Difference between revisions of "Nextcloud"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(added more ajax settings)
(flagged broken section links (interactive))
(Tag: wiki-scripts)
 
(513 intermediate revisions by more than 100 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Category:Web Server]]
+
[[Category:File sharing]]
 +
[[Category:Web applications]]
 
[[fr:Owncloud]]
 
[[fr:Owncloud]]
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OwnCloud ownCloud] is a software suite that provides a location-independent storage area for data (cloud storage).
+
[[ja:Nextcloud]]
 +
{{Related articles start}}
 +
{{Related|Apache HTTP Server}}
 +
{{Related|Nginx}}
 +
{{Related|OpenSSL}}
 +
{{Related|WebDAV}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
 +
 
 +
From [[Wikipedia:Nextcloud|Wikipedia]]:
 +
 
 +
:Nextcloud is a suite of client-server software for creating and using file hosting services. It is functionally similar to Dropbox, although Nextcloud is free and open-source, allowing anyone to install and operate it on a private server. In contrast to proprietary services like Dropbox, the open architecture allows adding additional functionality to the server in form of applications.
 +
 
 +
Nextcloud is a fork of ownCloud. For differences between the two, see [[wikipedia:Nextcloud#Differences from ownCloud]].
 +
 
 +
== Prerequisites ==
 +
Nextcloud requires several components:
 +
* A web server: [[Apache]] or [[nginx]]
 +
* A database: [[MariaDB]] or [[PostgreSQL]]
 +
* [[PHP]] with [[#PHP_setup|additional modules]].
 +
 
 +
These will be configured in [[#Setup]].
 +
 
 +
Make sure the required components are installed before proceeding.
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
{{AUR|owncloud}} is available in the [[AUR]].
 
#First of all set up the [[LAMP]] stack as described in the corresponding Wiki article.
 
#Install the {{AUR|owncloud}} package as described in [[AUR#Installing_packages]].
 
#Add the following lines into '''/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf''' (php5 should have been configured during the LAMP stack setup):
 
  Include /etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf
 
  LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
 
  Include conf/extra/php5_module.conf
 
Uncomment extensions in '''/etc/php/php.ini'''
 
  gd.so
 
  xmlrpc.so
 
  zip.so
 
  iconv.so
 
Depending on which database backend you are going to use uncomment either one of the following extensions in '''/etc/php/php.ini'''
 
  sqlite.so
 
  sqlite3.so
 
  pdo_sqlite.so
 
OR
 
  mysql.so
 
  mysqli.so
 
  pdo_mysql.so
 
now [[Daemons#Restarting|restart]] httpd (Apache)
 
and open [http://localhost http://localhost] in your browser. You should now be able to create a user account and follow the installation wizard.
 
  
== Custom configurations ==
+
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|nextcloud}} package.
 +
 
 +
== Setup ==
 +
 
 +
As stated above, in order to setup Nextcloud, you must set up the appropriate PHP requirements;
 +
additionally, you must configure a database and a webserver.
 +
 
 +
=== Pacman hook ===
 +
 
 +
To do nextcloud database upgrade automatically you may set up pacman post upgrade hook based on following example:
 +
 
 +
  # Update Nextcloud when core or -apps are touched
 +
 
 +
  [Trigger]
 +
  Operation = Install
 +
  Operation = Upgrade
 +
  Type = Package
 +
  Target = nextcloud
 +
  Target = nextcloud-app-*
 +
 
 +
  [Action]
 +
  Description = Updating Nextcloud installation
 +
  When = PostTransaction
 +
  Exec = /usr/bin/runuser -u http -- /usr/bin/php /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/occ upgrade
 +
 
 +
You need to put it into /etc/pacman.d/hooks/nextcloud.hook if you did not customize HookDir in pacman.conf.
 +
 
 +
See also [[Pacman#Hooks]]
 +
 
 +
=== PHP setup ===
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Nextcloud does not support PHP 7.2 as of version 12.0.4. [https://github.com/nextcloud/server/issues/6786] Until version 13 is released, [[install]] the {{pkg|php71}} package or update to {{AUR|nextcloud-testing}}.}}
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|For all prerequisite PHP modules, see upstream documentation: [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/installation/source_installation.html#prerequisites-label Nextcloud 12.0].}}
 +
 
 +
Install [[PHP#gd]] and {{pkg|php-intl}} as additional modules.
 +
 
 +
Some apps(News for example) require the iconv extension, if you wish to use these apps, uncomment the extension in {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}}.
  
=== Filesize Limitations ===
+
Depending on which database backend will be used:
With the default configuration ownCloud only allows the upload of filesizes less than 2MB.
+
* For [[MySQL]], see [[PHP#MySQL/MariaDB]].
This can be changed by changing the following line in '''/etc/php/php.ini''' to your liking.
+
* For [[PostgreSQL]], see [[PHP#PostgreSQL]].
 +
* For [[SQLite]], see [[PHP#Sqlite]].
  
'''As of version 4.0 this is no longer necessary! The maximum upload size is now set via the ownCloud gui'''
+
Performance may be improved through the implementation of [[PHP#Caching|caching]], see
  upload_max_filesize = 2M
+
[https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/configuration_server/caching_configuration.html Configuring Memory Caching]
 +
on the official documentation for details.
  
As of version 4.5, upload limits are set in '''/usr/share/webapps/owncloud/.htaccess'''. This won't work if [[LAMP#Using_php5_with_apache2-mpm-worker_and_mod_fcgid|PHP is set up to run as CGI]], so you need to change the limits in '''/etc/php/php.ini'''. You also need to change open_basedir.
+
=== Database setup ===
  upload_max_filesize = 512M
 
  post_max_size = 512M
 
  memory_limit = 512M
 
  open_basedir = /srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/:/usr/share/webapps/
 
  
=== Running owncloud in a subdirectory ===
+
An SQL database must be setup and used for your Nextcloud installation. After setting up the database here,
 +
you will be prompted for its information when you first create an administrator account.
  
By including the default '''owncloud.conf''' in '''httpd.conf''', owncloud will take control of port 80 and your localhost domain. If you would like to have owncloud run in a subdirectory, then skip the 'Include /etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf' line altogether and just use a symbolic link like so:
+
==== MariaDB ====
ln -s /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/ /srv/http/
 
  
== Filling ownCloud with data ==
+
{{Note|It's is highly recommended to set {{ic|binlog_format}} to ''mixed'' [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/configuration_database/linux_database_configuration.html#db-binlog-label] in {{ic|/etc/mysql/my.cnf}}.}}
=== Small Files ===
 
Always use [[WebDAV]] or the web interface to add new files to your ownCloud. Otherwise they will not show up correctly, as they do not get indexed right.
 
  
Consider installing and enabling php-apc to speed up WebDAV.
+
The following is an example of setting up a [[MariaDB]] database and user:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|$ mysql -u root -p|2=
 +
mysql> CREATE DATABASE `'''nextcloud'''` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET `utf8` COLLATE `utf8_unicode_ci`;
 +
mysql> CREATE USER `'''nextcloud'''`@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY ''''password'''';
 +
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `'''nextcloud'''`.* TO `'''nextcloud'''`@`localhost`;
 +
mysql> \q
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== PostgreSQL ====
 +
{{Warning|1=Nextcloud 12 is unable to do migration with PostgreSQL version 10 (currently in the repositories), as noted in this [https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/56302?project=5&string=nextcloud bug report].
 +
While not officially supported, once the migration done, Nextcloud 12 seems to work as expected with PostgreSQL 10.}}
 +
 
 +
The following is an example of setting up a [[PostgreSQL]] user and database:
 +
{{hc|1=$ sudo -u postgres createuser -h localhost -P nextcloud|2=
 +
Enter password for new role:
 +
Enter it again:
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
$ sudo -u postgres createdb -O nextcloud nextcloud
 +
 
 +
=== Webserver setup ===
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|It is recommended to use TLS/SSL (HTTPS) over plain HTTP, see [[Apache#TLS/SSL]] or [[Nginx#TLS/SSL]] for examples and implement this in the examples given below.}}
 +
 
 +
Depending on which [[webserver]] you are using, further setup is required, indicated below.
 +
 
 +
==== Apache ====
 +
 
 +
If you haven't already, install [[Apache]] and install and enable [[Apache#PHP|Apache's PHP module]]
 +
 
 +
Copy the Apache configuration file to the configuration directory:
 +
 
 +
# cp /etc/webapps/nextcloud/apache.example.conf /etc/httpd/conf/extra/nextcloud.conf
 +
 
 +
Modify the file according to your preferences. By default it includes an alias
 +
for {{ic|/nextcloud}} pointing to {{ic|/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud}}.
 +
 
 +
And include it in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
 +
Include conf/extra/nextcloud.conf
 +
 
 +
Ensure that the root location of your Nextcloud installation (e.g., {{ic|/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud}}) is accessible by the webserver's user {{ic|http}}.
 +
 
 +
Now restart Apache ({{ic|httpd.service}}).
 +
 
 +
===== WebDAV =====
 +
Nextcloud comes with its own [[WebDAV]] implementation enabled, which may conflict with the one shipped with Apache. If you have enabled WebDAV in Apache (not enabled by default), disable the modules {{ic|mod_dav}} and {{ic|mod_dav_fs}} in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}. See [https://forum.owncloud.org/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=7240] for details.
 +
 
 +
==== Nginx ====
 +
Create an empty directory to hold the cloud-specific config file:
 +
# mkdir /etc/nginx/conf.d/
 +
 
 +
In {{ic|/etc/nginx/nginx.conf}}, add the following lines under the "http" section:
 +
 +
http {
 +
...
 +
...
 +
server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
 +
include conf.d/*.conf;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Create a config file {{ic|/etc/nginx/conf.d/nextcloud.conf}} according to the [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/installation/nginx.html documentation]. You will have to change the {{ic|root}} location, as the Arch package installs to {{ic|/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud}} instead of {{ic|/var/www/nextcloud}}.
 +
 
 +
Addtitionally, you change the php-handler block so it looks like this one
 +
 
 +
upstream php-handler {
 +
    server unix:/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
in the {{ic|/etc/nginx/conf.d/nextcloud.conf}} file.
 +
 
