Difference between revisions of "Nextcloud"

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[[Category:Web Server]]
+
[[Category:Web server]]
 
[[fr:Owncloud]]
 
[[fr:Owncloud]]
[[ja:Owncloud]]
+
[[ja:ownCloud]]
 +
{{Related articles start}}
 +
{{Related|Apache HTTP Server}}
 +
{{Related|LAMP}}
 +
{{Related|LEMP}}
 +
{{Related|Nginx}}
 +
{{Related|OpenSSL}}
 +
{{Related|WebDAV}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
 +
 
 +
{{Out of date|{{pkg|owncloud}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|owncloud}}}} has been droppped; {{pkg|nextcloud}} has been added. Many sections still refer to ownCloud.}}
 +
 
 
From [[Wikipedia:ownCloud|Wikipedia]]:
 
From [[Wikipedia:ownCloud|Wikipedia]]:
: ''ownCloud is a software suite that provides a location-independent storage area for data (cloud storage).''
 
  
== Installation ==
+
:Nextcloud is a suite of client-server software for creating file hosting services and using them. It is functionally very similar to the widely used Dropbox, with the primary functional difference being that Nextcloud is free and open-source, and thereby allowing anyone to install and operate it without charge on a private server. In contrast to proprietary services like Dropbox, the open architecture allows adding additional functionality to the server in form of so-called applications.
  
{{AUR|owncloud}} is available in the [[AUR]].
+
For differences between Nextcloud and ownCloud see [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nextcloud#Differences_from_ownCloud].
# First of all set up the [[LAMP]] stack. You will probably need to install the MDB2 pear package as well: {{ic|# pear install mdb2}}
+
# Install the {{AUR|owncloud}} package as described in [[AUR#Installing_packages|AUR wiki page]].
+
# Copy {{ic|/usr/share/doc/owncloud/examples/apache.conf_example}} to {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf}} (if using owncloud-git)
+
# Add the following lines into {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}} (php5 should have been configured during the LAMP stack setup):
+
  Include /etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf
+
  LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so
+
  Include conf/extra/php5_module.conf
+
Uncomment extensions in {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}}:
+
  gd.so
+
  intl.so
+
  openssl.so
+
  xmlrpc.so
+
  zip.so
+
  iconv.so
+
Depending on which database backend you are going to use uncomment either one of the following extensions in {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}}:
+
  sqlite.so
+
  sqlite3.so
+
  pdo_sqlite.so
+
'''or''':
+
  mysql.so
+
  mysqli.so
+
  pdo_mysql.so
+
Now [[Daemons#Restarting|restart]] httpd (Apache) and open [http://localhost http://localhost] in your browser. You should now be able to create a user account and follow the installation wizard.
+
  
== Custom configurations ==
+
== Prerequisites ==
 +
Nextcloud requires several components:
 +
* A web server: [[Apache]] or [[nginx]]
 +
* A database: [[MariaDB]] or [[PostgreSQL]]
 +
* [[PHP]] with [[#PHP|additional modules]].
  
=== Filesize limitations ===
+
These will be configured in [[#Setup]].
  
With the default configuration ownCloud only allows the upload of filesizes less than 2MB.
+
Make sure the required components are installed before proceeding.
This can be changed by changing the following line in {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}} to your liking.
+
  
'''As of version 4.0 this is no longer necessary! The maximum upload size is now set via the ownCloud gui'''
+
== Installation ==
  upload_max_filesize = 2M
+
  
As of version 4.5, upload limits are set in {{ic|/usr/share/webapps/owncloud/.htaccess}}. This won't work if [[LAMP#Using_php5_with_apache2-mpm-worker_and_mod_fcgid|PHP is set up to run as CGI]], so you need to change the limits in {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}}. You also need to change open_basedir.
+
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|nextcloud}} package.
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
upload_max_filesize = 512M
+
post_max_size = 512M
+
memory_limit = 512M
+
open_basedir = /srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/:/usr/share/webapps/
+
</nowiki>}}
+
  
=== Running ownCloud in a subdirectory ===
+
== Setup ==
  
By including the default '''owncloud.conf''' in '''httpd.conf''', owncloud will take control of port 80 and your localhost domain. If you would like to have owncloud run in a subdirectory, then skip the 'Include /etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf' line altogether and just use a symbolic link like so:
+
As stated above, in order to setup Nextcloud, you must set up the appropriate PHP requirements; additionally, you must configure a database and a webserver.
# ln -s /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/ /srv/http/
+
  
In that case, you'll also have to ensure /usr/share/webapps is in the open_basedir line of php.ini, and that per-directory .htaccess files are read by apache.  
+
=== PHP setup ===
 +
{{Tip|For all prerequisite PHP modules, see upstream documentation: [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/11/admin_manual/installation/source_installation.html#prerequisites Nextcloud 11.0].}}
  
Alternatively, you could follow the standard procedure, but comment out the VirtualHost part of the include file, and skip the symlink/basedir/htaccess part.
+
Install [[PHP#gd]], {{pkg|php-intl}} and {{pkg|php-mcrypt}} as additional modules.
  
== Filling ownCloud with data ==
+
Depending on which database backend will be used:
 +
* For [[MySQL]], see [[PHP#MySQL/MariaDB]].
 +
* For [[PostgreSQL]], see [[PHP#PostgreSQL]].
 +
* For [[SQLite]], see [[PHP#Sqlite]].
  
=== Small files ===
+
Performance may be improved through the implementation of [[PHP#Caching|caching]], see [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/11/admin_manual/configuration_server/caching_configuration.html Configuring Memory Caching] on the official documentation for details.
  
==== WebDav ====
+
=== Database setup ===
  
Always use [[WebDAV]] or the web interface to add new files to your ownCloud. Otherwise they will not show up correctly, as they do not get indexed right.
+
An SQL database must be setup and used for your Nextcloud installation. After setting up the database here, you will be prompted for its information when you first create an administrator account.
No further configuration is necessary to enable [[WebDAV]] uploads in ownCloud.  
+
  
Consider installing and enabling [[php-apc]] to speed up WebDAV.
+
==== MariaDB ====
 +
{{Note|It's is highly recommended to set {{ic|binlog_format}} to ''mixed'' [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/11/admin_manual/configuration_database/linux_database_configuration.html#db-binlog-label] in {{ic|/etc/mysql/my.cnf}}.}}
  
==== SABnzbd ====
+
The following is an example of setting up a [[MariaDB]] database and user:
 +
{{hc|$ mysql -u root -p|2=
 +
mysql> CREATE DATABASE `'''nextcloud'''` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET `utf8` COLLATE `utf8_unicode_ci`;
 +
mysql> CREATE USER `'''nextcloud'''`@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY ''''password'''';
 +
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `'''nextcloud'''`.* TO `'''nextcloud'''`@`localhost`;
 +
mysql> \q
 +
}}
 +
==== PostgreSQL ====
 +
The following is an example of setting up a [[PostgreSQL]] user and database:
 +
{{hc|1=$ sudo -u postgres createuser -h localhost -P nextcloud|2=
 +
Enter password for new role:
 +
Enter it again:
 +
}}
 +
{{
 +
bc|$ sudo -u postgres createdb -O nextcloud nextcloud
 +
}}
  
When using [[SABnzbd]], you might want to set
+
=== Webserver setup ===
folder_rename 0
+
{{Warning|It is recommended to use TLS/SSL (HTTPS) over plain HTTP, see [[Apache#TLS/SSL]] or [[Nginx#TLS/SSL]] for examples and implement this in the examples given below.}}
in your sabnzbd.ini file, because ownCloud will scan the files as soon as they get uploaded, preventing SABnzbd from removing UNPACKING prefixes etc.
+
  
=== Big files ===
+
Depending on which [[webserver]] you are using, further setup is required, indicated below.
  
WebDAV isn't suitable for big files, because it fills up all the RAM and CPU.
+
==== Apache ====
 +
Copy the Apache configuration file to the configuration directory:
 +
# cp /etc/webapps/owncloud/apache.example.conf /etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf
  
With the current version, it looks like, there is no good way of copying huge amounts of data to your ownCloud.
+
Modify the file according to your preferences. By default it includes an alias for {{ic|/owncloud}} pointing to {{ic|/usr/share/webapps/owncloud}}.
  
Here's a Workaround:
+
And include it in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}:
 +
Include conf/extra/owncloud.conf
  
Copy the files directly to your ownCloud and do a full re-scan of your database (you could use the [http://apps.owncloud.com/content/show.php?content=151948&forumpage=0&PHPSESSID=37b915160effcc0f37cc761ad2ab88be Re-scan filesystem] add-on for example).
+
Ensure that the root location of your Nextcloud installation (e.g., {{ic|/usr/share/webapps/nextcloud}}) is accessible by the webserver's user {{ic|http}}.
  
But beware that this will not work as easily in the future, when end-to-end encryption gets added to ownCloud (this is a planned feature).
+
Now restart Apache ({{ic|httpd.service}}).
  
== Important notes ==
+
===== WebDAV =====
 +
ownCloud comes with its own [[WebDAV]] implementation enabled, which may conflict with the one shipped with Apache. If you have enabled WebDAV (not enabled by default), disable the modules {{ic|mod_dav}} and {{ic|mod_dav_fs}} in {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf}}. See [https://forum.owncloud.org/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=7240] for details.
  
