media needs to be initially formatted ("blanked") prior to usage. Blanking can be done using the program {{ic|dvd+rw-format}} like this:
 
The process for burning re-writable discs is almost the same as for normal DVDs. However, keep in mind that virgin DVD+RW media needs to be initially formatted ("blanked") prior to usage. Blanking can be done using the program {{ic|dvd+rw-format}} like this:

Revision as of 14:28, 22 July 2013

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From wikipedia

In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Some drives can only read from discs, but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders, also called burners or writers. Compact discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. Optical drive is the generic name; drives are usually described as "CD" "DVD", or "Blu-ray", followed by "drive", "writer", etc.

CD burning

Install CD-burning utilities

From http://www.cdrkit.org/:

cdrkit is a suite of programs for recording CDs and DVDs, blanking CD-RW media, creating ISO-9660 filesystem images, extracting audio CD data, and more. The programs included in the cdrkit package were originally derived from several sources, most notably mkisofs by Eric Youngdale and others, cdda2wav by Heiko Eissfeldt, and cdrecord by Jörg Schilling. However, cdrkit is not affiliated with any of these authors; it is now an independent project.

The cdrkit package is available in the official repositories.

For writing cue/bin files to CD, install the cdrdao package.

Note:
  • If you face any issues with cdrkit, it is recommended to install cdrtools from the community repository (cdrkit is a fork of cdrtools). cdrtools is being actively developed and supports CD, DVD and Blu-ray burning along with complete CDRWIN cue/bin support. cdrtools does not depend on cdrdao. For more information, see this page from the cdrtools site
  • Make sure that you build a package using makepkg and install with pacman. Pacman wrappers may resolve to cdrkit instead

Modifying the CD-RW

For the remainder of this section the name of your recording device is assumed to be /dev/cdrw. If that is not the case, modify the commands accordingly. In order to write to the CD it needs to be unmounted. If it is not, wodim will give you an error message.

If wodim gives you an error message similar to Cannot open SCSI driver!, use the following command:

$ modprobe sr_mod

You can try to let wodim locate your burning device with this command:

$ wodim -checkdrive

Erasing CD-RW

CD-RW media usually need to be erased before you can write new data on it. To blank CD-RW medium use this command:

$ wodim -v dev=/dev/cdrw -blank=fast

As you might have guessed, this blanks your medium really fast, but you can also use some other options, just replace the word fast with one of the following:

all
blank the entire disk
disc
blank the entire disk
disk
blank the entire disk
fast
minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
minimal
minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
track
blank a track
unreserve
unreserve a track
trtail
blank a track tail
unclose
unclose last session
session
blank last session

Burning an ISO image

To burn an ISO image run:

$ cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 isoimage.iso

Verify the burnt ISO image

You can verify the integrity of the burnt CD to make sure it contains no errors. Always eject the CD and reinsert it before verifying.

First calculate the md5sum of the original ISO image:

$ md5sum isoimage.iso
 e5643e18e05f5646046bb2e4236986d8 isoimage.iso

If the CD was burnt in DAO (Disc At Once) mode by passing the -dao option to cdrecord you can calculate the md5sum of the burnt CD as follows:

$ md5sum /dev/sr0
 e5643e18e05f5646046bb2e4236986d8 /dev/sr0

If the CD was burnt in TAO (Track At Once) mode it can be verified with dd and md5sum. You need to know the number of sectors to check. You can calculate this by dividing the size of the ISO file by 2048, but for your convenience this is included in the output of cdrecord:

Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 90095616/90095616 (43992 sectors).

Then check if this matches the md5sum of the burnt image, replacing "count" with the number of sectors:

$ dd if=/dev/sr0 bs=2048 count=43992 | md5sum
 43992+0 records in
 43992+0 records out
 90095616 bytes (90 MB) copied, 0.359539 s, 251 MB/s
 e5643e18e05f5646046bb2e4236986d8  -

Burning an audio CD

Create your audio tracks and store them as uncompressed, 16-bit stereo WAV files. To convert MP3 to WAV, ensure lame is installed, cd to the directoy with your MP3 files, and run:

$ for i in *.mp3; do lame --decode "$i" "$(basename "$i" .mp3)".wav; done

In case you get an error when trying to burn WAV files converted with lame try decoding with mpg123:

$ for i in *.mp3; do mpg123 --rate 44100 --stereo --buffer 3072 --resync -w $(basename $i .mp3).wav $i; done

Name the audio files in a manner that will cause them to be listed in the desired track order when listed alphabetically, such as 01.wav, 02.wav, 03.wav, etc. Use the following command to simulate burning the wav files as an audio CD:

$ wodim -dummy -v -pad speed=1 dev=/dev/cdrw -dao -swab *.wav

In case you detect errors or empty tracks like:

Track 01: audio    0 MB (00:00.00) no preemp pad

try another decoder (e.g. mpg123) or try using cdrecord from the cdrtools package.

Note that cdrkit also contains a cdrecord command but it is just a softlink to wodim. If anything worked you can remove the dummy flag to really burn the CD

To test the new audio CD, use MPlayer:

$ mplayer cdda://

Burning a bin/cue

To burn a bin/cue image run:

$ cdrdao write --device /dev/cdrw image.cue

Making an ISO image from an existing CD

To copy an existing CD just type:

$ readom -v dev=/dev/cdrw f=isoimage.iso
Note: If you get "Error trying to open /dev/cdrw exclusively (Device or resource busy)...", unmount the CD with
# umount /dev/cdrw
Replace /dev/cdrw with /dev/cdrom if it's a CDRom.