 +
From this point on, it is recommended to obtain a secure-certificates using [[Let's Encrypt]], see [[#Security Hardening]].
 +
 
 +
===== PHP-FPM configuration =====
 +
 
 +
Make sure PHP-FPM has been configured correctly as described in [[Nginx#FastCGI]].
 +
 
 +
Uncomment {{ic|1=env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin}} in {{ic|/etc/php/php-fpm.d/www.conf}} and [[restart]] {{ic|php-fpm.service}} to apply the changes.
 +
 
 +
== Initialize ==
 +
 
 +
Open the address where you have installed Nextcloud in a web browser (e.g., https://www.examples.com/nextcloud).
 +
 
 +
=== Create storage directories ===
 +
 
 +
You will now see "Cannot write into "apps" directory". This is because Arch packages Nextcloud in a way where the ''apps'' folder only has the webserver as a group without web permissions and the ''data'' folder is nonexistent.
 +
 
 +
The easiest non-conflicting way is to create a new writable folder for apps and also create a writable data folder. Replace the http group with the group your webserver uses if needed.
 +
 
 +
# mkdir -p /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/data
 +
# mkdir -p /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps2
 +
# chown http:http /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/data
 +
# chown http:http /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps2
 +
# chmod 700 /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/data
 +
# chmod 700 /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps2
 +
 
 +
Next edit the configuration file at {{ic|/etc/webapps/nextcloud/config/config.php}} and add following lines before the closing {{ic|);}} of the file.
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/webapps/nextcloud/config/config.php|2=
 +
  'apps_paths' =>
 +
  array (
 +
    0 =>
 +
    array (
 +
      'path' => '/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps',
 +
      'url' => '/apps',
 +
      'writable' => false,
 +
    ),
 +
    1 =>
 +
    array (
 +
      'path' => '/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps2',
 +
      'url' => '/apps2',
 +
      'writable' => true,
 +
    ),
 +
  ),
 +
  'datadirectory' => '/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/data'
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Refresh the page and the error should be gone.
 +
 
 +
From there follow the instructions in adding an administrator account as well as selecting the database you created earlier.
 +
 
 +
== Security Hardening ==
 +
 
 +
The [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/configuration_server/harden_server.html Nextcloud Hardening and Security]
 +
article guides along generic topics. See also the project's [https://scan.nextcloud.com/ Security scanner].
 +
 
 +
=== Let's Encrypt ===
 +
==== nginx ====
 +
{{Move|Let's Encrypt|A simple example of configuring an 'empty' domain for Let's Encrypt should be created. The example file given is too big and could be far easier.}}
 +
1. Create the cloud configuration {{ic|/etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud-initial.conf}} using [https://github.com/graysky2/configs/blob/master/nginx/nextcloud-initial.conf this initial file] as a template. Substitute the literal "@@FQDN@@" in the template file with the actual [[wikipedia:Fully_qualified_domain_name|FQDN]] to be used. The certs for the server need to be generated using this unencrypted configuration initially. Follow the steps outlined on [[Let’s Encrypt]] to generate the server encryption certificates.
 +
 
 +
2. Upon successfully generating certificates, replace {{ic|/etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud-initial.conf}} (it may be safely renamed so long as it does not end in ".conf" or simply deleted) with a new file, {{ic|/etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud.conf}} using [https://github.com/graysky2/configs/blob/master/nginx/nextcloud.conf this file] as a template.  Again, substitute the literal "@@FQDN@@" in the template file with the actual [[wikipedia:Fully_qualified_domain_name|FQDN]] to be used. [[Start]] and optionally [[enable]] {{ic|nginx.service}}.
 +
 
 +
=== uWSGI ===
 +
 
 +
You can run Nextcloud in its own process and service by using the [[uWSGI]] application server with {{pkg|uwsgi-plugin-php}}. This allows you to define a [[PHP#Configuration|PHP  configuration]] only for this instance of PHP, without the need to edit the global {{ic|php.ini}} and thus keeping your web application configurations compartmentalized. ''uWSGI'' itself has a wealth of features to limit the resource use and to harden the security of the application, and by being a separate process it can run under its own user.
 +
 
 +
The only part that differs from [[#php-fpm configuration]]{{Broken section link}} is the {{ic|<nowiki>location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {}</nowiki>}} block:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
  location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {
 +
    include uwsgi_params;
 +
    uwsgi_modifier1 14;
 +
    # Avoid duplicate headers confusing OC checks
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
 +
    uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/nextcloud.sock;
 +
    }
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
Then create a config file for ''uWSGI'':
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/uwsgi/nextcloud.ini|<nowiki>
 +
[uwsgi]
 +
; load the required plugins
 +
plugins = php
 +
; force the sapi name to 'apache', this will enable the opcode cache 
 +
php-sapi-name = apache
 +
 
 +
; set master process name and socket
 +
; '%n' refers to the name of this configuration file without extension
 +
procname-master = uwsgi %n
 +
master = true
 +
socket = /run/uwsgi/%n.sock
 +
 
 +
; drop privileges
 +
uid    = http
 +
gid    = http
 +
umask  = 027
 +
 
 +
; run with at least 1 process but increase up to 4 when needed
 +
processes = 4
 +
cheaper = 1
 +
 
 +
; reload whenever this config file changes
 +
; %p is the full path of the current config file
 +
touch-reload = %p
 +
 
 +
; disable uWSGI request logging
 +
;disable-logging = true
 +
 
 +
; enforce a DOCUMENT_ROOT
 +
php-docroot    = /usr/share/webapps/%n
 +
; limit allowed extensions
 +
php-allowed-ext = .php
 +
; and search for index.php if required
 +
php-index = index.php
 +
 
 +
; set php configuration for this instance of php, no need to edit global php.ini
 +
php-set = date.timezone=Etc/UTC
 +
;php-set = open_basedir=/tmp/:/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud:/etc/webapps/nextcloud:/dev/urandom
 +
php-set = expose_php=false
 +
; avoid security risk of leaving sessions in world-readable /tmp
 +
php-set = session.save_path=/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/data
 +
 
 +
; port of php directives set upstream in /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/.user.ini for use with PHP-FPM
 +
php-set = upload_max_filesize=513M
 +
php-set = post_max_size=513M
 +
php-set = memory_limit=512M
 +
php-set = output_buffering=off
 +
 
 +
; load all extensions only in this instance of php, no need to edit global php.ini
 +
;; required core modules
 +
php-set = extension=gd
 +
php-set = extension=iconv
 +
;php-set = extension=zip    # enabled by default in global php.ini
 +
 
 +
;; database connectors
 +
;; uncomment your selected driver
 +
;php-set = extension=pdo_sqlite
 +
;php-set = extension=pdo_mysql
 +
;php-set = extension=pdo_pgsql
 +
 
 +
;; recommended extensions
 +
;php-set = extension=curl    # enabled by default in global php.ini
 +
php-set = extension=bz2
 +
php-set = extension=intl
 +
 
 +
;; required for specific apps
 +
;php-set = extension=ldap    # for LDAP integration
 +
;php-set = extension=ftp    # for FTP storage / external user authentication
 +
;php-set = extension=imap    # for external user authentication, requires php-imap
 +
 
 +
;; recommended for specific apps
 +
;php-set = extension=exif    # for image rotation in pictures app, requires exiv2
 +
;php-set = extension=gmp    # for SFTP storage
 +
 
 +
;; for preview generation
 +
;; provided by packages in AUR
 +
; php-set = extension=imagick
 +
 
 +
; opcache
 +
php-set = zend_extension=opcache
 +
 
 +
; user cache
 +
; provided by php-acpu, to be enabled **either** here **or** in /etc/php/conf.d/apcu.ini
 +
php-set = extension=apcu
 +
; per https://github.com/krakjoe/apcu/blob/simplify/INSTALL
 +
php-set = apc.ttl=7200
 +
php-set = apc.enable_cli=1
 +
 
 +
cron2 = minute=-15,unique=1 /usr/bin/php -f /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/cron.php 1>/dev/null
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
{{Note|1=
 +
* Do not forget to set your timezone and uncomment the required database connector in the uWSGI config file
 +
* The [[PHP#Configuration|open_basedir]] directive is optional and commented out. You can uncomment to harden security. Be aware that it may [https://github.com/owncloud/core/search?q=open_basedir&type=Issues occasionally break things].
 +
* Use {{ic|1=php-docroot = /usr/share/webapps}} if placing nextcloud in /nextcloud subdirectory. }}
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|The way the [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/configuration_server/background_jobs_configuration.html Nextcloud background job] is currently set up with [https://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.org/en/latest/Cron.html uWSGI cron] will make use of the default global configuration from {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}}. This means that none of the specific parameters defined (e.g. required modules) will be enabled, [https://github.com/owncloud/core/issues/12678#issuecomment-66114448 leading to various issues]. One solution is to copy {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}} to e.g. {{ic|/etc/uwsgi/cron-php.ini}}, make the required modifications there (mirroring {{ic|/etc/uwsgi/nextcloud.ini}} parameters) and referencing it in the cron directive by adding the {{ic|-c /etc/uwsgi/cron-php.ini}} option to ''php'' invocation.}}
 +
 
 +
==== Activation ====
 +
 
 +
[[uWSGI]] provides a [[Systemd#Using_units|template unit]] that allows to start and enable application using their configuration file name as instance identifier. For example:
 +
# systemctl start uwsgi@nextcloud.socket
 +
would start it on demand referencing the configuration file {{ic|/etc/uwsgi/nextcloud.ini}}.
 +
 
 +
To enable the uwsgi service by default at start-up, run:
 +
# systemctl enable uwsgi@nextcloud.socket
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Here we make use of [http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/socket-activation.html systemd socket activation] to prevent unnecessary resources consumption when no connections are made to the instance. If you would rather have it constantly active, simply remove the {{ic|.socket}} part to start and enable the service instead.}}
 +
 
 +
See also [[UWSGI#Starting service]]{{Broken section link}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Setting strong permissions for the filesystem ===
 +
 
 +
You should set the permissions for {{ic|config/}}, {{ic|data/}} and {{ic|apps/}} as strict as possible. That means that your HTTP user (''http'' in case of {{pkg|apache}}) should own them, and the should have {{ic|700}} permissions. You can use the following script to achieve this.
 +
 