* When using a subdomain (like cloud.example.net), make sure it is covered by your certificate. Otherwise, connection via the owncloud client or webdav might fail.
+
==== Nginx ====
 +
Create an empty directory to hold the cloud-specific config file:
 +
# mkdir /etc/nginx/conf.d/
  
* If you are planning on using OwnCloud's [http://owncloud.org/sync-clients/ sync-clients], make sure to have [[NTP]] installed and running on your OwnCloud server, otherwise the sync-clients will fail.
+
In {{ic|/etc/nginx/nginx.conf}}, add the following lines under the "http" section:
 +
 +
server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
 +
include conf.d/*.conf;
  
* Add some [[LAMP#SSL|SSL encryption]] to your connection!
+
From this point on, it is recommended to obtain a secure-certificates using [[Let’s Encrypt]], see [[#Security Hardening]].
(If adding SSL encryption as above, be sure to edit /etc/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf and change DocumentRoot "/srv/http" to DocumentRoot "/usr/share/webapps/owncloud" )
+
  
* More Apps for ownCloud can be found [http://apps.owncloud.com/ here]
+
===== PHP-FPM configuration =====
  
* To install an new application, download the zip from the apps store, extract it into  /srv/http/owncloud/apps/.
+
Make sure PHP-FPM has been configured correctly as described in [[Nginx#PHP configuration]].
Afterwards restart httpd:
+
  
systemctl restart httpd
+
Uncomment {{ic|1=env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin}} in {{ic|/etc/php/php-fpm.d/www.conf}} and [[restart]] {{ic|php-fpm.service}} to apply the changes.
  
log into your server go to the app sections you should see the new apps in there,
+
== Initialize ==
  
== Nginx + uwsgi_php alternative ==
+
Open the address where you have installed Nextcloud in a web browser (e.g., https://www.examples.com/nextcloud). From there follow the instructions in adding an administrator account as well as selecting the database you created earlier.
  
You can avoid the use of Apache, and run owncloud in it's own process by using the [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/uwsgi-plugin-php wsgi_php] application server. uWSGI itself has a wealth of features to limit the resource use, and to harden the security of the application, and by being a separate process it can run under its own user.
+
== Security Hardening ==
 +
=== Let's Encrypt ===
 +
==== nginx ====
 +
{{Move|Let's Encrypt|A simple example of configuring an 'empty' domain for Let's Encrypt should be created. The example file given is too big and could be far easier.}}
 +
1. Create the cloud configuration {{ic|/etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud-initial.conf}} using [https://github.com/graysky2/configs/blob/master/nginx/nextcloud-initial.conf this initial file] as a template. Substitute the literal "@@FQDN@@" in the template file with the actual [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fully_qualified_domain_name FQDN] to be used. The certs for the server need to be generated using this unencrypted configuration initially. Follow the steps outlined on [[Let’s Encrypt]] to generate the server encryption certificates.
  
The nginx config is:
+
2. Upon successfully generating certificates, replace {{ic|/etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud-initial.conf}} (it may be safely renamed so long as it does not end in ".conf" or simply deleted) with a new file, {{ic|/etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud.conf}} using [https://github.com/graysky2/configs/blob/master/nginx/nextcloud.conf this file] as a template.  Again, substitute the literal "@@FQDN@@" in the template file with the actual [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fully_qualified_domain_name FQDN] to be used. [[Start]] and optionally [[enable]] {{ic|nginx.service}}.
 +
 
 +
=== uWSGI ===
 +
 
 +
You can run ''ownCloud'' in its own process and service by using the [[uWSGI]] application server with {{pkg|uwsgi-plugin-php}}. This allows you to define a [[PHP#Configuration|PHP  configuration]] only for this instance of PHP, without the need to edit the global {{ic|php.ini}} and thus keeping your web application configurations compartmentalized. ''uWSGI'' itself has a wealth of features to limit the resource use and to harden the security of the application, and by being a separate process it can run under its own user.
 +
 
 +
The only part that differs from [[#php-fpm configuration]] is the {{ic|<nowiki>location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {}</nowiki>}} block:
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
#this is to avoid Request Entity Too Large error
+
  location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {
client_max_body_size 1000M;
+
# deny access to some special files
+
location ~ ^/(data|config|\.ht|db_structure\.xml|README) {
+
    deny all;
+
}
+
# pass all .php or .php/path urls to uWSGI
+
location ~ ^(.+\.php)(.*)$ {
+
 
     include uwsgi_params;
 
     include uwsgi_params;
 
     uwsgi_modifier1 14;
 
     uwsgi_modifier1 14;
     uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3001;
+
     # Avoid duplicate headers confusing OC checks
}
+
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
# everything else goes to the filesystem,
+
     uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
# but / will be mapped to index.php and run through uwsgi
+
     uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
location / {
+
     uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
     root /usr/share/webapps/owncloud;
+
     uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/owncloud.sock;
     index index.php;
+
    }
     rewrite ^/.well-known/carddav /remote.php/carddav/ redirect;
+
     rewrite ^/.well-known/caldav /remote.php/caldav/ redirect;
+
}
+
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
The uWSGI /etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini config file (run it with uwsgi_php --ini /etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini):
+
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
Then create a config file for ''uWSGI'':
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini|<nowiki>
 
[uwsgi]
 
[uwsgi]
socket = 127.0.0.1:3001
+
; load the required plugins
 +
plugins = php
 +
; force the sapi name to 'apache', this will enable the opcode cache 
 +
php-sapi-name = apache
 +
 
 +
; set master process name and socket
 +
; '%n' refers to the name of this configuration file without extension
 +
procname-master = uwsgi %n
 
master = true
 
master = true
chdir = /srv/http/owncloud
+
socket = /run/uwsgi/%n.sock
php-docroot = /usr/share/webapps/owncloud
+
 
 +
; drop privileges
 +
uid    = http
 +
gid    = http
 +
umask  = 027
 +
 
 +
; run with at least 1 process but increase up to 4 when needed
 +
processes = 4
 +
cheaper = 1
 +
 
 +
; reload whenever this config file changes
 +
; %p is the full path of the current config file
 +
touch-reload = %p
 +
 
 +
; disable uWSGI request logging
 +
;disable-logging = true
 +
 
 +
; enforce a DOCUMENT_ROOT
 +
php-docroot     = /usr/share/webapps/%n
 +
; limit allowed extensions
 +
php-allowed-ext = .php
 +
; and search for index.php if required
 
php-index = index.php
 
php-index = index.php
  
# only allow these php files, I don't want to inadvertently run something else
+
; set php configuration for this instance of php, no need to edit global php.ini
php-allowed-ext = /index.php
+
php-set = date.timezone=Etc/UTC
php-allowed-ext = /public.php
+
;php-set = open_basedir=/tmp/:/usr/share/webapps/owncloud:/etc/webapps/owncloud:/dev/urandom
php-allowed-ext = /remote.php
+
php-set = expose_php=false
php-allowed-ext = /cron.php
+
; avoid security risk of leaving sessions in world-readable /tmp
php-allowed-ext = /status.php
+
php-set = session.save_path=/usr/share/webapps/owncloud/data
php-allowed-ext = /settings/apps.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /core/ajax/update.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /core/ajax/share.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /core/ajax/requesttoken.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /core/ajax/translations.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /search/ajax/search.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /search/templates/part.results.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/admin.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/users.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/personal.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/help.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/getlog.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/setlanguage.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/setquota.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/userlist.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/createuser.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/removeuser.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /settings/ajax/enableapp.php
+
php-allowed-ext = /core/ajax/appconfig.php
+
  
php-set = date.timezone=Europe/Skopje
+
; port of php directives set upstream in /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/.user.ini for use with PHP-FPM
php-set = open_basedir=/srv/http/owncloud:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/:/usr/share/webapps/owncloud
+
php-set = upload_max_filesize=513M
 +
php-set = post_max_size=513M
 +
php-set = memory_limit=512M
 +
php-set = output_buffering=off
  
processes = 10
+
; load all extensions only in this instance of php, no need to edit global php.ini
cheaper = 2
+
;; required core modules
cron = -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 /usr/bin/curl -H https://localhost/cron.php
+
php-set = extension=gd.so
 +
php-set = extension=iconv.so
 +
;php-set = extension=zip.so    # enabled by default in global php.ini
  
 +
;; database connectors
 +
;; uncomment your selected driver
 +
;php-set = extension=pdo_sqlite.so
 +
;php-set = extension=pdo_mysql.so
 +
;php-set = extension=pdo_pgsql.so
 +
 +
;; recommended extensions
 +
;php-set = extension=curl.so    # enabled by default in global php.ini
 +
php-set = extension=bz2.so
 +
php-set = extension=intl.so
 +
php-set = extension=mcrypt.so
 +
 +
;; required for specific apps
 +
;php-set = extension=ldap.so    # for LDAP integration
 +
;php-set = extension=ftp.so    # for FTP storage / external user authentication
 +
;php-set = extension=imap.so    # for external user authentication, requires php-imap
 +
 +
;; recommended for specific apps
 +
;php-set = extension=exif.so    # for image rotation in pictures app, requires exiv2
 +
;php-set = extension=gmp.so    # for SFTP storage
 +
 +
;; for preview generation
 +
;; provided by packages in AUR
 +
; php-set = extension=imagick.so
 +
 +
; opcache
 +
php-set = zend_extension=opcache.so
 +
 +
; user cache
 +
; provided by php-acpu, to be enabled **either** here **or** in /etc/php/conf.d/apcu.ini
 +
php-set = extension=apcu.so
 +
; per https://github.com/krakjoe/apcu/blob/simplify/INSTALL
 +
php-set = apc.ttl=7200
 +
php-set = apc.enable_cli=1
 +
 +
cron2 = minute=-15,unique=1 /usr/bin/php -f /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/cron.php 1>/dev/null
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
Finally, a simple systemd unit file to start the uwsgi instance can be (this is without using the emperor):
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
[Unit]
 
