Optical disc drive
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- In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Some drives can only read from discs, but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders, also called burners or writers. Compact discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. Optical drive is the generic name; drives are usually described as "CD" "DVD", or "Blu-ray", followed by "drive", "writer", etc.
- 1 CD burning
- 1.1 Install programs for ISO 9660 and burning of CD, DVD, or BD
- 1.2 Modifying the CD-RW
- 1.3 Erasing CD-RW
- 1.4 Burning an ISO image
- 1.5 Verify the burnt ISO image
- 1.6 Burning an audio CD
- 1.7 Burning a bin/cue
- 1.8 Making an ISO image from an existing CD
- 1.9 Making an ISO image from existing files on hard disk
- 1.10 Mounting an ISO image
- 1.11 Converting to an ISO image
- 2 DVD burning
- 3 DVD playing
- 4 Burning CD/DVD with a GUI
- 5 DVD ripping
- 6 Troubleshooting
- 6.1 K3b locale error
- 6.2 Brasero fails to find blank discs
- 6.3 Brasero fails to normalize audio CD
- 6.4 VLC: Error "... could not open the disc /dev/dvd"
- 6.5 DVD drive is noisy
- 6.6 Playback does not work with new computer (new DVD-Drive)
- 6.7 None of the above programs are able to rip/encode a DVD to my hard disk!
- 7 See also
Install programs for ISO 9660 and burning of CD, DVD, or BD
You need at least one program for creation of ISO 9660 filesystems and one program that is able to burn data onto your desired media type. (BD means Blu-ray Disc)
Available programs for ISO 9660 creation are:
isomasterfrom package (with gtk2 GUI)
The traditional choice is
Available programs for burning are:
cdrdaofrom package (CD only, .cue files only)
growisofsfrom package (DVD and BD only)
wodimfrom package (CD only, DVD deprecated)
xorrisofrom package (no audio CD)
xorrecordfrom package (no audio CD)
The traditional choices are
wodim for CD and
growisofs for DVD and BD. For growisofs and BD-R see the bug workaround below.
bin files to CD, install the package.
The free GUI programs for CD, DVD, and BD burning depend on at least one of the above packages.
xorrisofs all three support the genisoimage options which are shown in this document.
wodim all three support the shown wodim options. Program
xorrecord supports those which do not deal with audio CD.
Modifying the CD-RW
For the remainder of this section the name of your recording device is assumed to be
/dev/cdrw. If that is not the case, modify the commands accordingly. In order to write to the CD it needs to be unmounted. If it is not,
wodim will give you an error message.
If wodim gives you an error message similar to
Cannot open SCSI driver!, use the following command:
$ modprobe sr_mod
You can try to let wodim locate your burning device with this command:
$ wodim -checkdrive
CD-RW media usually need to be erased before you can write new data on it. To blank CD-RW medium use this command:
$ wodim -v dev=/dev/cdrw -blank=fast
As you might have guessed, this blanks your medium really fast, but you can also use some other options, just replace the word fast with one of the following:
- blank the entire disk
- blank the entire disk
- blank the entire disk
- minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
- minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
- blank a track
- unreserve a track
- blank a track tail
- unclose last session
- blank last session
Burning an ISO image
To burn an ISO image run:
$ cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 isoimage.iso
Verify the burnt ISO image
You can verify the integrity of the burnt CD to make sure it contains no errors. Always eject the CD and reinsert it before verifying.
First calculate the md5sum of the original ISO image:
$ md5sum isoimage.iso
If the CD was burnt in DAO (Disc At Once) mode by passing the -dao option to cdrecord you can calculate the md5sum of the burnt CD as follows:
$ md5sum /dev/sr0
If the CD was burnt in TAO (Track At Once) mode it can be verified with dd and md5sum. You need to know the number of sectors to check. You can calculate this by dividing the size of the ISO file by 2048, but for your convenience this is included in the output of cdrecord:
Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 90095616/90095616 (43992 sectors).