 +
{{Style|Complex script for trivial one-time task.}}
 +
 
 +
{{hc|oc-perms|2=<nowiki>
 +
#!/bin/bash
 +
ocpath='/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud'
 +
htuser='http'
 +
htgroup='http'
 +
rootuser='root'
 +
 
 +
printf "Creating possible missing Directories\n"
 +
mkdir -p $ocpath/data
 +
mkdir -p $ocpath/assets
 +
 
 +
printf "chmod Files and Directories\n"
 +
find ${ocpath}/ -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
 +
find ${ocpath}/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750
 +
 
 +
printf "chown Directories\n"
 +
chown -R ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/apps/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/assets/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/config/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/data/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/themes/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/updater/
 +
 
 +
chmod +x ${ocpath}/occ
 +
 
 +
printf "chmod/chown .htaccess\n"
 +
if [ -f ${ocpath}/.htaccess ]
 +
then
 +
  chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/.htaccess
 +
  chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/.htaccess
 +
fi
 +
if [ -f ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess ]
 +
then
 +
  chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess
 +
  chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess
 +
fi
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
If you have customized your Nextcloud installation and your filepaths are different than the standard installation, then modify this script accordingly.
 +
 
 +
== Synchronization ==
 +
 
 +
=== Desktop ===
 +
 
 +
The official client can be installed with the {{Pkg|owncloud-client}} or {{aur|nextcloud-client}} package.
 +
Alternative versions are available in the [[AUR]]: {{AUR|owncloud-client-git}}.
 +
 
 +
==== Calendar ====
 +
 
 +
To access your Nextcloud calendars using Mozilla [[Thunderbird]]'s Lightning calendar you would use the following URL:
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>https://ADDRESS/remote.php/caldav/calendars/USERNAME/CALENDARNAME</nowiki>
 +
 
 +
To access your Nextcloud calendars using CalDAV-compatible programs like Kontact or [[Evolution]], you would use the following URL:
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>https://ADDRESS/remote.php/caldav</nowiki>
 +
 
 +
For details see the [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/user_manual/pim/index.html official documentation].
 +
 
 +
==== Contacts ====
 +
 
 +
To sync contacts with [[Thunderbird]], see [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/user_manual/pim/sync_thunderbird.html these instructions] from the official doc.
 +
 
 +
==== Mounting files with davfs2 ====
 +
 
 +
If you want to mount your ownCloud permanently install {{Pkg|davfs2}} (as described in [[davfs2]]) first.
 +
 
 +
Considering your ownCloud were at {{ic|https://own.example.com}}, your WebDAV URL would be {{ic|https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav}} (as of ownCloud 6.0).
 +
 
 +
To mount your ownCloud, use:
 +
 
 +
# mount -t davfs https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav /path/to/mount
 +
 
 +
You can also create an entry for this in {{ic|/etc/fstab}}
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/fstab|
 +
https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav /path/to/mount davfs rw,user,noauto 0 0
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|In order to allow automount you can also store your username (and password if you like) in a file as described in [[davfs2#Storing credentials]].}}
 +
 
 +
{{Note|If creating/copying files is not possible, while the same operations work on directories, see [[davfs2#Creating/copying files not possible and/or freezes]].}}
 +
 
 +
=== Mounting files in GNOME Files (Nautilus) ===
 +
 
 +
You can access the files directly in Nautilus ('+ Other Locations') through WebDAV protocol - use the link as shown in your Nextcloud installation Web GUI (typically: https://example.org/remote.php/webdav/) but replace the protocol name from 'https' to 'davs'. Nautilus will ask for user name and password when trying to connect.
 +
 
 +
=== Android ===
 +
 
 +
Download the official Nextcloud app from [https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nextcloud.client Google Play].
 +
 
 +
To enable contacts and calendar sync (Android 4+):
 +
# download [https://davdroid.bitfire.at/ DAVdroid] ([https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=at.bitfire.davdroid Play Store], [https://f-droid.org/app/at.bitfire.davdroid F-Droid])
 +
# Enable mod_rewrite.so in httpd.conf
 +
# create a new DAVdroid account in the ''Account'' settings, and specify your "short" server address and login/password couple, e.g. {{ic|<nowiki>https://cloud.example.com</nowiki>}} (there is no need for the {{ic|<nowiki>/remote.php/{carddav,webdav}</nowiki>}} part if you configured your web server with the proper redirections, as illustrated previously in the article; ''DAVdroid'' will find itself the right URLs)
 +
 
 +
=== iOS ===
 +
 
 +
Download the official Nextcloud app from the [https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nextcloud/id1125420102 App Store].
 +
 
 +
=== SABnzbd ===
  
 
When using [[SABnzbd]], you might want to set
 
When using [[SABnzbd]], you might want to set
Line 57: Line 464:
 
in your sabnzbd.ini file, because ownCloud will scan the files as soon as they get uploaded, preventing SABnzbd from removing UNPACKING prefixes etc.
 
in your sabnzbd.ini file, because ownCloud will scan the files as soon as they get uploaded, preventing SABnzbd from removing UNPACKING prefixes etc.
  
=== Big Files ===
+
== Troubleshooting ==
WebDAV isn't suitable for big files, because it fills up all the RAM and CPU.
+
{{Out of date|A lot of references to OwnCloud, are these still valid with Nextcloud?}}
 +
 
 +
=== Self-signed certificate not accepted ===
  
With the current version, it looks like, there is no good way of copying huge amounts of data to your ownCloud.
+
ownCloud uses [[Wikipedia:cURL]] and [[Wikipedia:SabreDAV]] to check if WebDAV is enabled.
 +
If you use SSL/TLS with a self-signed certificate, e.g. as shown in [[LAMP]], and access ownCloud's admin panel, you will see the following error message:
  
 +
Your web server is not yet properly setup to allow files synchronization because the WebDAV interface seems to be broken.
  
Here's a Workaround:
+
Assuming that you followed the [[LAMP]] tutorial, execute the following steps:
  
copy the files directly to your ownCloud and do a full re-scan of your database (you could use the [http://apps.owncloud.com/content/show.php?content=151948&forumpage=0&PHPSESSID=37b915160effcc0f37cc761ad2ab88be Re-scan filesystem] add-on for example).
+
Create a local directory for non-distribution certificates and copy [[LAMP]]s certificate there. This will prevent {{ic|ca-certificates}}-updates from overwriting it.
  
 +
# cp /etc/httpd/conf/server.crt /usr/share/ca-certificates/''WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt''
  
But beware that this will not work as easily in the future, when end-to-end encryption gets added to ownCloud (this is a planned feature).
+
Add ''WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt'' to {{ic|/etc/ca-certificates.conf}}:
  
== Important Notes ==
+
''WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt''
* When using a subdomain (like cloud.example.xxx), make sure it is covered by your certificate. Otherwise, connection via the owncloud client or webdav might fail.
 
  
* If you are planning on using OwnCloud's [http://owncloud.org/sync-clients/ sync-clients], make sure to have [[Network_Time_Protocol_daemon|NTP]] installed and running on your OwnCloud server, otherwise the sync-clients will fail.
+
Now, regenerate your certificate store:
  
* Add some [[LAMP#SSL|SSL encryption]] to your connection!
+
# update-ca-certificates
  
== Nginx + uwsgi_php alternative ==
+
Restart the httpd service to activate your certificate.
  
You can avoid the use of Apache, and run owncloud in it's own process by using the [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=63798 wsgi_php] application server. uWSGI itself has a wealth of features to limit the resource use, and to harden the security of the application, and by being a separate process it can run under its own user.
+
=== Self-signed certificate for Android devices ===
  
The nginx config is:
+
Once you have followed the setup for SSL, as on [[LAMP#TLS.2FSSL|LAMP]]{{Broken section link}} for example, early versions of DAVdroid will
<pre>
+
reject the connection because the certificate is not trusted. A certificate can be made as follows on your server:
#this is to avoid Request Entity Too Large error
+
 
client_max_body_size 1000M;
+
  # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in /etc/httpd/conf/server.csr -signkey /etc/httpd/conf/server.key -extfile android.txt -out CA.crt
# deny access to some special files
+
  # openssl x509 -inform PEM -outform DER -in CA.crt -out CA.der.crt
location ~ ^/(data|config|\.ht|db_structure\.xml|README) {
+
 
 +
The file {{ic|android.txt}} should contain the following:
 +
 
 +
  basicConstraints=CA:true
 +
 
 +
Then import {{ic|CA.der.crt}} to your Android device:
 +
 
 +
Put the {{ic|CA.der.crt}} file onto the sdcard of your Android device (usually to the internal one, e.g. save from a mail attachment).
 +
It should be in the root directory. Go to ''Settings > Security > Credential storage'' and select ''Install from device storage''.
 +
The {{ic|.crt}} file will be detected and you will be prompted to enter a certificate name. After importing the certificate,
 +
you will find it in ''Settings > Security > Credential storage > Trusted credentials > User''.
 +
 
 +
Thanks to: [http://www.leftbrainthings.com/2013/10/13/creating-and-importing-self-signed-certificate-to-android-device/]
 +
 
 +
Another way is to import the certificate directly from your server via [https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=at.bitfire.cadroid CAdroid] and follow the instructions there.
 +
 
 +
=== Cannot write into config directory! ===
 +
 
 +
If you have set {{ic|open_basedir}} in your PHP/web server configuration file (e.g. {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/extra/nextcloud.conf}}), make sure that it includes {{ic|/etc/webapps}}.
 +
 
 +
Restart the web server to apply the change.
 +
 
 +
=== Cannot create data directory ===
 +
 
 +
If you have set {{ic|open_basedir}} in your PHP/web server configuration file (e.g. {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/extra/nextcloud.conf}}), make sure that it includes the data directory.
 +
 
 +
Restart the web server to apply the change.
 +
 
 +
=== CSync failed to find a specific file. ===
 +
 
 +
This is most likely a certificate issue. Recreate it, and do not leave the common name empty or you will see the error again.
 +
 
 +
# openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout server.key -out server.crt
 +
 