Description=OwnCloud service via uWSGI-PHP
 
  
[Service]
+
{{Note|
User=http
+
* Do not forget to set your timezone and uncomment the required database connector in the uWSGI config file
ExecStart=/usr/bin/uwsgi_php --ini /etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini
+
* Starting with PHP 7, the [[PHP#Configuration|open_basedir]] directive is [https://www.archlinux.org/news/php-70-packages-released/ no longer set by default] to keep in line with upstream. A commented out version functional until at least OC 8.2 has been left in the config for users wishing to harden security. Be aware that it may [https://github.com/owncloud/core/search?q&#61;open_basedir&type&#61;Issues&utf8&#61;%E2%9C%93 occasionally break things].
ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID
+
* Use {{ic|php-docroot    &#61; /usr/share/webapps}} if placing nextcloud in /nextcloud subdirectory. }}
KillSignal=SIGQUIT
+
Restart=always
+
  
[Install]
+
{{Warning|The way the [https://doc.owncloud.org/server/9.0/admin_manual/configuration_server/background_jobs_configuration.html ownCloud background job] is currently set up with [https://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.org/en/latest/Cron.html uWSGI cron] will make use of the default global configuration from {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}}. This means that none of the specific parameters defined (e.g. required modules) will be enabled, [https://github.com/owncloud/core/issues/12678#issuecomment-66114448 leading to various issues]. One solution is to copy {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}} to e.g. {{ic|/etc/uwsgi/cron-php.ini}}, make the required modifications there (mirroring {{ic|/etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini}} parameters) and referencing it in the cron directive by adding the {{ic|-c /etc/uwsgi/cron-php.ini}} option to ''php'' invocation.}}
WantedBy=multi-user.target
+
 
 +
==== Activation ====
 +
 
 +
[[uWSGI]] provides a [[Systemd#Using_units|template unit]] that allows to start and enable application using their configuration file name as instance identifier. For example:
 +
# systemctl start uwsgi@owncloud.socket
 +
would start it on demand referencing the configuration file {{ic|/etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini}}.
 +
 
 +
To enable the uwsgi service by default at start-up, run:
 +
# systemctl enable uwsgi@owncloud.socket
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Here we make use of [http://0pointer.de/blog/projects/socket-activation.html systemd socket activation] to prevent unnecessary resources consumption when no connections are made to the instance. If you would rather have it constantly active, simply remove the {{ic|.socket}} part to start and enable the service instead.}}
 +
 
 +
See also [[UWSGI#Starting service]].
 +
 
 +
=== Setting strong permissions for the filesystem ===
 +
 
 +
From the [https://doc.owncloud.org/server/9.2/admin_manual/installation/installation_wizard.html#setting-strong-directory-permissions official installation manual]:
 +
:For hardened security we recommend setting the permissions on your ownCloud directories as strictly as possible, and for proper server operations. This should be done immediately after the initial installation and before running the setup. Your HTTP user must own the {{ic|config/}}, {{ic|data/}} and {{ic|apps/}} directories so that you can configure ownCloud, create, modify and delete your data files, and install apps via the ownCloud Web interface.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|The AUR package for nextcloud provides a similar script {{ic|/usr/bin/set-nc-perms}} while the owncloud package does not.}}
 +
 
 +
{{hc|oc-perms|2=<nowiki>
 +
#!/bin/bash
 +
ocpath='/usr/share/webapps/owncloud'
 +
htuser='http'
 +
htgroup='http'
 +
rootuser='root'
 +
 
 +
printf "Creating possible missing Directories\n"
 +
mkdir -p $ocpath/data
 +
mkdir -p $ocpath/assets
 +
 
 +
printf "chmod Files and Directories\n"
 +
find ${ocpath}/ -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
 +
find ${ocpath}/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750
 +
 
 +
printf "chown Directories\n"
 +
chown -R ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/apps/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/config/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/data/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/themes/
 +
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/assets/
 +
 
 +
chmod +x ${ocpath}/occ
 +
 
 +
printf "chmod/chown .htaccess\n"
 +
if [ -f ${ocpath}/.htaccess ]
 +
then
 +
  chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/.htaccess
 +
  chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/.htaccess
 +
fi
 +
if [ -f ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess ]
 +
then
 +
  chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess
 +
  chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess
 +
fi
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
== Sync Clients ==
+
If you have customized your ownCloud installation and your filepaths are different than the standard installation, then modify this script accordingly.
  
The offical clients can be found in this page : [http://owncloud.org/install/ Sync Clients]
+
=== Protection from hacking with fail2ban ===
Also take notice that while the offical owncloud android app is a payed app on the play store, it is not a payed app on [https://f-droid.org/ F-Droid].
+
Setting up [[fail2ban]] is highly recommended.  Once installed, create the following files:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/fail2ban/filter.d/owncloud.conf|<nowiki>
 +
[Definition]
 +
failregex={"reqId":".*","remoteAddr":".*","app":"core","message":"Login failed: '.*' \(Remote IP: '<HOST>'\)","level":2,"time":".*"}
 +
 
 +
ignoreregex =
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/fail2ban/jail.local|<nowiki>
 +
[owncloud]
 +
enabled = true
 +
filter  = owncloud
 +
port    =  http,https
 +
logpath = /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/data/owncloud.log
 +
# optionally whitelist internal LAN IP addresses
 +
ignoreip = 192.168.1.1/24
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
[[Restart]] the {{ic|fail2ban}} service.  One can test the configuration by running the following:
 +
fail2ban-regex /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/data/owncloud.log /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/owncloud.conf -v
 +
 
 +
== Maintenance associated with Arch package updates ==
 +
 
 +
When the Arch owncloud package is updated via pacman, it may become necessary to connect via the web interface to manually trigger an update of the associated files.  Alternatively, one can run use {{ic|/usr/share/webapps/owncloud/occ upgrade}} from the shell but it must be run as the ''http'' user:
 +
# sudo -u http /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/occ upgrade
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Failure to do so will render the mobile app unable to connect.}}
 +
 
 +
== Synchronization ==
 +
 
 +
=== Desktop ===
 +
 
 +
The official client can be installed with the {{Pkg|owncloud-client}} or {{aur|nextcloud-client}} package. Alternative versions are available in the [[AUR]]: {{AUR|owncloud-client-beta}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|owncloud-client-beta}}}}, {{AUR|owncloud-client-git}} and {{AUR|owncloud-client-qt5}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|owncloud-client-qt5}}}}.
 +
 
 +
==== Calendar ====
 +
 
 +
To access your ''ownCloud'' calendars using Mozilla [[Thunderbird]]'s [[Thunderbird#Lightning_-_Calendar|Lightning calendar]] you would use the following URL:
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>https://ADDRESS/remote.php/caldav/calendars/USERNAME/CALENDARNAME</nowiki>
 +
 
 +
To access your ''ownCloud'' calendars using CalDAV-compatible programs like Kontact or [[Evolution]], you would use the following URL:
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>https://ADDRESS/remote.php/caldav</nowiki>
 +
 
 +
For details see the [http://doc.owncloud.org/server/7.0/user_manual/pim/calendar.html#synchronizing-calendars-using-caldav official documentation].
 +
 
 +
==== Contacts ====
 +
 
 +
To sync contacts with [[Thunderbird]] you must install the [http://www.sogo.nu/downloads/frontends.html SOGo frontend], [[Thunderbird#Lightning_-_Calendar|Lightning extension]] and follow [http://doc.owncloud.org/server/7.0/user_manual/pim/sync_thunderbird.html those instructions] from the official doc.
 +
 
 +
==== Mounting files with davfs2 ====
 +
 
 +
If you want to mount your ownCloud permanently install {{Pkg|davfs2}} (as described in [[Davfs]]) first.
 +
 
 +
Considering your ownCloud were at {{ic|https://own.example.com}}, your WebDAV URL would be {{ic|https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav}} (as of ownCloud 6.0).
 +
 
 +
To mount your ownCloud, use:
 +
 
 +
# mount -t davfs https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav /path/to/mount
 +
 
 +
You can also create an entry for this in {{ic|/etc/fstab}}
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/fstab|
 +
https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav /path/to/mount davfs rw,user,noauto 0 0
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|In order to allow automount you can also store your username (and password if you like) in a file as described in [[Davfs#Mounting as regular user]].}}
 +
 
 +
{{Note| If creating/copying files is not possible, while the same operations work on directories, see [[Davfs#Creating/copying files not possible]].}}
 +
 
 +
=== Android ===
 +
 
 +
There is an official Android app available for a [https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=at.bitfire.davdroid small donation on the Play Store] and for free [https://f-droid.org/app/at.bitfire.davdroid on F-Droid].
 +
 
 +
To enable contacts and calendar sync:
 +
* if using Android 4+:
 +
*# download [https://davdroid.bitfire.at/] ([https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=at.bitfire.davdroid Play Store], [https://f-droid.org/app/at.bitfire.davdroid F-Droid])
 +
*# Enable mod_rewrite.so in httpd.conf
 +
*# create a new DAVdroid account in the ''Account'' settings, and specify your "short" server address and login/password couple, e.g. {{ic|<nowiki>https://cloud.example.com</nowiki>}} (there is no need for the {{ic|<nowiki>/remote.php/{carddav,webdav}</nowiki>}} part if you configured your web server with the proper redirections, as illustrated previously in the article; ''DAVdroid'' will find itself the right URLs)
 +
:For an older version of the app but with still useful info, see [http://www.slsmk.com/sync-android-contacts-calendar-and-files-to-owncloud/ this article].
 +
 
 +
* if using an Android version below 4.0 and favouring Free/Libre software solutions, give a try to [https://f-droid.org/repository/browse/?fdfilter=caldav&fdid=com.morphoss.acal aCal] for calendar and contacts sync or CalDAV Sync Adapter ([https://f-droid.org/repository/browse/?fdfilter=caldav&fdid=org.gege.caldavsyncadapter F-Droid]) for just calendar sync; if you are willing to use non-libre software, then the [http://doc.owncloud.org/server/7.0/user_manual/pim/contacts.html#synchronizing-with-android recommended solution] is to use [http://dmfs.org/ CardDAV-Sync and CalDAV-Sync].
 +
 
 +
=== SABnzbd ===
 +
 
 +
When using [[SABnzbd]], you might want to set
 +
folder_rename 0
 +
in your sabnzbd.ini file, because ownCloud will scan the files as soon as they get uploaded, preventing SABnzbd from removing UNPACKING prefixes etc.
  