Then check if this matches the md5sum of the burnt image, replacing "count" with the number of sectors:
$ dd if=/dev/sr0 bs=2048 count=43992 | md5sum
43992+0 records in 43992+0 records out 90095616 bytes (90 MB) copied, 0.359539 s, 251 MB/s e5643e18e05f5646046bb2e4236986d8 -
Burning an audio CD
Create your audio tracks and store them as uncompressed, 16-bit stereo WAV files. To convert MP3 to WAV, ensure
cd to the directoy with your MP3 files, and run:
$ for i in *.mp3; do lame --decode "$i" "$(basename "$i" .mp3)".wav; done
In case you get an error when trying to burn WAV files converted with lame try decoding with:
$ for i in *.mp3; do mpg123 --rate 44100 --stereo --buffer 3072 --resync -w $(basename $i .mp3).wav $i; done
Name the audio files in a manner that will cause them to be listed in the desired track order when listed alphabetically, such as
Use the following command to simulate burning the wav files as an audio CD:
$ wodim -dummy -v -pad speed=1 dev=/dev/cdrw -dao -swab *.wav
In case you detect errors or empty tracks like:
Track 01: audio 0 MB (00:00.00) no preemp pad
try another decoder (e.g. mpg123) or try using cdrecord from thepackage.
Note thatalso contains a cdrecord command but it is just a softlink to wodim. If anything worked you can remove the dummy flag to really burn the CD
To test the new audio CD, use MPlayer:
$ mplayer cdda://
Burning a bin/cue
To burn a bin/cue image run:
$ cdrdao write --device /dev/cdrw image.cue
Making an ISO image from an existing CD
To copy an existing CD just type:
$ readom -v dev=/dev/cdrw f=isoimage.iso
You do not want to use dd or cat as they provide no error checking, but for reference here are those commands:
$ dd if=/dev/cdrw of=/home/user/isoimage.iso
or with cat:
$ cat /dev/cdrw > isoimage.iso
Or use the
readcd program (which is now a symlink to readom), also in the
$ readcd -v dev=/dev/cdrw -f isoimage.iso
If the original CD was bootable it will be a bootable image.
TOC/CUE/BIN for mixed-mode disks
ISO images only store a single data track. If you want to create an image of a mixed-mode disk (data track with multiple audio tracks) then you need to make a TOC/BIN pair:
$ cdrdao read-cd --read-raw --datafile IMAGE.bin --driver generic-mmc:0x20000 --device /dev/cdrom IMAGE.toc
Some software only likes CUE/BIN pair, you can make a CUE sheet with
toc2cue (part of
$ toc2cue IMAGE.toc IMAGE.cue
Making an ISO image from existing files on hard disk
To make an iso image just copy the needed files to one folder, then do:
$ mkisofs -V volume_name -J -r -o isoimage.iso ~/folder
Mounting an ISO image
To test if the ISO image is proper, you can mount it (as root):
# mount -t iso9660 -o ro,loop=/dev/loop0 cd_image /cdrom
You have to first load the loop module:
# modprobe loop
See also Mounting images as user for doing this without root privileges.
Converting to an ISO image
To convert an
ccd image, you can use :
$ ccd2iso ~/image.img ~/image.iso
Writing (or "burning") DVDs requires a different approach than burning CDs. DVDs offer much higher capacities, and the standard CD writing tools will not suffice.
This guide covers a narrow scope for now: writing data onto DVDs using the command line.
- You still need the standard CD writing tools known as (which can be replaced by , if desired).
- You also need the new DVD writing tools known as official repositories. found in the
This guide will use the command
growisofs from the package. If you have ever written CDs from the command line before, you will know the process of first creating an iso9660 file (
mkisofs), and then burning it to CD (
growisofs merges these steps, so you do not need extra storage space for the ISO file anymore. Another advantage is that multisession writing has been simplified.
Essentially, writing a new DVD follows this procedure:
$ growisofs -Z /dev/sr0 -r -J /path/to/files
/dev/sr0 is your DVD writer device.