 +
=== Seeing white page after login ===
 +
 
 +
The cause is probably a new app that you installed. To fix that, you can use the occ command as described
 +
[https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/configuration_server/occ_command.html here]. So with
 +
sudo -u http php /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/occ app:list
 +
you can list all apps (if you installed nextcloud in the standard directory), and with
 +
sudo -u http php /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/occ app:disable <nameOfExtension>
 +
you can disable the troubling app.
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, you can either use [[phpMyAdmin]] to edit the {{ic|oc_appconfig}} table (if you got lucky and the table has an edit option), or do it by hand with mysql:
 +
 
 +
mysql -u root -p owncloud
 +
MariaDB [owncloud]> '''delete from''' oc_appconfig '''where''' appid='<nameOfExtension>' '''and''' configkey='enabled' '''and''' configvalue='yes';
 +
MariaDB [owncloud]> '''insert into''' oc_appconfig (appid,configkey,configvalue) '''values''' ('<nameOfExtension>','enabled','no');
 +
 
 +
This should delete the relevant configuration from the table and add it again.
 +
 
 +
=== GUI sync client fails to connect ===
 +
 
 +
If using HTTP basic authentication, make sure to exclude "status.php", which must be publicly accessible. [https://github.com/owncloud/mirall/issues/734]
 +
 
 +
=== Some files upload, but give an error 'Integrity constraint violation...' ===
 +
 
 +
You may see the following error in the ownCloud sync client:
 +
 
 +
    SQLSTATE[23000]: Integrity constraint violation: ... Duplicate entry '...' for key 'fs_storage_path_hash')...
 +
 
 +
This is caused by an issue with the File Locking app, which is often not sufficient to keep conflicts from occurring on some webserver configurations.
 +
A more complete [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/configuration_files/files_locking_transactional.html Transactional File Locking]
 +
is available that rids these errors, but you must be using the Redis php-caching method. Install {{Pkg|redis}} and {{AUR|php-redis}}, comment out
 +
your current php-cache mechanism, and then in {{ic|/etc/php/conf.d/redis.ini}} uncomment {{ic|1=extension=redis}}.
 +
Then in {{ic|config.php}} make the following changes:
 +
 
 +
    'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
 +
    'filelocking.enabled' => 'true',
 +
    'memcache.locking' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
 +
    'redis' => array(
 +
        'host' => 'localhost',
 +
        'port' => 6379,
 +
        'timeout' => 0.0,
 +
          ),
 +
 
 +
and [[start/enable]] {{ic|redis.service}}.
 +
 
 +
Finally, disable the File Locking App, as the Transational File Locking will take care of it (and would conflict).
 +
 
 +
If everything is working, you should see 'Transactional File Locking Enabled' under Server Status on the Admin page, and syncs should no longer cause issues.
 +
 
 +
=== "Cannot write into apps directory" ===
 +
 
 +
As mentioned in the [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/installation/apps_management_installation.html official admin manual],
 +
either you need an apps directory that is writable by the http user, or you need to set {{ic|appstoreenabled}} to {{ic|false}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Installed apps get blocked because of MIME type error ===
 +
 
 +
If you're putting your apps folder outside of the nextcloud installation directory make sure your webserver serves it properly.
 +
 
 +
In nginx this is accomplished by adding a location block to the nginx configuration as the folder will not be included in it by default.
 +
 
 +
location ~ /apps2/(.*)$ {
 +
    alias /var/www/nextcloud/apps/$1;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
=== Security warnings even though the recommended settings have been included in nginx.conf ===
 +
 
 +
At the top of the admin page there might be a warning to set the {{ic|Strict-Transport-Security}}, {{ic|X-Content-Type-Options}},
 +
{{ic|X-Frame-Options}}, {{ic|X-XSS-Protection}} and {{ic|X-Robots-Tag}} according to https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/configuration_server/harden_server.html
 +
even though they are already set like that.
 +
 
 +
A possible cause could be that because owncloud sets those settings, uwsgi passed them along and nginx added them again:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|$ curl -I https://domain.tld|
 +
<nowiki>...
 +
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
 +
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
 +
X-Frame-Options: Sameorigin
 +
X-Robots-Tag: none
 +
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=15768000; includeSubDomains; preload;
 +
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
 +
X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN
 +
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
 +
X-Robots-Tag: none</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
While the fast_cgi sample config has a parameter to avoid that ( {{ic|fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true; #Avoid sending the security headers twice}} ), when using uwsgi and nginx the following modification of the uwsgi part in nginx.conf could help:
 +
 
 +
{{hc| /etc/nginx/nginx.conf|
 +
<nowiki>...
 +
        # pass all .php or .php/path urls to uWSGI
 +
        location ~ ^(.+\.php)(.*)$ {
 +
            include uwsgi_params;
 +
            uwsgi_modifier1 14;
 +
            # hode following headers received from uwsgi, because otherwise we would send them twice since we already add them in nginx itself
 +
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
 +
            uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
 +
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
 +
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
 +
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
 +
            #Uncomment line below if you get connection refused error. Remember to commet out line with "uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3001;" below
 +
            uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/owncloud.sock;
 +
            #uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3001;
 +
        }
 +
...</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
=== "Reading from keychain failed with error: 'No keychain service available'" ===
 +
 
 +
Can be fixed for Gnome by installing the following 2 packages, {{Pkg|libgnome-keyring}} and {{Pkg|gnome-keyring}}.
 +
Or the following for KDE, {{Pkg|libgnome-keyring}} and {{Pkg|qtkeychain}}.
 +
 
 +
=== FolderSync: "Method Not Allowed" ===
 +
 
 +
FolderSync needs access to  {{ic|/owncloud/remote.php/webdav}}, so you could create another alias for owncloud in your  {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/extra/nextcloud.conf}}
 +
  <IfModule mod_alias.c>
 +
    Alias /nextcloud /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/
 +
    Alias /owncloud /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/
 +
  </IfModule>
 +
 
 +
== Tips and tricks ==
 +
 
 +
=== Running ownCloud in a subdirectory ===
 +
 
 +
By including the default {{ic|owncloud.conf}} in {{ic|httpd.conf}}, ownCloud will take control of port 80 and your localhost domain.
 +
 
 +
If you would like to have ownCloud run in a subdirectory, then edit the {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf}}
 +
you included and comment out the {{ic|<nowiki><VirtualHost *:80> ... </VirtualHost></nowiki>}} part of the include file.
 +
 
 +
You can use the following nginx config when using owncloud with uwsgi:
 +
{{hc|head=/etc/nginx/conf.d/owncloud.conf|output=<nowiki>
 +
location = /.well-known/carddav {
 +
  return 301 $scheme://$host/owncloud/remote.php/dav;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
location = /.well-known/caldav {
 +
  return 301 $scheme://$host/owncloud/remote.php/dav;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
location /.well-known/acme-challenge { }
 +
 
 +
location ^~ /owncloud {
 +
 
 +
  root /usr/share/webapps;
 +
 
 +
  # set max upload size
 +
  client_max_body_size 512M;
 +
  fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;
 +
 
 +
  # Disable gzip to avoid the removal of the ETag header
 +
  gzip off;
 +
 
 +
  # Uncomment if your server is build with the ngx_pagespeed module
 +
  # This module is currently not supported.
 +
  #pagespeed off;
 +
 
 +
  location /owncloud {
 +
    rewrite ^ /owncloud/index.php$uri;
 +
  }
 +
 
 +
  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)/ {
 +
    deny all;
 +
  }
 +
 
 +
  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {
 
     deny all;
 
     deny all;
}
+
  }
# pass all .php or .php/path urls to uWSGI
+
 
location ~ ^(.+\.php)(.*)$ {
+
  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:updater|ocs-provider)(?:$|/) {
 +
    try_files $uri/ =404;
 +
    index index.php;
 +
  }
 +
 
 +
  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core/ajax/update|status|ocs/v[12]|updater/.+|ocs-provider/.+|core/templates/40[34])\.php(?:$|/) {
 
     include uwsgi_params;
 
     include uwsgi_params;
 
     uwsgi_modifier1 14;
 
     uwsgi_modifier1 14;
     uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3001;
+
    # Avoid duplicate headers confusing OC checks
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
 +
     uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/owncloud.sock;
 +
  }
 +
 
 +
  # Adding the cache control header for js and css files
 +
  # Make sure it is BELOW the PHP block
 +
  location ~* \.(?:css|js) {
 +
    try_files $uri /owncloud/index.php$uri$is_args$args;
 +
    add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=7200";
 +
    # Add headers to serve security related headers  (It is intended
 +
    # to have those duplicated to the ones above)
 +
    # Before enabling Strict-Transport-Security headers please read
 +
    # into this topic first.
 +
    # add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000;
 +
    # includeSubDomains; preload;";
 +
    add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;
 +
    add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";
 +
    add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";
 +
    add_header X-Robots-Tag none;
 +
    add_header X-Download-Options noopen;
 +
    add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;
 +
    # Optional: Don't log access to assets
 +
    access_log off;
 +
  }
 +
 
 +
  location ~* \.(?:svg|gif|png|html|ttf|woff|ico|jpg|jpeg) {
 +
    try_files $uri /owncloud/index.php$uri$is_args$args;
 +
    # Optional: Don't log access to other assets
 +
    access_log off;
 +
  }
 
}
 
}
# everything else goes to the filesystem,
+
</nowiki>}}
# but / will be mapped to index.php and run through uwsgi
+
 
location / {
+
=== Docker ===
    root /usr/share/webapps/owncloud;
+
See the [https://hub.docker.com/_/owncloud/ ownCloud] or [https://github.com/nextcloud/docker Nextcloud] repository for [[Docker]].
    index index.php;
+
 
}
+
=== Upload and share from File Manager ===
</pre>
+
[https://github.com/schiesbn/shareLinkCreator shareLinkCreator] provides the ability to upload a file to
The uWSGI /etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini config file (run it with uwsgi_php --ini /etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini):
+
OwnCloud via a supported file manager and receive a link to the uploaded file which can then be emailed or shared in another way.
<pre>
+
 