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
== Troubleshooting ==
Line 201: Line 398:
 
=== Self-signed certificate not accepted ===
 
=== Self-signed certificate not accepted ===
  
OwnCloud uses [[Wikipedia:cURL]] and [[Wikipedia:SabreDAV]] to check if [[WebDAV]] is enabled. If you use a SSL/TLS with a self-signed certificate, e.g. as shown in [[LAMP]] and access ownClouds admin panel, you will see the following error message:
+
ownCloud uses [[Wikipedia:cURL]] and [[Wikipedia:SabreDAV]] to check if WebDAV is enabled. If you use SSL/TLS with a self-signed certificate, e.g. as shown in [[LAMP]], and access ownCloud's admin panel, you will see the following error message:
  
 
  Your web server is not yet properly setup to allow files synchronization because the WebDAV interface seems to be broken.
 
  Your web server is not yet properly setup to allow files synchronization because the WebDAV interface seems to be broken.
  
Assuming that you followed the [[LAMP]]-tutorial, execute the following steps:
+
Assuming that you followed the [[LAMP]] tutorial, execute the following steps:
  
Create local directory for non-distribution certificates and copy [[LAMP]]s certificate there. This will prevent {{Ic|ca-certificates}}-updates to overwrite it.
+
Create a local directory for non-distribution certificates and copy [[LAMP]]s certificate there. This will prevent {{ic|ca-certificates}}-updates from overwriting it.
  
  $ mkdir -p /usr/local/share/ca-certificates
+
  # cp /etc/httpd/conf/server.crt /usr/share/ca-certificates/''WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt''
$ cp /etc/httpd/conf/server.crt /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/''WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt''
+
  
 
Add ''WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt'' to {{ic|/etc/ca-certificates.conf}}:
 
Add ''WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt'' to {{ic|/etc/ca-certificates.conf}}:
Line 218: Line 414:
 
Now, regenerate your certificate store:
 
Now, regenerate your certificate store:
  
  $ update-ca-certificates
+
  # update-ca-certificates
  
 
Restart the httpd service to activate your certificate.
 
Restart the httpd service to activate your certificate.
  
=== Can't create data directory (/path/to/dir) ===
+
=== Self-signed certificate for Android devices ===
 +
 
 +
Once you have followed the setup for SSL, as on [[LAMP#TLS.2FSSL|LAMP]] for example, early versions of DAVdroid will reject the connection because the certificate is not trusted. A certificate can be made as follows on your server:
 +
 
 +
  # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in /etc/httpd/conf/server.csr -signkey /etc/httpd/conf/server.key -extfile android.txt -out CA.crt
 +
  # openssl x509 -inform PEM -outform DER -in CA.crt -out CA.der.crt
 +
 
 +
The file {{ic|android.txt}} should contain the following:
 +
 
 +
  basicConstraints=CA:true
 +
 
 +
Then import {{ic|CA.der.crt}} to your Android device:
 +
 
 +
Put the {{ic|CA.der.crt}} file onto the sdcard of your Android device (usually to the internal one, e.g. save from a mail attachment). It should be in the root directory. Go to ''Settings > Security > Credential storage'' and select ''Install from device storage''.
 +
The {{ic|.crt}} file will be detected and you will be prompted to enter a certificate name. After importing the certificate, you will find it in ''Settings > Security > Credential storage > Trusted credentials > User''.
 +
 
 +
Thanks to: [http://www.leftbrainthings.com/2013/10/13/creating-and-importing-self-signed-certificate-to-android-device/]
 +
 
 +
Another way is to import the certificate directly from your server via [https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=at.bitfire.cadroid CAdroid] and follow the instructions there.
 +
 
 +
=== Cannot write into config directory! ===
 +
 
 +
Check your httpd configuration file (like {{ic|owncloud.conf}}). Add your configuration directory ({{ic|/etc/webapps}} by default) to
  
Check your httpd conf file (like owncloud.conf). Add your data dir to
 
 
  php_admin_value open_basedir "/srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/:/usr/share/webapps/:/path/to/dir/"
 
  php_admin_value open_basedir "/srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/:/usr/share/webapps/:/path/to/dir/"
  
Restart the httpd service to activate the change.
+
Restart the httpd or php-fpm service to activate the change.
  
=== CSync faild to find a specific file. ===
+
=== Cannot create data directory (/path/to/dir) ===
  
Most probably a certificate issue, recreate it, and don't leave the common name empty or you will see the error again.
+
Check your httpd configuration file (like {{ic|owncloud.conf}}). Add your data directory to
  
  openssl genrsa -out server.key 2048
+
  php_admin_value open_basedir "/srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/:/usr/share/webapps/:/path/to/dir/"
  openssl req -new -key server.key -x509 -days 365 -out server.crt
+
 
 +
Restart the httpd or php-fpm service to activate the change.
 +
 
 +
=== CSync failed to find a specific file. ===
 +
 
 +
This is most likely a certificate issue. Recreate it, and do not leave the common name empty or you will see the error again.
 +
 
 +
  # openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout server.key -out server.crt
  
 
=== Seeing white page after login ===
 
=== Seeing white page after login ===
  
The cause is probably a new app that you installed, to fix that you can either use phpMyAdmin by editing the oc_appconfig table(in the case you got lucky and the table has edit option) or do it by hand with mysql:
+
The cause is probably a new app that you installed. To fix that, you can use the occ command as described [https://doc.owncloud.org/server/8.2/admin_manual/configuration_server/occ_command.html here]. So with
 +
sudo -u http php /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/occ app:list
 +
you can list all apps (if you installed owncloud in the standard directory), and with
 +
sudo -u http php /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/occ app:disable <nameOfExtension>
 +
you can disable the troubling app.
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, you can either use [[phpMyAdmin]] to edit the {{ic|oc_appconfig}} table (if you got lucky and the table has an edit option), or do it by hand with mysql:
  
 
  mysql -u root -p owncloud
 
  mysql -u root -p owncloud
  MariaDB [owncloud]> '''delete from''' oc_appconfig '''where''' appid='<nameOfExtension>' '''and''' configkey='enabled' '''and''' configvalue='yes'
+
  MariaDB [owncloud]> '''delete from''' oc_appconfig '''where''' appid='<nameOfExtension>' '''and''' configkey='enabled' '''and''' configvalue='yes';
 
  MariaDB [owncloud]> '''insert into''' oc_appconfig (appid,configkey,configvalue) '''values''' ('<nameOfExtension>','enabled','no');
 
  MariaDB [owncloud]> '''insert into''' oc_appconfig (appid,configkey,configvalue) '''values''' ('<nameOfExtension>','enabled','no');
  
 
This should delete the relevant configuration from the table and add it again.
 