To continue a DVD (write an additional session), you use:
$ growisofs -M /dev/sr0 -r -J /path/to/files
To burn an ISO image to disc, use:
$ growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/sr0=/path/to/iso
To create a video DVD, use the following:
$ growisofs -Z /dev/sr0 -dvd-video /path/to/video
- start at the beginning of the DVD using the following device
- start after the last session on the disc using the following device
- Rock Ridge support with sane permission settings (recommended, extended Unix info)
- Joliet support (recommended, extended info for Windows NT and Windows 95)
Although the above might suffice for you, some users require extra settings to successfully write DVDs.
A simple DVD writing template:
$ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -v -l -dry-run -iso-level 3 -R -J -speed=2 -joliet-long -graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/
- as seen above, this starts a new DVD; to continue a multisession DVD, use
- increase verbosity level (more output)
- breaks DOS compatibility but allows for longer filenames
- simulate writing (remove this flag if you are sure that everything is set up correctly)
- defines how strict you want to adhere to the iso9660 standard (
-iso-level 1is very strict while
-iso-level 4is very loose)
- see above
- see above
- start burning at 2X speed
- allows longer Joliet file names
The final part needs more explanation:
This specifies that files will be stored in the subdirectory
/files rather than the DVD root. See the
mkisofs manual for details.
The process for burning re-writable discs is almost the same as for normal DVDs. However, keep in mind that virgin DVD+RW media needs to be initially formatted ("blanked") prior to usage. Blanking can be done using the program
dvd+rw-format like this:
$ dvd+rw-format /dev/cdrw
/dev/cdrw is your DVD writer device.
DVD, also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc, is an optical disc storage media format used for video and data storage.
If you wish to play encrypted DVDs, you must install the libdvd* packages:
See also: Multimedia/Video Players
MPlayer is efficient and supports a wide variety of media formats (i.e. almost everything). To play a DVD with MPlayer:
$ mplayer dvd://N
N is the desired chapter number. Start at 1 and work up if unsure.
/dev/dvd by default. Tell it to use
/dev/sr0 with the
dvd-device option at the command line, or the
dvd-device variable in
To play a DVD image file:
$ mplayer -dvd-device movie.iso dvd://N
To enable the DVD menu use (NOTE: you use arrow keys to navigate and the Template:Keypress key to choose):
$ mplayer dvdnav://
To enable mouse support in DVD menus use:
$ mplayer -mouse-movements dvdnav://
To find the audio language, start MPlayer with the
-v switch to output audio IDs. An audio track is selected with
-aid <audio_id>. Set a default audio language by editing
~/.mplayer/config and adding the line
alang=en for English.
With MPlayer, the DVD could be set to a low volume. To increase the maximum volume to 400%, use
softvol-max=400. The startup volume defaults to 100% of software volume and the global mixer levels will remain untouched. Using the 9 and 0 keys, volume can be adjusted between 0 and 400 percent.
alang=en softvol=yes softvol-max=400
Default in GNOME
Copy the system desktop file to the local one (local .desktop files supersede the global ones):
cp /usr/share/applications/vlc.desktop ~/.local/share/applications/
Define its mime types (known playback file type abilities) by doing:
sed -i 's|^Mimetype.*$|MimeType=video/dv;video/mpeg;video/x-mpeg;video/msvideo;video/quicktime;video/x-anim;video/x-avi;video/x-ms-asf;video/x-ms-wmv;video/x-msvideo;video/x-nsv;video/x-flc;video/x-fli;application/ogg;application/x-ogg;application/x-matroska;audio/x-mp3;audio/x-mpeg;audio/mpeg;audio/x-wav;audio/x-mpegurl;audio/x-scpls;audio/x-m4a;audio/x-ms-asf;audio/x-ms-asx;audio/x-ms-wax;application/vnd.rn-realmedia;audio/x-real-audio;audio/x-pn-realaudio;application/x-flac;audio/x-flac;application/x-shockwave-flash;misc/ultravox;audio/vnd.rn-realaudio;audio/x-pn-aiff;audio/x-pn-au;audio/x-pn-wav;audio/x-pn-windows-acm;image/vnd.rn-realpix;video/vnd.rn-realvideo;audio/x-pn-realaudio-plugin;application/x-extension-mp4;audio/mp4;video/mp4;video/mp4v-es;x-content/video-vcd;x-content/video-svcd;x-content/video-dvd;x-content/audio-cdda;x-content/audio-player;|' ~/.local/share/applications/vlc.desktop
Then in System Settings > Details >> Default Applications and on the Video drop-down menu, select Open VLC media player.}}
A lightweight media player supporting DVD menus.