[uwsgi]
+
=== Defining Background Jobs ===
socket = 127.0.0.1:3001
 
master = true
 
chdir = /srv/http/owncloud
 
php-docroot = /usr/share/webapps/owncloud
 
php-index = index.php
 
  
# only allow these php files, I don't want to inadvertently run something else
+
Nextcloud requires scheduled execution of some tasks, and by default it achieves this by using AJAX,
php-allowed-ext = /index.php
+
however AJAX is the least reliable method, and it is recommended to use [[Cron]] instead. However,
php-allowed-ext = /remote.php
+
ArchLinux ships with {{Pkg|systemd}}, so the preferred way of executing scheduled tasks is a [[Systemd#Timers|systemd timer]].  
php-allowed-ext = /cron.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /status.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/apps.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /core/ajax/share.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /core/ajax/requesttoken.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /core/ajax/translations.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /search/ajax/search.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /search/templates/part.results.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/admin.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/users.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/personal.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/help.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/getlog.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/setlanguage.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/setquota.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/userlist.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/createuser.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/removeuser.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/enableapp.php
 
php-allowed-ext = /core/ajax/appconfig.php
 
  
php-set = date.timezone=Europe/Skopje
+
First create a service:
php-set = open_basedir=/srv/http/owncloud:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/:/usr/share/webapps/owncloud
 
  
processes = 10
+
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/nextcloudcron.service|<nowiki>
cheaper = 2
 
</pre>
 
Finally, a simple systemd unit file to start the uwsgi instance can be (this is without using the emperor):
 
<pre>
 
 
[Unit]
 
[Unit]
Description=OwnCloud service via uWSGI-PHP
+
Description=Nextcloud cron.php job
  
 
[Service]
 
[Service]
 
User=http
 
User=http
ExecStart=/usr/bin/uwsgi_php --ini /etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini
+
ExecStart=/usr/bin/php -f /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/cron.php
ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID
 
KillSignal=SIGQUIT
 
Restart=always
 
  
 
[Install]
 
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
+
WantedBy=basic.target
</pre>
+
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
Then create a timer for that service:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/nextcloudcron.timer|<nowiki>
 +
[Unit]
 +
Description=Run Nextcloud cron.php every 15 minutes
 +
 
 +
[Timer]
 +
OnBootSec=5min
 +
OnUnitActiveSec=15min
 +
Unit=nextcloudcron.service
 +
 
 +
[Install]
 +
WantedBy=timers.target
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
[[Start/enable]] {{ic|nextcloudcron.timer}}.
 +
 
 +
Confirm that it is running by running
 +
# systemctl list-timers
 +
 
 +
=== Collabora Online Office integration ===
 +
'''Solution with Docker: ''CODE backend using the official Docker image'''''
 +
 
 +
The first, install a {{Pkg|docker}} package to provide collabora files and setup a Collabora server.
 +
 
 +
[[Start/enable]] docker.service
 +
 
 +
# systemctl enable docker.service
 +
# systemctl start docker.service
 +
 
 +
Then, download the required binares :
 +
 
 +
# docker pull collabora/code
 +
 
 +
And, installing a Collabora server. Make sure {{ic|cloud//.example//.com}} is your nextcloud's domain, not a collabora :
 +
 
 +
# docker run -t -d -p 127.0.0.1:9980:9980 -e 'domain=cloud//.example//.com' --restart always --cap-add MKNOD collabora/code
 +
 
 +
Also make sure to escape all dots with double backslashes (\), since this string will be evaluated as a regular expression (and your bash 'eats' the first backslash.) If you want to use the docker container with more than one Nextcloud, you'll need to use 'domain=cloud\\.example\\.com\|second\\.example\\.com' instead. (All hosts are separated by \|.) When using `localhost` as domain for testing you need to add {ic|--net host}} to ensure the docker container can access your Nextcloud server.
 +
 
 +
If you need to delete or reinstall Collabora server use:
 +
 
 +
For recognition CONTAINER_ID of server
 +
# docker ps
 +
 
 +
Stop and delete
 +
# docker stop CONTAINER_ID
 +
# docker rm CONTAINER_ID
 +
 
 +
Futher, follow the instruction of webserver you are using:
 +
 
 +
'''Nginx setup example:'''
 +
 
 +
Add following to your nextcloud domain config or add new config file in /etc/nginx/conf.d/ directory, (Don't forget to change {{ic|office.example.com}} and {{ic|ssl_certificate}} to the right values:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/nginx/conf.d/example.conf|<nowiki>
 +
upstream office.example.com {
 +
    server 127.0.0.1:9980;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
server {
 +
    listen 443 ssl;
 +
    server_name office.example.com;
 +
 +
    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/office.example.com/fullchain.pem;
 +
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/office.example.com/privkey.pem;
 +
 
 +
    # static files
 +
    location ^~ /loleaflet {
 +
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9980;
 +
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
 +
    }
 +
 
 +
    # WOPI discovery URL
 +
    location ^~ /hosting/discovery {
 +
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9980;
 +
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
 +
    }
 +
 
 +
    # Main websocket
 +
    location ~ /lool/(.*)/ws$ {
 +
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9980;
 +
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
 +
        proxy_set_header Connection "Upgrade";
 +
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
 +
        proxy_read_timeout 36000s;
 +
    }
 +
 
 +
    # Admin Console websocket
 +
    location ^~ /lool/adminws {
 +
proxy_buffering off;
 +
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9980;
 +
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
 +
        proxy_set_header Connection "Upgrade";
 +
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
 +
        proxy_read_timeout 36000s;
 +
    }
 +
 
 +
    # download, presentation and image upload
 +
    location ~ /lool {
 +
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9980;
 +
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
 +
    }
 +
}
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
Restart a nginx:
 +
 
 +
# nginx -s reload
 +
or
 +
# systemctl restart nginx.service
 +
 
 +
'''Apache setup example:'''
 +
 
 +
Add following to nextcloud config file. Don't forget to change to the right values
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/httpd/conf/extra/nextcloud.conf|<nowiki>
 +
<VirtualHost *:443>
 +
ServerName office.nextcloud.com:443
 +
 
 +
# SSL configuration, you may want to take the easy route instead and use Lets Encrypt!
 +
SSLEngine on
 +
SSLCertificateFile /path/to/signed_certificate
 +
SSLCertificateChainFile /path/to/intermediate_certificate
 +
SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/private/key
 +
SSLProtocol            all -SSLv2 -SSLv3
 +
SSLCipherSuite ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:AES128-GCM-SHA256:AES256-GCM-SHA384:AES128-SHA256:AES256-SHA256:AES128-SHA:AES256-SHA:DES-CBC3-SHA:!DSS
 +
SSLHonorCipherOrder    on
 +
 
 +
# Encoded slashes need to be allowed
 +
AllowEncodedSlashes NoDecode
 +
 
 +
# Container uses a unique non-signed certificate
 +
SSLProxyEngine On
 +
SSLProxyVerify None
 +
SSLProxyCheckPeerCN Off
 +
SSLProxyCheckPeerName Off
 +
 
 +
# keep the host
 +
ProxyPreserveHost On
 +
 
 +
# static html, js, images, etc. served from loolwsd
 +
# loleaflet is the client part of LibreOffice Online
 +
ProxyPass          /loleaflet https://127.0.0.1:9980/loleaflet retry=0
 +
ProxyPassReverse    /loleaflet https://127.0.0.1:9980/loleaflet
 +
 
 +
# WOPI discovery URL
 +
ProxyPass          /hosting/discovery https://127.0.0.1:9980/hosting/discovery retry=0
 +
ProxyPassReverse    /hosting/discovery https://127.0.0.1:9980/hosting/discovery
 +
 
 +
# Main websocket
 +
ProxyPassMatch "/lool/(.*)/ws$" wss://127.0.0.1:9980/lool/$1/ws nocanon
 +
 
 +
# Admin Console websocket
 +
ProxyPass  /lool/adminws wss://127.0.0.1:9980/lool/adminws
 +
 
 +
# Download as, Fullscreen presentation and Image upload operations
 +
ProxyPass          /lool https://127.0.0.1:9980/lool
 +
ProxyPassReverse    /lool https://127.0.0.1:9980/lool
 +
</VirtualHost>
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
After configuring these do restart your apache:
 +
# systemctl restart httpd
 +
 
 +
'''Install the Nextcloud app'''
 +
 
 +
Go to the Apps section and choose “Office & Text”, install the “Collabora Online” app. In admin panel select Collabora Online tab and specific the server's domain you have setup before.
 +
 
 +
'''Solution without Docker: ''CODE backend using an Archlinux package'''''
 +
 
 +
The {{AUR|collabora-online-server-nodocker}} package brings to your Archlinux installation 1º Collabora Office (the desktop suite), and 2º the “CODE” (Collabora Online Development Edition) server, which is based on “lool” (LibreOffice OnLine).
 +
 
 +
Alter the `/etc/loolwsd/loolwsd.xml` file, so that:
 +
* `config > server_name` contains the host and port of the public Nextcloud address, separated by a colon (eg. `example.org:443`),
 +
* `config > ssl > enable` is false (ie. web browser —HTTPS→ proxy —HTTP→ loolwsd),
 +
* `config > ssl > termination` is true (I suppose you’ll manage TLS at the proxy level),
 +
* `config > storage > wopi > host` reflects the actual hostname (or pattern) of the proxy server (eg. `(?:.*\.)?example\.org`),
 +
* `config > admin_console > username` and `config > admin_console > password` are set to values of your choice.
 +
 
 +
Then:
 +
* start and enable `loolwsd.service`;
 +
* configure Nginx as showed in /usr/share/doc/loolwsd/example.nginx.conf, and restart it.
 +
 
 +
== See also ==
 +
* [https://docs.nextcloud.com/ nextcloud official website]
 +
* [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/ nextcloud 12.0 Admin Documentation]

Latest revision as of 15:21, 13 January 2018

From Wikipedia:

Nextcloud is a suite of client-server software for creating and using file hosting services. It is functionally similar to Dropbox, although Nextcloud is free and open-source, allowing anyone to install and operate it on a private server. In contrast to proprietary services like Dropbox, the open architecture allows adding additional functionality to the server in form of applications.

Nextcloud is a fork of ownCloud. For differences between the two, see wikipedia:Nextcloud#Differences from ownCloud.

Prerequisites

Nextcloud requires several components:

These will be configured in #Setup.

Make sure the required components are installed before proceeding.

Installation

Install the nextcloud package.

Setup

As stated above, in order to setup Nextcloud, you must set up the appropriate PHP requirements; additionally, you must configure a database and a webserver.