This should delete the relevant configuration from the table and add it again.
 +
 +
=== GUI sync client fails to connect ===
 +
 +
If using HTTP basic authentication, make sure to exclude "status.php", which must be publicly accessible. [https://github.com/owncloud/mirall/issues/734]
 +
 +
=== Some files upload, but give an error 'Integrity constraint violation...' ===
 +
 +
You may see the following error in the ownCloud sync client:
 +
 +
    SQLSTATE[23000]: Integrity constraint violation: ... Duplicate entry '...' for key 'fs_storage_path_hash')...
 +
 +
This is caused by an issue with the File Locking app, which is often not sufficient to keep conflicts from occurring on some webserver configurations. A more complete [https://doc.owncloud.org/server/8.1/admin_manual/configuration_files/files_locking_transactional.html Transactional File Locking] is available that rids these errors, but you must be using the Redis php-caching method. Install {{Pkg|redis}} and {{AUR|php-redis}}, comment out your current php-cache mechanism, and then in {{ic|/etc/php/conf.d/redis.ini}} uncomment {{ic|1=extension=redis.so}}. Then in {{ic|config.php}} make the following changes:
 +
 +
    'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
 +
    'filelocking.enabled' => 'true',
 +
    'memcache.locking' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
 +
    'redis' => array(
 +
        'host' => 'localhost',
 +
        'port' => 6379,
 +
        'timeout' => 0.0,
 +
          ),
 +
 +
and start Redis:
 +
 +
    systemctl enable redis.service
 +
    systemctl start redis.service
 +
 +
Finally, disable the File Locking App, as the Transational File Locking will take care of it (and would conflict).
 +
 +
If everything is working, you should see 'Transactional File Locking Enabled' under Server Status on the Admin page, and syncs should no longer cause issues.
 +
 +
=== "Cannot write into apps directory" ===
 +
 +
As mentioned in the [http://doc.owncloud.org/server/6.0/admin_manual/configuration/configuration_apps.html official admin manual], either you need an apps directory that is writable by the http user, or you need to set {{ic|appstoreenabled}} to {{ic|false}}.
 +
 +
''Also'', not mentioned there, the directory needs to be in the {{ic|open_basedir}} line in {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}}.
 +
 +
{{Accuracy|Does not seem to work with 8.0.2}}
 +
 +
One clean method is to have the package-installed directory at {{ic|/usr/share/webapps/owncloud/apps}} stay owned by root, and have the user-installed apps go into e.g. {{ic|/var/www/owncloud/apps}}, which is owned by http. Then you can set {{ic|appstoreenabled}} to {{ic|true}} and package upgrades of apps should work fine as well. Relevant lines from {{ic|/etc/webapps/owncloud/config/config.php}}:
 +
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
  'apps_paths' =>
 +
  array (
 +
    0 =>
 +
    array (
 +
      'path' => '/usr/share/webapps/owncloud/apps',
 +
      'url' => '/apps',
 +
      'writable' => false,
 +
    ),
 +
    1 =>
 +
    array (
 +
      'path' => '/var/www/owncloud/apps',
 +
      'url' => '/wapps',
 +
      'writable' => true,
 +
    ),
 +
  ),
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 +
Example {{ic|open_basedir}} line from {{ic|/etc/php/php.ini}} (you might have other directories in there as well):
 +
 +
open_basedir = /srv/http/:/usr/share/webapps/:/var/www/owncloud/apps/
 +
 +
Directory permissions:
 +
 +
{{hc|$ ls -ld /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/apps /var/www/owncloud/apps/|
 +
<nowiki>drwxr-xr-x 26 root root 4096 des.  14 20:48 /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/apps
 +
drwxr-xr-x  2 http http  48 jan.  20 20:01 /var/www/owncloud/apps/</nowiki>}}
 +
 +
=== Security warnings even though the recommended settings have been included in nginx.conf ===
 +
 +
At the top of the admin page there might be a warning to set the {{ic|Strict-Transport-Security}}, {{ic|X-Content-Type-Options}}, {{ic|X-Frame-Options}}, {{ic|X-XSS-Protection}} and {{ic|X-Robots-Tag}} according to https://doc.owncloud.org/server/8.1/admin_manual/configuration_server/harden_server.html even though they are already set like that.
 +
 +
A possible cause could be that because owncloud sets those settings, uwsgi passed them along and nginx added them again:
 +
{{hc|$ curl -I https://domain.tld|
 +
<nowiki>...
 +
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
 +
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
 +
X-Frame-Options: Sameorigin
 +
X-Robots-Tag: none
 +
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=15768000; includeSubDomains; preload;
 +
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
 +
X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN
 +
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
 +
X-Robots-Tag: none</nowiki>}}
 +
 +
While the fast_cgi sample config has a parameter to avoid that ( {{ic|fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true; #Avoid sending the security headers twice}} ), when using uwsgi and nginx the following modification of the uwsgi part in nginx.conf could help:
 +
 +
{{hc| /etc/nginx/nginx.conf|
 +
<nowiki>...
 +
        # pass all .php or .php/path urls to uWSGI
 +
        location ~ ^(.+\.php)(.*)$ {
 +
            include uwsgi_params;
 +
            uwsgi_modifier1 14;
 +
            # hode following headers received from uwsgi, because otherwise we would send them twice since we already add them in nginx itself
 +
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
 +
            uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
 +
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
 +
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
 +
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
 +
            #Uncomment line below if you get connection refused error. Remember to commet out line with "uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3001;" below
 +
            uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/owncloud.sock;
 +
            #uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3001;
 +
        }
 +
...</nowiki>}}
 +
 +
=== "Reading from keychain failed with error: 'No keychain service available'" ===
 +
Can be fixed for Gnome by installing the following 2 packages, {{Pkg|libgnome-keyring}} and {{Pkg|gnome-keyring}}.
 +
Or the following for KDE, {{Pkg|libgnome-keyring}} and {{Pkg|qtkeychain}}.
 +
 +
== Tips and tricks ==
 +
 +
=== Running ownCloud in a subdirectory ===
 +
 +
By including the default {{ic|owncloud.conf}} in {{ic|httpd.conf}}, ownCloud will take control of port 80 and your localhost domain.
 +
 +
If you would like to have ownCloud run in a subdirectory, then edit the {{ic|/etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf}} you included and comment out the {{ic|<nowiki><VirtualHost *:80> ... </VirtualHost></nowiki>}} part of the include file.
 +
 +
You can use the following nginx config when using owncloud with uwsgi:
 +
{{hc|head=/etc/nginx/conf.d/owncloud.conf|output=<nowiki>
 +
location = /.well-known/carddav {
 +
  return 301 $scheme://$host/owncloud/remote.php/dav;
 +
}
 +
 +
location = /.well-known/caldav {
 +
  return 301 $scheme://$host/owncloud/remote.php/dav;
 +
}
 +
 +
location /.well-known/acme-challenge { }
 +
 +
location ^~ /owncloud {
 +
 +
  root /usr/share/webapps;
 +
 +
  # set max upload size
 +
  client_max_body_size 512M;
 +
  fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;
 +
 +
  # Disable gzip to avoid the removal of the ETag header
 +
  gzip off;
 +
 +
  # Uncomment if your server is build with the ngx_pagespeed module
 +
  # This module is currently not supported.
 +
  #pagespeed off;
 +
 +
  error_page 403 /owncloud/core/templates/403.php;
 +
  error_page 404 /owncloud/core/templates/404.php;
 +
 +
  location /owncloud {
 +
    rewrite ^ /owncloud/index.php$uri;
 +
  }
 +
 +
  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)/ {
 +
    deny all;
 +
  }
 +
 +
  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {
 +
    deny all;
 +
  }
 +
 +
  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:updater|ocs-provider)(?:$|/) {
 +
    try_files $uri/ =404;
 +
    index index.php;
 +
  }
 +
 +
  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core/ajax/update|status|ocs/v[12]|updater/.+|ocs-provider/.+|core/templates/40[34])\.php(?:$|/) {
 +
    include uwsgi_params;
 +
    uwsgi_modifier1 14;
 +
    # Avoid duplicate headers confusing OC checks
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
 +
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
 +
    uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/owncloud.sock;
 +
  }
 +
 +
  # Adding the cache control header for js and css files
 +
  # Make sure it is BELOW the PHP block
 +
  location ~* \.(?:css|js) {
 +
    try_files $uri /owncloud/index.php$uri$is_args$args;
 +
    add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=7200";
 +
    # Add headers to serve security related headers  (It is intended
 +
    # to have those duplicated to the ones above)
 +
    # Before enabling Strict-Transport-Security headers please read
 +
    # into this topic first.
 +
    # add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000;
 +
    # includeSubDomains; preload;";
 +
    add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;
 +
    add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";
 +
    add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";
 +
    add_header X-Robots-Tag none;
 +
    add_header X-Download-Options noopen;
 +
    add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;
 +
    # Optional: Don't log access to assets
 +
    access_log off;
 +
  }
 +
 +
  location ~* \.(?:svg|gif|png|html|ttf|woff|ico|jpg|jpeg) {
 +
    try_files $uri /owncloud/index.php$uri$is_args$args;
 +
    # Optional: Don't log access to other assets
 +
    access_log off;
 +
  }
 +
}
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 +
=== Docker ===
 +
See the [https://hub.docker.com/_/owncloud/ ownCloud] or [https://github.com/nextcloud/docker Nextcloud] repository for [[Docker]].
 +
 +
=== Upload and share from File Manager ===
 +
[https://github.com/schiesbn/shareLinkCreator shareLinkCreator] provides the ability to upload a file to OwnCloud via a supported file manager and receive a link to the uploaded file which can then be emailed or shared in another way.
 +
 +
=== Switch to Cron from AJAX ===
 +
 +
{{Accuracy|Who recommends this? Nextcloud? Who says it is the least reliable method?}}
 +
 +
Nextcloud requires scheduled execution of some tasks, and by default it archives this by using AJAX, however AJAX is the least reliable method, and it is recommended to use [[Cron]] instead.
 +
 +
To do so, first install the {{Pkg|cronie}} package.
 +
 +
Then create a job for {{ic|http}} user:
 +
 +
# crontab -u http -e
 +
 +
This would open editor, paste this:
 +
 +
*/15  *  *  *  * php -f /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/cron.php
 +
 +
Save the file and exit. Now you should [[enable]] and [[start]] {{ic|cronie.service}}.
 +
 +
You can verify that everything is set by running
 +
 +
# crontab -u http -l
 +
 +
Finally, set Cron option in Nextcloud settings to Cron.
 +
 +
=== Collabora Online Office integration ===
 +
Install {{AUR|nextcloud-app-collabora-online}} from the [[AUR]].
 +
Add following reverse proxy settings to your nextcloud domain config, in this case for [[Nginx]]:
 +
 +
# static files
 +
location ^~ /loleaflet {
 +
  proxy_pass https://localhost:9980;
 +
  proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
 +
}
 +
# WOPI discovery URL
 +
location ^~ /hosting/discovery {
 +
  proxy_pass https://localhost:9980;
 +
  proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
 +
}
 +
# websockets, download, presentation and image upload
 +
location ^~ /lool {
 +
  proxy_pass https://localhost:9980;
 +
  proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
 +
  proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
 +
  proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
 +
}
 +
 +
There's also a [https://nextcloud.com/collaboraonline/ setup instruction] for [[Apache]]. Assuming you already have the docker daemon up and running, you can now pull the latest docker image for Collabora Online. Adjust the second command with the domain name of your Nextcloud server.
 +
docker pull collabora/code
 +
docker run -t -d -p 127.0.0.1:9980:9980 -e 'domain=localhost' --net host --restart always --cap-add MKNOD collabora/code
 +
When updating the docker image you can run the same commands, but before that kill all running processes of the old image:
 +
docker ps
 +
docker stop CONTAINER_ID
 +
docker rm CONTAINER_ID
 +
Now you can enable the Collabora Online app in your Nextcloud instance. In the last step, you have to configure your domain in the administrator settings regarding the Collabora Online app.
 +
 +
== See also ==
 +
* [http://owncloud.org/ ownCloud official website]
 +
* [http://doc.owncloud.org/server/9.2/admin_manual/ ownCloud 9.2 Admin Documentation]
 +
* [https://docs.nextcloud.com/ nextcloud official website]
 +
* [https://docs.nextcloud.com/server/11/admin_manual/ nextcloud 11.0 Admin Documentation]