Burning CD/DVD with a GUI
Template:Wikipedia There are several applications available to burn CDs in a graphical environment.
- AcetoneISO — All in one ISO tool (supports BIN, MDF, NRG, IMG, DAA, DMG, CDI, B5I, BWI, PDI and ISO)
- BashBurn — Lightweight terminal based menu frontend for CD/DVD burning tools
- Brasero — Disc burning application for the GNOME desktop that is designed to be as simple as possible. Part of
- cdw — Ncurses frontend to cdrecord, mkisofs, growisofs, dvd+rw-mediainfo, dvd+rw-format, xorriso
- http://cdw.sourceforge.net/ || AUR
- GnomeBaker — Full featured CD/DVD burning application for the GNOME desktop
- Graveman — GTK-based CD/DVD burning application. It requires configuration to point to correct devices
- isomaster — ISO image editor
- K3b — Feature-rich and easy to handle CD burning application based on Kdelibs
- Silicon empire — Qt-based set of tools to manage and organize your optical discs like CDs, DVDs and Blu-rays
- http://getsilicon.org/ || AUR
- X-CD-Roast — Lightweight cdrtools front-end for CD and DVD writing
- http://www.xcdroast.org/ || AUR
- Xfburn — Simple frontend to the libburnia libraries with support for CD/DVD(-RW), ISO images and BurnFree
Nero Linux is a commercial burning suite from makers of Nero for Windows - Nero AG. The biggest advantage of Nero linux is its interface which similar to window version. Hence, users migrating from windows might find it easy to operate. The Linux version now includes Nero Express, a wizard which takes users through the process of burning CDs and DVDs step-by-step, which users will be familiar with from the Windows version. Also new in version 4 is Blu-ray Disc defect management, integration of Isolinux for creating bootable media and support for Musepack and AIFF audio formats...
Nero Linux 4 retails at £17.99 with a free trial version also available.
- Easy, wizard-style user interface for guided burning with Nero Linux Express 4
- Full Blu-ray Burning Support
- Supports Burning of Audio CD (CD-DA), ISO 9660 (Joliet support), CD-Text, ISOLINUX Bootable, Multi-session Discs, DVD-Video and miniDVD, DVD double layer support.
- Advanced burning with Nero Burning ROM and command line client
Ripping is the process of copying audio or video content to a hard disk, typically from removable media or media streams.
Often, the process of ripping a DVD can be broken down into two subtasks:
- Data extraction - Copying the audio and/or video data to a hard disk
- Transcoding - Converting the extracted data into a suitable format
Some utilities perform both tasks, whilst others focus on one aspect or the other.
dvdbackup is used simply for data extraction, and does not transcode. This tool is useful for creating exact copies of encrypted DVDs in conjunction with or for decrypting video for other utilities unable to read encrypted DVDs.
dvd::rip is a front-end to, used to extract and transcode on-the-fly.
The following packages should be installed:
- : GTK front-end for , which performs the ripping and encoding
- : Software codec for DV video
- : If you want to encode your ripped files as XviD, an open source MPEG-4 video codec (free alternative to DivX)
- AUR) AUR: If you want to encode your ripped files as DivX (available in the
The dvd::rip preferences are mostly well-documented/self-explanatory. If you need help with something, see http://www.exit1.org/dvdrip/doc/gui-gui_pref.cipp.