Pacman hook

To do nextcloud database upgrade automatically you may set up pacman post upgrade hook based on following example:

 # Update Nextcloud when core or -apps are touched
 
 [Trigger]
 Operation = Install
 Operation = Upgrade
 Type = Package
 Target = nextcloud
 Target = nextcloud-app-*
 
 [Action]
 Description = Updating Nextcloud installation
 When = PostTransaction
 Exec = /usr/bin/runuser -u http -- /usr/bin/php /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/occ upgrade

You need to put it into /etc/pacman.d/hooks/nextcloud.hook if you did not customize HookDir in pacman.conf.

See also Pacman#Hooks

PHP setup

Note: Nextcloud does not support PHP 7.2 as of version 12.0.4. [1] Until version 13 is released, install the php71 package or update to nextcloud-testingAUR.
Tip: For all prerequisite PHP modules, see upstream documentation: Nextcloud 12.0.

Install PHP#gd and php-intl as additional modules.

Some apps(News for example) require the iconv extension, if you wish to use these apps, uncomment the extension in /etc/php/php.ini.

Depending on which database backend will be used:

Performance may be improved through the implementation of caching, see Configuring Memory Caching on the official documentation for details.

Database setup

An SQL database must be setup and used for your Nextcloud installation. After setting up the database here, you will be prompted for its information when you first create an administrator account.

MariaDB

Note: It's is highly recommended to set binlog_format to mixed [2] in /etc/mysql/my.cnf.

The following is an example of setting up a MariaDB database and user:

$ mysql -u root -p
mysql> CREATE DATABASE `nextcloud` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET `utf8` COLLATE `utf8_unicode_ci`;
mysql> CREATE USER `nextcloud`@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `nextcloud`.* TO `nextcloud`@`localhost`;
mysql> \q

PostgreSQL

Warning: Nextcloud 12 is unable to do migration with PostgreSQL version 10 (currently in the repositories), as noted in this bug report. While not officially supported, once the migration done, Nextcloud 12 seems to work as expected with PostgreSQL 10.

The following is an example of setting up a PostgreSQL user and database:

$ sudo -u postgres createuser -h localhost -P nextcloud
Enter password for new role:
Enter it again:
$ sudo -u postgres createdb -O nextcloud nextcloud

Webserver setup

Warning: It is recommended to use TLS/SSL (HTTPS) over plain HTTP, see Apache#TLS/SSL or Nginx#TLS/SSL for examples and implement this in the examples given below.

Depending on which webserver you are using, further setup is required, indicated below.

Apache

If you haven't already, install Apache and install and enable Apache's PHP module

Copy the Apache configuration file to the configuration directory:

# cp /etc/webapps/nextcloud/apache.example.conf /etc/httpd/conf/extra/nextcloud.conf

Modify the file according to your preferences. By default it includes an alias for /nextcloud pointing to /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud.

And include it in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:

Include conf/extra/nextcloud.conf

Ensure that the root location of your Nextcloud installation (e.g., /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud) is accessible by the webserver's user http.

Now restart Apache (httpd.service).

WebDAV

Nextcloud comes with its own WebDAV implementation enabled, which may conflict with the one shipped with Apache. If you have enabled WebDAV in Apache (not enabled by default), disable the modules mod_dav and mod_dav_fs in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. See [3] for details.

Nginx

Create an empty directory to hold the cloud-specific config file:

# mkdir /etc/nginx/conf.d/

In /etc/nginx/nginx.conf, add the following lines under the "http" section:

http {
...
...
server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
include conf.d/*.conf;
}


Create a config file /etc/nginx/conf.d/nextcloud.conf according to the documentation. You will have to change the root location, as the Arch package installs to /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud instead of /var/www/nextcloud.

Addtitionally, you change the php-handler block so it looks like this one

upstream php-handler {
   server unix:/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;
}

in the /etc/nginx/conf.d/nextcloud.conf file.

From this point on, it is recommended to obtain a secure-certificates using Let's Encrypt, see #Security Hardening.

PHP-FPM configuration

Make sure PHP-FPM has been configured correctly as described in Nginx#FastCGI.

Uncomment env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin in /etc/php/php-fpm.d/www.conf and restart php-fpm.service to apply the changes.

Initialize

Open the address where you have installed Nextcloud in a web browser (e.g., https://www.examples.com/nextcloud).

Create storage directories

You will now see "Cannot write into "apps" directory". This is because Arch packages Nextcloud in a way where the apps folder only has the webserver as a group without web permissions and the data folder is nonexistent.

The easiest non-conflicting way is to create a new writable folder for apps and also create a writable data folder. Replace the http group with the group your webserver uses if needed.

# mkdir -p /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/data
# mkdir -p /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps2
# chown http:http /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/data
# chown http:http /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps2
# chmod 700 /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/data
# chmod 700 /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps2

Next edit the configuration file at /etc/webapps/nextcloud/config/config.php and add following lines before the closing ); of the file.

/etc/webapps/nextcloud/config/config.php
'apps_paths' =>
  array (
    0 =>
    array (
      'path' => '/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps',
      'url' => '/apps',
      'writable' => false,
    ),
    1 =>
    array (
      'path' => '/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/apps2',
      'url' => '/apps2',
      'writable' => true,
    ),
  ),
  'datadirectory' => '/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/data'

Refresh the page and the error should be gone.

From there follow the instructions in adding an administrator account as well as selecting the database you created earlier.

Security Hardening

The Nextcloud Hardening and Security article guides along generic topics. See also the project's Security scanner.

Let's Encrypt

nginx

Tango-go-next.pngThis article or section is a candidate for moving to Let's Encrypt.Tango-go-next.png

Notes: A simple example of configuring an 'empty' domain for Let's Encrypt should be created. The example file given is too big and could be far easier. (Discuss in Talk:Nextcloud#)

1. Create the cloud configuration /etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud-initial.conf using this initial file as a template. Substitute the literal "@@FQDN@@" in the template file with the actual FQDN to be used. The certs for the server need to be generated using this unencrypted configuration initially. Follow the steps outlined on Let’s Encrypt to generate the server encryption certificates.

2. Upon successfully generating certificates, replace /etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud-initial.conf (it may be safely renamed so long as it does not end in ".conf" or simply deleted) with a new file, /etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud.conf using this file as a template. Again, substitute the literal "@@FQDN@@" in the template file with the actual FQDN to be used. Start and optionally enable nginx.service.

uWSGI

You can run Nextcloud in its own process and service by using the uWSGI application server with uwsgi-plugin-php. This allows you to define a PHP configuration only for this instance of PHP, without the need to edit the global php.ini and thus keeping your web application configurations compartmentalized. uWSGI itself has a wealth of features to limit the resource use and to harden the security of the application, and by being a separate process it can run under its own user.

The only part that differs from #php-fpm configuration[broken link: invalid section] is the location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {} block:

  location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {
    include uwsgi_params;
    uwsgi_modifier1 14;
    # Avoid duplicate headers confusing OC checks
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
    uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/nextcloud.sock;
    }

Then create a config file for uWSGI:

/etc/uwsgi/nextcloud.ini
[uwsgi]
; load the required plugins
plugins = php
; force the sapi name to 'apache', this will enable the opcode cache  
php-sapi-name = apache

; set master process name and socket
; '%n' refers to the name of this configuration file without extension
procname-master = uwsgi %n
master = true
socket = /run/uwsgi/%n.sock

; drop privileges
uid    = http
gid    = http
umask  = 027

; run with at least 1 process but increase up to 4 when needed
processes = 4
cheaper = 1

; reload whenever this config file changes
; %p is the full path of the current config file
touch-reload = %p

; disable uWSGI request logging
;disable-logging = true

; enforce a DOCUMENT_ROOT
php-docroot     = /usr/share/webapps/%n
; limit allowed extensions
php-allowed-ext = .php
; and search for index.php if required
php-index = index.php

; set php configuration for this instance of php, no need to edit global php.ini
php-set = date.timezone=Etc/UTC
;php-set = open_basedir=/tmp/:/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud:/etc/webapps/nextcloud:/dev/urandom
php-set = expose_php=false
; avoid security risk of leaving sessions in world-readable /tmp
php-set = session.save_path=/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/data

; port of php directives set upstream in /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/.user.ini for use with PHP-FPM
php-set = upload_max_filesize=513M
php-set = post_max_size=513M
php-set = memory_limit=512M
php-set = output_buffering=off

; load all extensions only in this instance of php, no need to edit global php.ini
;; required core modules
php-set = extension=gd
php-set = extension=iconv
;php-set = extension=zip     # enabled by default in global php.ini

;; database connectors
;; uncomment your selected driver
;php-set = extension=pdo_sqlite
;php-set = extension=pdo_mysql
;php-set = extension=pdo_pgsql

;; recommended extensions
;php-set = extension=curl    # enabled by default in global php.ini
php-set = extension=bz2
php-set = extension=intl

;; required for specific apps
;php-set = extension=ldap    # for LDAP integration
;php-set = extension=ftp     # for FTP storage / external user authentication
;php-set = extension=imap    # for external user authentication, requires php-imap

;; recommended for specific apps
;php-set = extension=exif    # for image rotation in pictures app, requires exiv2
;php-set = extension=gmp     # for SFTP storage

;; for preview generation
;; provided by packages in AUR
; php-set = extension=imagick

; opcache
php-set = zend_extension=opcache

; user cache
; provided by php-acpu, to be enabled **either** here **or** in /etc/php/conf.d/apcu.ini
php-set = extension=apcu
; per https://github.com/krakjoe/apcu/blob/simplify/INSTALL
php-set = apc.ttl=7200
php-set = apc.enable_cli=1

cron2 = minute=-15,unique=1 /usr/bin/php -f /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/cron.php 1>/dev/null
Note: * Do not forget to set your timezone and uncomment the required database connector in the uWSGI config file
  • The open_basedir directive is optional and commented out. You can uncomment to harden security. Be aware that it may occasionally break things.
  • Use php-docroot = /usr/share/webapps if placing nextcloud in /nextcloud subdirectory.
Warning: The way the Nextcloud background job is currently set up with uWSGI cron will make use of the default global configuration from /etc/php/php.ini. This means that none of the specific parameters defined (e.g. required modules) will be enabled, leading to various issues. One solution is to copy /etc/php/php.ini to e.g. /etc/uwsgi/cron-php.ini, make the required modifications there (mirroring /etc/uwsgi/nextcloud.ini parameters) and referencing it in the cron directive by adding the -c /etc/uwsgi/cron-php.ini option to php invocation.