Latest revision as of 14:03, 20 February 2017

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: owncloud[broken link: archived in aur-mirror] has been droppped; nextcloud has been added. Many sections still refer to ownCloud. (Discuss in Talk:Nextcloud#)

From Wikipedia:

Nextcloud is a suite of client-server software for creating file hosting services and using them. It is functionally very similar to the widely used Dropbox, with the primary functional difference being that Nextcloud is free and open-source, and thereby allowing anyone to install and operate it without charge on a private server. In contrast to proprietary services like Dropbox, the open architecture allows adding additional functionality to the server in form of so-called applications.

For differences between Nextcloud and ownCloud see [1].

Prerequisites

Nextcloud requires several components:

These will be configured in #Setup.

Make sure the required components are installed before proceeding.

Installation

Install the nextcloud package.

Setup

As stated above, in order to setup Nextcloud, you must set up the appropriate PHP requirements; additionally, you must configure a database and a webserver.

PHP setup

Tip: For all prerequisite PHP modules, see upstream documentation: Nextcloud 11.0.

Install PHP#gd, php-intl and php-mcrypt as additional modules.

Depending on which database backend will be used:

Performance may be improved through the implementation of caching, see Configuring Memory Caching on the official documentation for details.

Database setup

An SQL database must be setup and used for your Nextcloud installation. After setting up the database here, you will be prompted for its information when you first create an administrator account.

MariaDB

Note: It's is highly recommended to set binlog_format to mixed [2] in /etc/mysql/my.cnf.

The following is an example of setting up a MariaDB database and user:

$ mysql -u root -p
mysql> CREATE DATABASE `nextcloud` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET `utf8` COLLATE `utf8_unicode_ci`;
mysql> CREATE USER `nextcloud`@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `nextcloud`.* TO `nextcloud`@`localhost`;
mysql> \q

PostgreSQL

The following is an example of setting up a PostgreSQL user and database:

$ sudo -u postgres createuser -h localhost -P nextcloud
Enter password for new role:
Enter it again:
$ sudo -u postgres createdb -O nextcloud nextcloud

Webserver setup

Warning: It is recommended to use TLS/SSL (HTTPS) over plain HTTP, see Apache#TLS/SSL or Nginx#TLS/SSL for examples and implement this in the examples given below.

Depending on which webserver you are using, further setup is required, indicated below.

Apache

Copy the Apache configuration file to the configuration directory:

# cp /etc/webapps/owncloud/apache.example.conf /etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf

Modify the file according to your preferences. By default it includes an alias for /owncloud pointing to /usr/share/webapps/owncloud.

And include it in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:

Include conf/extra/owncloud.conf

Ensure that the root location of your Nextcloud installation (e.g., /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud) is accessible by the webserver's user http.

Now restart Apache (httpd.service).

WebDAV

ownCloud comes with its own WebDAV implementation enabled, which may conflict with the one shipped with Apache. If you have enabled WebDAV (not enabled by default), disable the modules mod_dav and mod_dav_fs in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. See [3] for details.

Nginx

Create an empty directory to hold the cloud-specific config file:

# mkdir /etc/nginx/conf.d/

In /etc/nginx/nginx.conf, add the following lines under the "http" section:

server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
include conf.d/*.conf;

From this point on, it is recommended to obtain a secure-certificates using Let’s Encrypt, see #Security Hardening.

PHP-FPM configuration

Make sure PHP-FPM has been configured correctly as described in Nginx#PHP configuration.

Uncomment env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin in /etc/php/php-fpm.d/www.conf and restart php-fpm.service to apply the changes.

Initialize

Open the address where you have installed Nextcloud in a web browser (e.g., https://www.examples.com/nextcloud). From there follow the instructions in adding an administrator account as well as selecting the database you created earlier.

Security Hardening

Let's Encrypt

nginx

Tango-go-next.pngThis article or section is a candidate for moving to Let's Encrypt.Tango-go-next.png

Notes: A simple example of configuring an 'empty' domain for Let's Encrypt should be created. The example file given is too big and could be far easier. (Discuss in Talk:Nextcloud#)

1. Create the cloud configuration /etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud-initial.conf using this initial file as a template. Substitute the literal "@@FQDN@@" in the template file with the actual FQDN to be used. The certs for the server need to be generated using this unencrypted configuration initially. Follow the steps outlined on Let’s Encrypt to generate the server encryption certificates.

2. Upon successfully generating certificates, replace /etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud-initial.conf (it may be safely renamed so long as it does not end in ".conf" or simply deleted) with a new file, /etc/nginx/conf.d/cloud.conf using this file as a template. Again, substitute the literal "@@FQDN@@" in the template file with the actual FQDN to be used. Start and optionally enable nginx.service.

uWSGI

You can run ownCloud in its own process and service by using the uWSGI application server with uwsgi-plugin-php. This allows you to define a PHP configuration only for this instance of PHP, without the need to edit the global php.ini and thus keeping your web application configurations compartmentalized. uWSGI itself has a wealth of features to limit the resource use and to harden the security of the application, and by being a separate process it can run under its own user.

The only part that differs from #php-fpm configuration is the location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {} block:

  location ~ \.php(?:$|/) {
    include uwsgi_params;
    uwsgi_modifier1 14;
    # Avoid duplicate headers confusing OC checks
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
    uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/owncloud.sock;
    }

Then create a config file for uWSGI:

/etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini
[uwsgi]
; load the required plugins
plugins = php
; force the sapi name to 'apache', this will enable the opcode cache  
php-sapi-name = apache

; set master process name and socket
; '%n' refers to the name of this configuration file without extension
procname-master = uwsgi %n
master = true
socket = /run/uwsgi/%n.sock

; drop privileges
uid    = http
gid    = http
umask  = 027

; run with at least 1 process but increase up to 4 when needed
processes = 4
cheaper = 1

; reload whenever this config file changes
; %p is the full path of the current config file
touch-reload = %p

; disable uWSGI request logging
;disable-logging = true

; enforce a DOCUMENT_ROOT
php-docroot     = /usr/share/webapps/%n
; limit allowed extensions
php-allowed-ext = .php
; and search for index.php if required
php-index = index.php

; set php configuration for this instance of php, no need to edit global php.ini
php-set = date.timezone=Etc/UTC
;php-set = open_basedir=/tmp/:/usr/share/webapps/owncloud:/etc/webapps/owncloud:/dev/urandom
php-set = expose_php=false
; avoid security risk of leaving sessions in world-readable /tmp
php-set = session.save_path=/usr/share/webapps/owncloud/data

; port of php directives set upstream in /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/.user.ini for use with PHP-FPM
php-set = upload_max_filesize=513M
php-set = post_max_size=513M
php-set = memory_limit=512M
php-set = output_buffering=off

; load all extensions only in this instance of php, no need to edit global php.ini
;; required core modules
php-set = extension=gd.so
php-set = extension=iconv.so
;php-set = extension=zip.so     # enabled by default in global php.ini

;; database connectors
;; uncomment your selected driver
;php-set = extension=pdo_sqlite.so
;php-set = extension=pdo_mysql.so
;php-set = extension=pdo_pgsql.so

;; recommended extensions
;php-set = extension=curl.so    # enabled by default in global php.ini
php-set = extension=bz2.so
php-set = extension=intl.so
php-set = extension=mcrypt.so

;; required for specific apps
;php-set = extension=ldap.so    # for LDAP integration
;php-set = extension=ftp.so     # for FTP storage / external user authentication
;php-set = extension=imap.so    # for external user authentication, requires php-imap

;; recommended for specific apps
;php-set = extension=exif.so    # for image rotation in pictures app, requires exiv2
;php-set = extension=gmp.so     # for SFTP storage

;; for preview generation
;; provided by packages in AUR
; php-set = extension=imagick.so

; opcache
php-set = zend_extension=opcache.so

; user cache
; provided by php-acpu, to be enabled **either** here **or** in /etc/php/conf.d/apcu.ini
php-set = extension=apcu.so
; per https://github.com/krakjoe/apcu/blob/simplify/INSTALL
php-set = apc.ttl=7200
php-set = apc.enable_cli=1

cron2 = minute=-15,unique=1 /usr/bin/php -f /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/cron.php 1>/dev/null
Note:
  • Do not forget to set your timezone and uncomment the required database connector in the uWSGI config file
  • Starting with PHP 7, the open_basedir directive is no longer set by default to keep in line with upstream. A commented out version functional until at least OC 8.2 has been left in the config for users wishing to harden security. Be aware that it may occasionally break things.
  • Use php-docroot = /usr/share/webapps if placing nextcloud in /nextcloud subdirectory.
Warning: The way the ownCloud background job is currently set up with uWSGI cron will make use of the default global configuration from /etc/php/php.ini. This means that none of the specific parameters defined (e.g. required modules) will be enabled, leading to various issues. One solution is to copy /etc/php/php.ini to e.g. /etc/uwsgi/cron-php.ini, make the required modifications there (mirroring /etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini parameters) and referencing it in the cron directive by adding the -c /etc/uwsgi/cron-php.ini option to php invocation.