Ripping a DVD is often a simple matter of selecting the preferred codec(s), selecting the desired titles, then clicking the "Rip" button.
FFmpeg is capable to do a direct rip in any format (audio/video) from a DVD-Video .iso image, just select the input as the *.iso image and proceed with the desired options. It also allows to downmixing, shrinking, spliting, selecting streams among other features.
HandBrake is a multithreaded video transcoder, which offers both a graphical and command-line interface with many preset configurations. The package is available in the official repositories: .
MEncoder is a free command line video decoding, encoding and filtering tool released under the GNU General Public License. It is a close sibling to MPlayer and can convert all the formats that MPlayer understands into a variety of compressed and uncompressed formats using different codecs. Wrapper programs like AUR and AUR can provide an assistive interface.
Hybrid is a multi platform (Linux/Mac OS X/Windows) Qt based frontend for a bunch of other tools which can convert nearly every input to x264/Xvid/VP8 + ac3/ogg/mp3/aac/flac inside an mp4/m2ts/mkv/webm/mov/avi container, a Blu-ray or an AVCHD structure.
A package is available in the AUR: AUR.
For detailed information visit the homepage.
From Wikipedia - DVD-VR:
- The DVD-VR standard defines a logical format for video recording on DVD-R, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM style media, including the dual layer versions of these media. As opposed to media recorded with the DVD+VR recording standard, the resulting media are not DVD-Video compliant, and will not play back in some DVD-Video players. Most DVD video recorders in the market that support DVD-R, DVD-RW, or DVD-RAM media will allow recording to these media in DVD-VR mode, as well as in a DVD-Video compliant mode. It is possible to use the DVD-VR format with DVD+R and DVD+RW media, but no examples are known other than some PC based recording utilities.
.VRO files extracted from a DVD-VR can be easily converted and splitted in regular .VOB files using the DVD-VR program.
Install AUR.AUR from the
K3b locale error
When running K3B, if the following message appears:
System locale charset is ANSI_X3.4-1968 Your system's locale charset (i.e. the charset used to encode file names) is set to ANSI_X3.4-1968. It is highly unlikely that this has been done intentionally. Most likely the locale is not set at all. An invalid setting will result in problems when creating data projects.Solution: To properly set the locale charset make sure the LC_* environment variables are set. Normally the distribution setup tools take care of this.
It means that your locale is not set well.
To fix it,
/etc/locale.gen, uncommenting all lines lines that corresponds to your language AND the
en_USoptions, for compatibility:
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 en_US ISO-8859-1
- Re-generate the profiles with
Generating locales... en_US.UTF-8... done en_US.ISO-8859-1... done pt_BR.UTF-8... done pt_BR.ISO-8859-1... done Generation complete.
More info here.
Brasero fails to find blank discs
Brasero usesto manage CD/DVD burning devices.
Brasero fails to normalize audio CD
If you try to burn it may stop at the first step called Normalization.
As a workaround you can disable the normalization plugin using the Edit > Plugins menu
VLC: Error "... could not open the disc /dev/dvd"
If you get the error, "vlc dvdread could not open the disc "/dev/dvd"" it may be because there is no device node
/dev/dvd on your system. Udev no longer creates
/dev/dvd and instead uses
/dev/sr0. To fix this edit the VLC configuration file (
# DVD device (string) dvd=/dev/sr0
DVD drive is noisy
If playing DVD videos causes the system to be very loud, it may be because the disk is spinning faster than it needs to. To temporarily change the speed of the drive, as root, run:
# eject -x 12 /dev/dvd
# hdparm -E12 /dev/dvd
Any speed that is supported by the drive can be used, or 0 for the maximum speed.
Playback does not work with new computer (new DVD-Drive)
None of the above programs are able to rip/encode a DVD to my hard disk!
Make sure the region of your DVD-reader is set correctly, otherwise you'll get loads of unexplainable CSS-related errors. UseAUR to do so.