Activation

uWSGI provides a template unit that allows to start and enable application using their configuration file name as instance identifier. For example:

# systemctl start uwsgi@nextcloud.socket

would start it on demand referencing the configuration file /etc/uwsgi/nextcloud.ini.

To enable the uwsgi service by default at start-up, run:

# systemctl enable uwsgi@nextcloud.socket
Note: Here we make use of systemd socket activation to prevent unnecessary resources consumption when no connections are made to the instance. If you would rather have it constantly active, simply remove the .socket part to start and enable the service instead.

See also UWSGI#Starting service[broken link: invalid section].

Setting strong permissions for the filesystem

You should set the permissions for config/, data/ and apps/ as strict as possible. That means that your HTTP user (http in case of apache) should own them, and the should have 700 permissions. You can use the following script to achieve this.

Tango-edit-clear.pngThis article or section needs language, wiki syntax or style improvements.Tango-edit-clear.png

Reason: Complex script for trivial one-time task. (Discuss in Talk:Nextcloud#)
oc-perms
#!/bin/bash
ocpath='/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud'
htuser='http'
htgroup='http'
rootuser='root'

printf "Creating possible missing Directories\n"
mkdir -p $ocpath/data
mkdir -p $ocpath/assets

printf "chmod Files and Directories\n"
find ${ocpath}/ -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
find ${ocpath}/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750

printf "chown Directories\n"
chown -R ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/apps/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/assets/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/config/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/data/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/themes/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/updater/

chmod +x ${ocpath}/occ

printf "chmod/chown .htaccess\n"
if [ -f ${ocpath}/.htaccess ]
 then
  chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/.htaccess
  chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/.htaccess
fi
if [ -f ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess ]
 then
  chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess
  chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess
fi

If you have customized your Nextcloud installation and your filepaths are different than the standard installation, then modify this script accordingly.

Synchronization

Desktop

The official client can be installed with the owncloud-client or nextcloud-clientAUR package. Alternative versions are available in the AUR: owncloud-client-gitAUR.

Calendar

To access your Nextcloud calendars using Mozilla Thunderbird's Lightning calendar you would use the following URL:

https://ADDRESS/remote.php/caldav/calendars/USERNAME/CALENDARNAME

To access your Nextcloud calendars using CalDAV-compatible programs like Kontact or Evolution, you would use the following URL:

https://ADDRESS/remote.php/caldav

For details see the official documentation.

Contacts

To sync contacts with Thunderbird, see these instructions from the official doc.

Mounting files with davfs2

If you want to mount your ownCloud permanently install davfs2 (as described in davfs2) first.

Considering your ownCloud were at https://own.example.com, your WebDAV URL would be https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav (as of ownCloud 6.0).

To mount your ownCloud, use:

# mount -t davfs https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav /path/to/mount

You can also create an entry for this in /etc/fstab

/etc/fstab
https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav /path/to/mount davfs rw,user,noauto 0 0
Tip: In order to allow automount you can also store your username (and password if you like) in a file as described in davfs2#Storing credentials.
Note: If creating/copying files is not possible, while the same operations work on directories, see davfs2#Creating/copying files not possible and/or freezes.

Mounting files in GNOME Files (Nautilus)

You can access the files directly in Nautilus ('+ Other Locations') through WebDAV protocol - use the link as shown in your Nextcloud installation Web GUI (typically: https://example.org/remote.php/webdav/) but replace the protocol name from 'https' to 'davs'. Nautilus will ask for user name and password when trying to connect.

Android

Download the official Nextcloud app from Google Play.

To enable contacts and calendar sync (Android 4+):

  1. download DAVdroid (Play Store, F-Droid)
  2. Enable mod_rewrite.so in httpd.conf
  3. create a new DAVdroid account in the Account settings, and specify your "short" server address and login/password couple, e.g. https://cloud.example.com (there is no need for the /remote.php/{carddav,webdav} part if you configured your web server with the proper redirections, as illustrated previously in the article; DAVdroid will find itself the right URLs)

iOS

Download the official Nextcloud app from the App Store.

SABnzbd

When using SABnzbd, you might want to set

folder_rename 0

in your sabnzbd.ini file, because ownCloud will scan the files as soon as they get uploaded, preventing SABnzbd from removing UNPACKING prefixes etc.

Troubleshooting

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: A lot of references to OwnCloud, are these still valid with Nextcloud? (Discuss in Talk:Nextcloud#)

Self-signed certificate not accepted

ownCloud uses Wikipedia:cURL and Wikipedia:SabreDAV to check if WebDAV is enabled. If you use SSL/TLS with a self-signed certificate, e.g. as shown in LAMP, and access ownCloud's admin panel, you will see the following error message:

Your web server is not yet properly setup to allow files synchronization because the WebDAV interface seems to be broken.

Assuming that you followed the LAMP tutorial, execute the following steps:

Create a local directory for non-distribution certificates and copy LAMPs certificate there. This will prevent ca-certificates-updates from overwriting it.

# cp /etc/httpd/conf/server.crt /usr/share/ca-certificates/WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt

Add WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt to /etc/ca-certificates.conf:

WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt

Now, regenerate your certificate store:

# update-ca-certificates

Restart the httpd service to activate your certificate.

Self-signed certificate for Android devices

Once you have followed the setup for SSL, as on LAMP[broken link: invalid section] for example, early versions of DAVdroid will reject the connection because the certificate is not trusted. A certificate can be made as follows on your server:

 # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in /etc/httpd/conf/server.csr -signkey /etc/httpd/conf/server.key -extfile android.txt -out CA.crt
 # openssl x509 -inform PEM -outform DER -in CA.crt -out CA.der.crt 

The file android.txt should contain the following:

 basicConstraints=CA:true

Then import CA.der.crt to your Android device:

Put the CA.der.crt file onto the sdcard of your Android device (usually to the internal one, e.g. save from a mail attachment). It should be in the root directory. Go to Settings > Security > Credential storage and select Install from device storage. The .crt file will be detected and you will be prompted to enter a certificate name. After importing the certificate, you will find it in Settings > Security > Credential storage > Trusted credentials > User.

Thanks to: [4]

Another way is to import the certificate directly from your server via CAdroid and follow the instructions there.

Cannot write into config directory!

If you have set open_basedir in your PHP/web server configuration file (e.g. /etc/httpd/conf/extra/nextcloud.conf), make sure that it includes /etc/webapps.

Restart the web server to apply the change.

Cannot create data directory

If you have set open_basedir in your PHP/web server configuration file (e.g. /etc/httpd/conf/extra/nextcloud.conf), make sure that it includes the data directory.

Restart the web server to apply the change.

CSync failed to find a specific file.

This is most likely a certificate issue. Recreate it, and do not leave the common name empty or you will see the error again.

# openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout server.key -out server.crt

Seeing white page after login

The cause is probably a new app that you installed. To fix that, you can use the occ command as described here. So with

sudo -u http php /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/occ app:list

you can list all apps (if you installed nextcloud in the standard directory), and with

sudo -u http php /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/occ app:disable <nameOfExtension>

you can disable the troubling app.

Alternatively, you can either use phpMyAdmin to edit the oc_appconfig table (if you got lucky and the table has an edit option), or do it by hand with mysql:

mysql -u root -p owncloud
MariaDB [owncloud]> delete from oc_appconfig where appid='<nameOfExtension>' and configkey='enabled' and configvalue='yes';
MariaDB [owncloud]> insert into oc_appconfig (appid,configkey,configvalue) values ('<nameOfExtension>','enabled','no');

This should delete the relevant configuration from the table and add it again.

GUI sync client fails to connect

If using HTTP basic authentication, make sure to exclude "status.php", which must be publicly accessible. [5]

Some files upload, but give an error 'Integrity constraint violation...'

You may see the following error in the ownCloud sync client:

   SQLSTATE[23000]: Integrity constraint violation: ... Duplicate entry '...' for key 'fs_storage_path_hash')...

This is caused by an issue with the File Locking app, which is often not sufficient to keep conflicts from occurring on some webserver configurations. A more complete Transactional File Locking is available that rids these errors, but you must be using the Redis php-caching method. Install redis and php-redisAUR, comment out your current php-cache mechanism, and then in /etc/php/conf.d/redis.ini uncomment extension=redis. Then in config.php make the following changes:

   'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
   'filelocking.enabled' => 'true',
   'memcache.locking' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
   'redis' => array(
        'host' => 'localhost',
        'port' => 6379,
        'timeout' => 0.0,
         ),

and start/enable redis.service.

Finally, disable the File Locking App, as the Transational File Locking will take care of it (and would conflict).

If everything is working, you should see 'Transactional File Locking Enabled' under Server Status on the Admin page, and syncs should no longer cause issues.

"Cannot write into apps directory"

As mentioned in the official admin manual, either you need an apps directory that is writable by the http user, or you need to set appstoreenabled to false.

Installed apps get blocked because of MIME type error

If you're putting your apps folder outside of the nextcloud installation directory make sure your webserver serves it properly.

In nginx this is accomplished by adding a location block to the nginx configuration as the folder will not be included in it by default.

location ~ /apps2/(.*)$ {
    alias /var/www/nextcloud/apps/$1;
}

Security warnings even though the recommended settings have been included in nginx.conf

At the top of the admin page there might be a warning to set the Strict-Transport-Security, X-Content-Type-Options, X-Frame-Options, X-XSS-Protection and X-Robots-Tag according to https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/12/admin_manual/configuration_server/harden_server.html even though they are already set like that.