Activation

uWSGI provides a template unit that allows to start and enable application using their configuration file name as instance identifier. For example:

# systemctl start uwsgi@owncloud.socket

would start it on demand referencing the configuration file /etc/uwsgi/owncloud.ini.

To enable the uwsgi service by default at start-up, run:

# systemctl enable uwsgi@owncloud.socket
Note: Here we make use of systemd socket activation to prevent unnecessary resources consumption when no connections are made to the instance. If you would rather have it constantly active, simply remove the .socket part to start and enable the service instead.

See also UWSGI#Starting service.

Setting strong permissions for the filesystem

From the official installation manual:

For hardened security we recommend setting the permissions on your ownCloud directories as strictly as possible, and for proper server operations. This should be done immediately after the initial installation and before running the setup. Your HTTP user must own the config/, data/ and apps/ directories so that you can configure ownCloud, create, modify and delete your data files, and install apps via the ownCloud Web interface.
Note: The AUR package for nextcloud provides a similar script /usr/bin/set-nc-perms while the owncloud package does not.
oc-perms
#!/bin/bash
ocpath='/usr/share/webapps/owncloud'
htuser='http'
htgroup='http'
rootuser='root'

printf "Creating possible missing Directories\n"
mkdir -p $ocpath/data
mkdir -p $ocpath/assets

printf "chmod Files and Directories\n"
find ${ocpath}/ -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0640
find ${ocpath}/ -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 0750

printf "chown Directories\n"
chown -R ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/apps/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/config/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/data/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/themes/
chown -R ${htuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/assets/

chmod +x ${ocpath}/occ

printf "chmod/chown .htaccess\n"
if [ -f ${ocpath}/.htaccess ]
 then
  chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/.htaccess
  chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/.htaccess
fi
if [ -f ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess ]
 then
  chmod 0644 ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess
  chown ${rootuser}:${htgroup} ${ocpath}/data/.htaccess
fi

If you have customized your ownCloud installation and your filepaths are different than the standard installation, then modify this script accordingly.

Protection from hacking with fail2ban

Setting up fail2ban is highly recommended. Once installed, create the following files:

/etc/fail2ban/filter.d/owncloud.conf
[Definition]
failregex={"reqId":".*","remoteAddr":".*","app":"core","message":"Login failed: '.*' \(Remote IP: '<HOST>'\)","level":2,"time":".*"}

ignoreregex =
/etc/fail2ban/jail.local
[owncloud]
enabled = true
filter  = owncloud
port    =  http,https
logpath = /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/data/owncloud.log
# optionally whitelist internal LAN IP addresses
ignoreip = 192.168.1.1/24

Restart the fail2ban service. One can test the configuration by running the following:

fail2ban-regex /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/data/owncloud.log /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/owncloud.conf -v

Maintenance associated with Arch package updates

When the Arch owncloud package is updated via pacman, it may become necessary to connect via the web interface to manually trigger an update of the associated files. Alternatively, one can run use /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/occ upgrade from the shell but it must be run as the http user:

# sudo -u http /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/occ upgrade
Note: Failure to do so will render the mobile app unable to connect.

Synchronization

Desktop

The official client can be installed with the owncloud-client or nextcloud-clientAUR package. Alternative versions are available in the AUR: owncloud-client-betaAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror], owncloud-client-gitAUR and owncloud-client-qt5AUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror].

Calendar

To access your ownCloud calendars using Mozilla Thunderbird's Lightning calendar you would use the following URL:

https://ADDRESS/remote.php/caldav/calendars/USERNAME/CALENDARNAME

To access your ownCloud calendars using CalDAV-compatible programs like Kontact or Evolution, you would use the following URL:

https://ADDRESS/remote.php/caldav

For details see the official documentation.

Contacts

To sync contacts with Thunderbird you must install the SOGo frontend, Lightning extension and follow those instructions from the official doc.

Mounting files with davfs2

If you want to mount your ownCloud permanently install davfs2 (as described in Davfs) first.

Considering your ownCloud were at https://own.example.com, your WebDAV URL would be https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav (as of ownCloud 6.0).

To mount your ownCloud, use:

# mount -t davfs https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav /path/to/mount

You can also create an entry for this in /etc/fstab

/etc/fstab
https://own.example.com/remote.php/webdav /path/to/mount davfs rw,user,noauto 0 0
Tip: In order to allow automount you can also store your username (and password if you like) in a file as described in Davfs#Mounting as regular user.
Note: If creating/copying files is not possible, while the same operations work on directories, see Davfs#Creating/copying files not possible.

Android

There is an official Android app available for a small donation on the Play Store and for free on F-Droid.

To enable contacts and calendar sync:

  • if using Android 4+:
    1. download [4] (Play Store, F-Droid)
    2. Enable mod_rewrite.so in httpd.conf
    3. create a new DAVdroid account in the Account settings, and specify your "short" server address and login/password couple, e.g. https://cloud.example.com (there is no need for the /remote.php/{carddav,webdav} part if you configured your web server with the proper redirections, as illustrated previously in the article; DAVdroid will find itself the right URLs)
For an older version of the app but with still useful info, see this article.
  • if using an Android version below 4.0 and favouring Free/Libre software solutions, give a try to aCal for calendar and contacts sync or CalDAV Sync Adapter (F-Droid) for just calendar sync; if you are willing to use non-libre software, then the recommended solution is to use CardDAV-Sync and CalDAV-Sync.

SABnzbd

When using SABnzbd, you might want to set

folder_rename 0

in your sabnzbd.ini file, because ownCloud will scan the files as soon as they get uploaded, preventing SABnzbd from removing UNPACKING prefixes etc.

Troubleshooting

Self-signed certificate not accepted

ownCloud uses Wikipedia:cURL and Wikipedia:SabreDAV to check if WebDAV is enabled. If you use SSL/TLS with a self-signed certificate, e.g. as shown in LAMP, and access ownCloud's admin panel, you will see the following error message:

Your web server is not yet properly setup to allow files synchronization because the WebDAV interface seems to be broken.

Assuming that you followed the LAMP tutorial, execute the following steps:

Create a local directory for non-distribution certificates and copy LAMPs certificate there. This will prevent ca-certificates-updates from overwriting it.

# cp /etc/httpd/conf/server.crt /usr/share/ca-certificates/WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt

Add WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt to /etc/ca-certificates.conf:

WWW.EXAMPLE.COM.crt

Now, regenerate your certificate store:

# update-ca-certificates

Restart the httpd service to activate your certificate.

Self-signed certificate for Android devices

Once you have followed the setup for SSL, as on LAMP for example, early versions of DAVdroid will reject the connection because the certificate is not trusted. A certificate can be made as follows on your server:

 # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in /etc/httpd/conf/server.csr -signkey /etc/httpd/conf/server.key -extfile android.txt -out CA.crt
 # openssl x509 -inform PEM -outform DER -in CA.crt -out CA.der.crt 

The file android.txt should contain the following:

 basicConstraints=CA:true

Then import CA.der.crt to your Android device:

Put the CA.der.crt file onto the sdcard of your Android device (usually to the internal one, e.g. save from a mail attachment). It should be in the root directory. Go to Settings > Security > Credential storage and select Install from device storage. The .crt file will be detected and you will be prompted to enter a certificate name. After importing the certificate, you will find it in Settings > Security > Credential storage > Trusted credentials > User.

Thanks to: [5]

Another way is to import the certificate directly from your server via CAdroid and follow the instructions there.

Cannot write into config directory!

Check your httpd configuration file (like owncloud.conf). Add your configuration directory (/etc/webapps by default) to

php_admin_value open_basedir "/srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/:/usr/share/webapps/:/path/to/dir/"

Restart the httpd or php-fpm service to activate the change.

Cannot create data directory (/path/to/dir)

Check your httpd configuration file (like owncloud.conf). Add your data directory to

php_admin_value open_basedir "/srv/http/:/home/:/tmp/:/usr/share/pear/:/usr/share/webapps/:/path/to/dir/"

Restart the httpd or php-fpm service to activate the change.

CSync failed to find a specific file.

This is most likely a certificate issue. Recreate it, and do not leave the common name empty or you will see the error again.

# openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout server.key -out server.crt

Seeing white page after login

The cause is probably a new app that you installed. To fix that, you can use the occ command as described here. So with

sudo -u http php /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/occ app:list

you can list all apps (if you installed owncloud in the standard directory), and with

sudo -u http php /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/occ app:disable <nameOfExtension>

you can disable the troubling app.