You do not want to use dd or cat as they provide no error checking, but for reference here are those commands:

$ dd if=/dev/cdrw of=/home/user/isoimage.iso

or with cat:

$ cat /dev/cdrw > isoimage.iso

Or use the readcd program (which is now a symlink to readom), also in the cdrkit package:

$ readcd -v dev=/dev/cdrw -f isoimage.iso

If the original CD was bootable it will be a bootable image.

TOC/CUE/BIN for mixed-mode disks

ISO images only store a single data track. If you want to create an image of a mixed-mode disk (data track with multiple audio tracks) then you need to make a TOC/BIN pair:

$ cdrdao read-cd --read-raw --datafile IMAGE.bin --driver generic-mmc:0x20000 --device /dev/cdrom IMAGE.toc

Some software only likes CUE/BIN pair, you can make a CUE sheet with toc2cue (part of cdrdao):

$ toc2cue IMAGE.toc IMAGE.cue

Making an ISO image from existing files on hard disk

To make an iso image just copy the needed files to one folder, then do:

$ mkisofs -V volume_name -J -r -o isoimage.iso ~/folder

Mounting an ISO image

To test if the ISO image is proper, you can mount it (as root):

# mount -t iso9660 -o ro,loop=/dev/loop0 cd_image /cdrom

You have to first load the loop module:

# modprobe loop

See also Mounting images as user for doing this without root privileges.

Converting to an ISO image

To convert an img/ccd image, you can use ccd2iso:

$ ccd2iso ~/image.img ~/image.iso

DVD burning

Writing (or "burning") DVDs requires a different approach than burning CDs. DVDs offer much higher capacities, and the standard CD writing tools will not suffice.

This HOWTO covers a narrow scope for now: writing data onto DVDs using the command line.

Required packages

  1. You still need the standard CD writing tools known as cdrtools (which can be replaced by cdrkit, if desired).
  2. You also need the new DVD writing tools known as dvd+rw-tools found in the official repositories.
Note: Do not install the package known as dvdrtools. It conflicts with cdrtools, and dvd+rw-tools is the superior DVD writing package.
Note: cdrtools provides all the functionality of dvd+rw-tools, as growisofs depends on mkisofs. Also the development of dvd+rw-tools seems to be stalled for the past 5 years (the last release was in 2008)
Tip: If you wish to use a graphical front-end, install k3b or brasero, and you need to read no further.

Procedure

This HOWTO will use the command growisofs from the dvd+rw-tools package. If you have ever written CDs from the command line before, you will know the process of first creating an iso9660 file (mkisofs), and then burning it to CD (cdrecord). growisofs merges these steps, so you do not need extra storage space for the ISO file anymore. Another advantage is that multisession writing has been simplified.

Overview

Essentially, writing a new DVD follows this procedure:

$ growisofs -Z /dev/sr0 -r -J /path/to/files

where /dev/sr0 is your DVD writer device.

To continue a DVD (write an additional session), you use:

$ growisofs -M /dev/sr0 -r -J /path/to/files

To burn an ISO image to disc, use:

$ growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/sr0=/path/to/iso

To create a video DVD, use the following:

$ growisofs -Z /dev/sr0 -dvd-video /path/to/video
-Z
start at the beginning of the DVD using the following device
-M
start after the last session on the disc using the following device
-r
Rock Ridge support with sane permission settings (recommended, extended Unix info)
-J
Joliet support (recommended, extended info for Windows NT and Windows 95)
Note: -r will choose different permissions than the real ones; to use the exact permissions use -R instead. See the man page of mkisofs for more information.
Tip: If you want to copy an existing DVD, one way that works is to make an ISO using readcd:
$ readcd -v dev=/dev/sr0 -f image.iso
as per CD Burning Tips, then use the growisofs example above to burn the ISO to a new blank disc.

Example

Although the above might suffice for you, some users require extra settings to successfully write DVDs.

A simple DVD writing template:

$ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -v -l -dry-run -iso-level 3 -R -J -speed=2 -joliet-long -graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/
-Z
as seen above, this starts a new DVD; to continue a multisession DVD, use -M
-v
increase verbosity level (more output)
-l
breaks DOS compatibility but allows for longer filenames
-dry-run
simulate writing (remove this flag if you are sure that everything is set up correctly)
-iso-level 3
defines how strict you want to adhere to the iso9660 standard (-iso-level 1 is very strict while -iso-level 4 is very loose)
-R
see above
-J
see above
-speed=2
start burning at 2X speed
-joliet-long
allows longer Joliet file names

The final part needs more explanation:

-graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/

This specifies that files will be stored in the subdirectory /files rather than the DVD root. See the mkisofs manual for details.

Note: growisofs is basically just a front-end to mkisofs. That means that any option for mkisofs also works with growisofs. See the mkisofs man page for details.

Re-writable DVDs

The process for burning re-writable discs is almost the same as for normal DVDs. However, keep in mind that virgin DVD+RW media needs to be initially formatted ("blanked") prior to usage. Blanking can be done using the program dvd+rw-format like this:

$ dvd+rw-format /dev/cdrw

where /dev/cdrw is your DVD writer device.