A possible cause could be that because owncloud sets those settings, uwsgi passed them along and nginx added them again:

$ curl -I https://domain.tld
...
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-Frame-Options: Sameorigin
X-Robots-Tag: none
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=15768000; includeSubDomains; preload;
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Robots-Tag: none

While the fast_cgi sample config has a parameter to avoid that ( fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true; #Avoid sending the security headers twice ), when using uwsgi and nginx the following modification of the uwsgi part in nginx.conf could help:

 /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
...
        # pass all .php or .php/path urls to uWSGI
        location ~ ^(.+\.php)(.*)$ {
            include uwsgi_params;
            uwsgi_modifier1 14;
            # hode following headers received from uwsgi, because otherwise we would send them twice since we already add them in nginx itself
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
            uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
            #Uncomment line below if you get connection refused error. Remember to commet out line with "uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3001;" below
            uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/owncloud.sock;
            #uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3001;
        }
...

"Reading from keychain failed with error: 'No keychain service available'"

Can be fixed for Gnome by installing the following 2 packages, libgnome-keyring and gnome-keyring. Or the following for KDE, libgnome-keyring and qtkeychain.

FolderSync: "Method Not Allowed"

FolderSync needs access to /owncloud/remote.php/webdav, so you could create another alias for owncloud in your /etc/httpd/conf/extra/nextcloud.conf

  <IfModule mod_alias.c>
    Alias /nextcloud /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/
    Alias /owncloud /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/
  </IfModule>

Tips and tricks

Running ownCloud in a subdirectory

By including the default owncloud.conf in httpd.conf, ownCloud will take control of port 80 and your localhost domain.

If you would like to have ownCloud run in a subdirectory, then edit the /etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf you included and comment out the <VirtualHost *:80> ... </VirtualHost> part of the include file.

You can use the following nginx config when using owncloud with uwsgi:

/etc/nginx/conf.d/owncloud.conf
location = /.well-known/carddav {
  return 301 $scheme://$host/owncloud/remote.php/dav;
}

location = /.well-known/caldav {
  return 301 $scheme://$host/owncloud/remote.php/dav;
}

location /.well-known/acme-challenge { }

location ^~ /owncloud {

  root /usr/share/webapps;

  # set max upload size
  client_max_body_size 512M;
  fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;

  # Disable gzip to avoid the removal of the ETag header
  gzip off;

  # Uncomment if your server is build with the ngx_pagespeed module
  # This module is currently not supported.
  #pagespeed off;

  location /owncloud {
    rewrite ^ /owncloud/index.php$uri;
  }

  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)/ {
    deny all;
  }

  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {
    deny all;
  }

  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:updater|ocs-provider)(?:$|/) {
    try_files $uri/ =404;
    index index.php;
  }

  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core/ajax/update|status|ocs/v[12]|updater/.+|ocs-provider/.+|core/templates/40[34])\.php(?:$|/) {
    include uwsgi_params;
    uwsgi_modifier1 14;
    # Avoid duplicate headers confusing OC checks
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
    uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/owncloud.sock;
  }

  # Adding the cache control header for js and css files
  # Make sure it is BELOW the PHP block
  location ~* \.(?:css|js) {
    try_files $uri /owncloud/index.php$uri$is_args$args;
    add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=7200";
    # Add headers to serve security related headers  (It is intended
    # to have those duplicated to the ones above)
    # Before enabling Strict-Transport-Security headers please read
    # into this topic first.
    # add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000;
    # includeSubDomains; preload;";
    add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;
    add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";
    add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";
    add_header X-Robots-Tag none;
    add_header X-Download-Options noopen;
    add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;
    # Optional: Don't log access to assets
    access_log off;
  }

  location ~* \.(?:svg|gif|png|html|ttf|woff|ico|jpg|jpeg) {
    try_files $uri /owncloud/index.php$uri$is_args$args;
    # Optional: Don't log access to other assets
    access_log off;
  }
}

Docker

See the ownCloud or Nextcloud repository for Docker.

Upload and share from File Manager

shareLinkCreator provides the ability to upload a file to OwnCloud via a supported file manager and receive a link to the uploaded file which can then be emailed or shared in another way.

Defining Background Jobs

Nextcloud requires scheduled execution of some tasks, and by default it achieves this by using AJAX, however AJAX is the least reliable method, and it is recommended to use Cron instead. However, ArchLinux ships with systemd, so the preferred way of executing scheduled tasks is a systemd timer.

First create a service:

/etc/systemd/system/nextcloudcron.service
[Unit]
Description=Nextcloud cron.php job

[Service]
User=http
ExecStart=/usr/bin/php -f /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/cron.php

[Install]
WantedBy=basic.target

Then create a timer for that service:

/etc/systemd/system/nextcloudcron.timer
[Unit]
Description=Run Nextcloud cron.php every 15 minutes

[Timer]
OnBootSec=5min
OnUnitActiveSec=15min
Unit=nextcloudcron.service

[Install]
WantedBy=timers.target

Start/enable nextcloudcron.timer.

Confirm that it is running by running

# systemctl list-timers

Collabora Online Office integration

Solution with Docker: CODE backend using the official Docker image

The first, install a docker package to provide collabora files and setup a Collabora server.

Start/enable docker.service

# systemctl enable docker.service
# systemctl start docker.service

Then, download the required binares :

# docker pull collabora/code

And, installing a Collabora server. Make sure cloud//.example//.com is your nextcloud's domain, not a collabora :

# docker run -t -d -p 127.0.0.1:9980:9980 -e 'domain=cloud//.example//.com' --restart always --cap-add MKNOD collabora/code

Also make sure to escape all dots with double backslashes (\), since this string will be evaluated as a regular expression (and your bash 'eats' the first backslash.) If you want to use the docker container with more than one Nextcloud, you'll need to use 'domain=cloud\\.example\\.com\|second\\.example\\.com' instead. (All hosts are separated by \|.) When using `localhost` as domain for testing you need to add {ic|--net host}} to ensure the docker container can access your Nextcloud server.

If you need to delete or reinstall Collabora server use:

For recognition CONTAINER_ID of server

# docker ps

Stop and delete

# docker stop CONTAINER_ID
# docker rm CONTAINER_ID

Futher, follow the instruction of webserver you are using:

Nginx setup example:

Add following to your nextcloud domain config or add new config file in /etc/nginx/conf.d/ directory, (Don't forget to change office.example.com and ssl_certificate to the right values:

/etc/nginx/conf.d/example.conf
 upstream office.example.com {
    server 127.0.0.1:9980;
}

server {
    listen 443 ssl;
    server_name office.example.com;
 
    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/office.example.com/fullchain.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/office.example.com/privkey.pem;

    # static files
    location ^~ /loleaflet {
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9980;
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
    }

    # WOPI discovery URL
    location ^~ /hosting/discovery {
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9980;
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
    }

    # Main websocket
    location ~ /lool/(.*)/ws$ {
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9980;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection "Upgrade";
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
        proxy_read_timeout 36000s;
    }

    # Admin Console websocket
    location ^~ /lool/adminws {
	proxy_buffering off;
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9980;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection "Upgrade";
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
        proxy_read_timeout 36000s;
    }

    # download, presentation and image upload
    location ~ /lool {
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:9980;
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
    }
}

Restart a nginx:

# nginx -s reload

or

# systemctl restart nginx.service

Apache setup example:

Add following to nextcloud config file. Don't forget to change to the right values

/etc/httpd/conf/extra/nextcloud.conf
<VirtualHost *:443>
ServerName office.nextcloud.com:443

# SSL configuration, you may want to take the easy route instead and use Lets Encrypt!
SSLEngine on
SSLCertificateFile /path/to/signed_certificate
SSLCertificateChainFile /path/to/intermediate_certificate
SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/private/key
SSLProtocol             all -SSLv2 -SSLv3
SSLCipherSuite ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:AES128-GCM-SHA256:AES256-GCM-SHA384:AES128-SHA256:AES256-SHA256:AES128-SHA:AES256-SHA:DES-CBC3-SHA:!DSS
SSLHonorCipherOrder     on

# Encoded slashes need to be allowed
AllowEncodedSlashes NoDecode

# Container uses a unique non-signed certificate
SSLProxyEngine On
SSLProxyVerify None
SSLProxyCheckPeerCN Off
SSLProxyCheckPeerName Off

# keep the host
ProxyPreserveHost On

# static html, js, images, etc. served from loolwsd
# loleaflet is the client part of LibreOffice Online
ProxyPass           /loleaflet https://127.0.0.1:9980/loleaflet retry=0
ProxyPassReverse    /loleaflet https://127.0.0.1:9980/loleaflet

# WOPI discovery URL
ProxyPass           /hosting/discovery https://127.0.0.1:9980/hosting/discovery retry=0
ProxyPassReverse    /hosting/discovery https://127.0.0.1:9980/hosting/discovery

# Main websocket
ProxyPassMatch "/lool/(.*)/ws$" wss://127.0.0.1:9980/lool/$1/ws nocanon

# Admin Console websocket
ProxyPass   /lool/adminws wss://127.0.0.1:9980/lool/adminws

# Download as, Fullscreen presentation and Image upload operations
ProxyPass           /lool https://127.0.0.1:9980/lool
ProxyPassReverse    /lool https://127.0.0.1:9980/lool
</VirtualHost>

After configuring these do restart your apache:

# systemctl restart httpd

Install the Nextcloud app

Go to the Apps section and choose “Office & Text”, install the “Collabora Online” app. In admin panel select Collabora Online tab and specific the server's domain you have setup before.

Solution without Docker: CODE backend using an Archlinux package

The collabora-online-server-nodockerAUR package brings to your Archlinux installation 1º Collabora Office (the desktop suite), and 2º the “CODE” (Collabora Online Development Edition) server, which is based on “lool” (LibreOffice OnLine).

Alter the `/etc/loolwsd/loolwsd.xml` file, so that:

  • `config > server_name` contains the host and port of the public Nextcloud address, separated by a colon (eg. `example.org:443`),
  • `config > ssl > enable` is false (ie. web browser —HTTPS→ proxy —HTTP→ loolwsd),
  • `config > ssl > termination` is true (I suppose you’ll manage TLS at the proxy level),
  • `config > storage > wopi > host` reflects the actual hostname (or pattern) of the proxy server (eg. `(?:.*\.)?example\.org`),
  • `config > admin_console > username` and `config > admin_console > password` are set to values of your choice.

Then:

  • start and enable `loolwsd.service`;
  • configure Nginx as showed in /usr/share/doc/loolwsd/example.nginx.conf, and restart it.

See also