Alternatively, you can either use phpMyAdmin to edit the oc_appconfig table (if you got lucky and the table has an edit option), or do it by hand with mysql:

mysql -u root -p owncloud
MariaDB [owncloud]> delete from oc_appconfig where appid='<nameOfExtension>' and configkey='enabled' and configvalue='yes';
MariaDB [owncloud]> insert into oc_appconfig (appid,configkey,configvalue) values ('<nameOfExtension>','enabled','no');

This should delete the relevant configuration from the table and add it again.

GUI sync client fails to connect

If using HTTP basic authentication, make sure to exclude "status.php", which must be publicly accessible. [6]

Some files upload, but give an error 'Integrity constraint violation...'

You may see the following error in the ownCloud sync client:

   SQLSTATE[23000]: Integrity constraint violation: ... Duplicate entry '...' for key 'fs_storage_path_hash')...

This is caused by an issue with the File Locking app, which is often not sufficient to keep conflicts from occurring on some webserver configurations. A more complete Transactional File Locking is available that rids these errors, but you must be using the Redis php-caching method. Install redis and php-redisAUR, comment out your current php-cache mechanism, and then in /etc/php/conf.d/redis.ini uncomment extension=redis.so. Then in config.php make the following changes:

   'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
   'filelocking.enabled' => 'true',
   'memcache.locking' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
   'redis' => array(
        'host' => 'localhost',
        'port' => 6379,
        'timeout' => 0.0,
         ),

and start Redis:

   systemctl enable redis.service
   systemctl start redis.service

Finally, disable the File Locking App, as the Transational File Locking will take care of it (and would conflict).

If everything is working, you should see 'Transactional File Locking Enabled' under Server Status on the Admin page, and syncs should no longer cause issues.

"Cannot write into apps directory"

As mentioned in the official admin manual, either you need an apps directory that is writable by the http user, or you need to set appstoreenabled to false.

Also, not mentioned there, the directory needs to be in the open_basedir line in /etc/php/php.ini.

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: Does not seem to work with 8.0.2 (Discuss in Talk:Nextcloud#)

One clean method is to have the package-installed directory at /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/apps stay owned by root, and have the user-installed apps go into e.g. /var/www/owncloud/apps, which is owned by http. Then you can set appstoreenabled to true and package upgrades of apps should work fine as well. Relevant lines from /etc/webapps/owncloud/config/config.php:

  'apps_paths' => 
  array (
    0 => 
    array (
      'path' => '/usr/share/webapps/owncloud/apps',
      'url' => '/apps',
      'writable' => false,
    ),
    1 => 
    array (
      'path' => '/var/www/owncloud/apps',
      'url' => '/wapps',
      'writable' => true,
    ),
  ),

Example open_basedir line from /etc/php/php.ini (you might have other directories in there as well):

open_basedir = /srv/http/:/usr/share/webapps/:/var/www/owncloud/apps/

Directory permissions:

$ ls -ld /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/apps /var/www/owncloud/apps/
 drwxr-xr-x 26 root root 4096 des.  14 20:48 /usr/share/webapps/owncloud/apps
 drwxr-xr-x  2 http http   48 jan.  20 20:01 /var/www/owncloud/apps/

Security warnings even though the recommended settings have been included in nginx.conf

At the top of the admin page there might be a warning to set the Strict-Transport-Security, X-Content-Type-Options, X-Frame-Options, X-XSS-Protection and X-Robots-Tag according to https://doc.owncloud.org/server/8.1/admin_manual/configuration_server/harden_server.html even though they are already set like that.

A possible cause could be that because owncloud sets those settings, uwsgi passed them along and nginx added them again:

$ curl -I https://domain.tld
...
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-Frame-Options: Sameorigin
X-Robots-Tag: none
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=15768000; includeSubDomains; preload;
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Robots-Tag: none

While the fast_cgi sample config has a parameter to avoid that ( fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true; #Avoid sending the security headers twice ), when using uwsgi and nginx the following modification of the uwsgi part in nginx.conf could help:

 /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
...
        # pass all .php or .php/path urls to uWSGI
        location ~ ^(.+\.php)(.*)$ {
            include uwsgi_params;
            uwsgi_modifier1 14;
            # hode following headers received from uwsgi, because otherwise we would send them twice since we already add them in nginx itself
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
            uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
            uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
            #Uncomment line below if you get connection refused error. Remember to commet out line with "uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3001;" below
            uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/owncloud.sock;
            #uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:3001;
        }
...

"Reading from keychain failed with error: 'No keychain service available'"

Can be fixed for Gnome by installing the following 2 packages, libgnome-keyring and gnome-keyring. Or the following for KDE, libgnome-keyring and qtkeychain.

Tips and tricks

Running ownCloud in a subdirectory

By including the default owncloud.conf in httpd.conf, ownCloud will take control of port 80 and your localhost domain.

If you would like to have ownCloud run in a subdirectory, then edit the /etc/httpd/conf/extra/owncloud.conf you included and comment out the <VirtualHost *:80> ... </VirtualHost> part of the include file.

You can use the following nginx config when using owncloud with uwsgi:

/etc/nginx/conf.d/owncloud.conf
location = /.well-known/carddav {
  return 301 $scheme://$host/owncloud/remote.php/dav;
}

location = /.well-known/caldav {
  return 301 $scheme://$host/owncloud/remote.php/dav;
}

location /.well-known/acme-challenge { }

location ^~ /owncloud {

  root /usr/share/webapps;

  # set max upload size
  client_max_body_size 512M;
  fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;

  # Disable gzip to avoid the removal of the ETag header
  gzip off;

  # Uncomment if your server is build with the ngx_pagespeed module
  # This module is currently not supported.
  #pagespeed off;

  error_page 403 /owncloud/core/templates/403.php;
  error_page 404 /owncloud/core/templates/404.php;

  location /owncloud {
    rewrite ^ /owncloud/index.php$uri;
  }

  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)/ {
    deny all;
  }

  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {
    deny all;
  }

  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:updater|ocs-provider)(?:$|/) {
    try_files $uri/ =404;
    index index.php;
  }

  location ~ ^/owncloud/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core/ajax/update|status|ocs/v[12]|updater/.+|ocs-provider/.+|core/templates/40[34])\.php(?:$|/) {
    include uwsgi_params;
    uwsgi_modifier1 14;
    # Avoid duplicate headers confusing OC checks
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Frame-Options;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-XSS-Protection;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Content-Type-Options;
    uwsgi_hide_header X-Robots-Tag;
    uwsgi_pass unix:/run/uwsgi/owncloud.sock;
  }

  # Adding the cache control header for js and css files
  # Make sure it is BELOW the PHP block
  location ~* \.(?:css|js) {
    try_files $uri /owncloud/index.php$uri$is_args$args;
    add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=7200";
    # Add headers to serve security related headers  (It is intended
    # to have those duplicated to the ones above)
    # Before enabling Strict-Transport-Security headers please read
    # into this topic first.
    # add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000;
    # includeSubDomains; preload;";
    add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;
    add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";
    add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";
    add_header X-Robots-Tag none;
    add_header X-Download-Options noopen;
    add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;
    # Optional: Don't log access to assets
    access_log off;
  }

  location ~* \.(?:svg|gif|png|html|ttf|woff|ico|jpg|jpeg) {
    try_files $uri /owncloud/index.php$uri$is_args$args;
    # Optional: Don't log access to other assets
    access_log off;
  }
}

Docker

See the ownCloud or Nextcloud repository for Docker.

Upload and share from File Manager

shareLinkCreator provides the ability to upload a file to OwnCloud via a supported file manager and receive a link to the uploaded file which can then be emailed or shared in another way.

Switch to Cron from AJAX

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: Who recommends this? Nextcloud? Who says it is the least reliable method? (Discuss in Talk:Nextcloud#)

Nextcloud requires scheduled execution of some tasks, and by default it archives this by using AJAX, however AJAX is the least reliable method, and it is recommended to use Cron instead.

To do so, first install the cronie package.

Then create a job for http user:

# crontab -u http -e

This would open editor, paste this:

*/15  *  *  *  * php -f /usr/share/webapps/nextcloud/cron.php

Save the file and exit. Now you should enable and start cronie.service.

You can verify that everything is set by running

# crontab -u http -l

Finally, set Cron option in Nextcloud settings to Cron.

Collabora Online Office integration

Install nextcloud-app-collabora-onlineAUR from the AUR. Add following reverse proxy settings to your nextcloud domain config, in this case for Nginx:

# static files
location ^~ /loleaflet {
 proxy_pass https://localhost:9980;
 proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
}
# WOPI discovery URL
location ^~ /hosting/discovery {
 proxy_pass https://localhost:9980;
 proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
}
# websockets, download, presentation and image upload
location ^~ /lool {
 proxy_pass https://localhost:9980;
 proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
 proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
 proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
}

There's also a setup instruction for Apache. Assuming you already have the docker daemon up and running, you can now pull the latest docker image for Collabora Online. Adjust the second command with the domain name of your Nextcloud server.

docker pull collabora/code
docker run -t -d -p 127.0.0.1:9980:9980 -e 'domain=localhost' --net host --restart always --cap-add MKNOD collabora/code

When updating the docker image you can run the same commands, but before that kill all running processes of the old image:

docker ps
docker stop CONTAINER_ID
docker rm CONTAINER_ID

Now you can enable the Collabora Online app in your Nextcloud instance. In the last step, you have to configure your domain in the administrator settings regarding the Collabora Online app.

See also