Packages in Arch Linux are built using the makepkg utility and information stored in PKGBUILDs. When makepkg is run, it searches for a
PKGBUILD in the current directory and follows the instructions therein to either compile or otherwise acquire the files to build a package file (
pkgname.pkg.tar.xz). The resulting package contains binary files and installation instructions, readily installed with pacman.
This article discusses the variables used in PKGBUILDs. For information on the PKGBUILD functions, refer to Creating_Packages#PKGBUILD_Functions.
- 1 Variables
- 1.1 pkgname
- 1.2 pkgver
- 1.3 pkgrel
- 1.4 pkgdir
- 1.5 epoch
- 1.6 pkgbase
- 1.7 pkgdesc
- 1.8 arch
- 1.9 url
- 1.10 license
- 1.11 groups
- 1.12 depends
- 1.13 optdepends
- 1.14 makedepends
- 1.15 checkdepends
- 1.16 provides
- 1.17 conflicts
- 1.18 replaces
- 1.19 backup
- 1.20 options
- 1.21 install
- 1.22 changelog
- 1.23 source
- 1.24 noextract
- 1.25 md5sums
- 1.26 sha1sums
- 1.27 sha256sums, sha384sums, sha512sums
- 2 See also
The following are variables that can be filled out in the PKGBUILD file.
arch are all mandatory.
license is not strictly necessary to build a package, but it is recommended for any PKGBUILDS you might want to share with others.
makepkg produces warnings if it isn't present.
It is common practice to define the variables in the PKGBUILD in same order as given here. However, this is not mandatory, as long as correct Bash syntax is used.
The name of the package. It should consist of alphanumeric and any of the following characters @ . _ + - (at symbol, dot, underscore, plus, hyphen). All letters should be lowercase and names are not allowed to start with hyphens. For the sake of consistency,
pkgname should match the name of the source tarball of the software you are packaging. For instance, if the software is in
pkgname value should be
foobar. The present working directory the PKGBUILD file is in should also match the
The version of the package. The value should be the same as the version released by the author of the package. It can contain letters, numbers, periods and underscore but CANNOT contain a hyphen. If the author of the package uses a hyphen in their version numbering scheme, replace it with an underscore. For instance, if the version is 0.99-10, it should be changed to 0.99_10. If the
pkgver variable is used later in the PKGBUILD then the underscore can easily be substituted for a dash on usage e.g.:
The release number of the package specific to Arch Linux. This value allows users to differentiate between consecutive builds of the same version of a package. When a new package version is first released, the release number starts at 1. As fixes and optimizations are made to the
PKGBUILD file, the package will be re-released and the release number will increment by 1. When a new version of the package comes out, the release number resets to 1.
This variable reflects the root directory of what will be put into the package. It is commonly used in
make DESTDIR="$pkgdir" install.
Used to force the package to be seen as newer than any previous versions with a lower epoch, even if the version number would normally not trigger such an upgrade. This value is required to be a positive integer; the default value if left unspecified is 0. This is useful when the version numbering scheme of a package changes (or is alphanumeric), breaking normal version comparison logic. See pacman(8) for more information on version comparisons.
An optional global directive is available when building a split package, pkgbase is used to refer to the group of packages in the output of makepkg and in the naming of source-only tarballs. If not specified, the first element in the pkgname array is used. All options and directives for the split packages default to the global values given in the PKGBUILD. Nevertheless, the following ones can be overridden within each split package's packaging function: pkgver, pkgrel, epoch, pkgdesc, arch, url, license, groups, depends, optdepends, provides, conflicts, replaces, backup, options, install and changelog. The variable is not allowed to begin with a hyphen.
The description of the package. The description should be about 80 characters or less and should not include the package name in a self-referencing way. For instance, "Nedit is a text editor for X11" should be written as "A text editor for X11."
An array of architectures that the
PKGBUILD file is known to build and work on. Currently, it should contain
arch=('i686' 'x86_64'). The value
any can also be used for architecture-independent packages.
You can access the target architecture with the variable
$CARCH during a build, and even when defining variables. See also FS#16352. Example:
depends=('foobar') if test "$CARCH" == x86_64; then depends+=('lib32-glibc') fi
The URL of the official site of the software being packaged.
The license under which the software is distributed. A
[core] that stores common licenses in
/usr/share/licenses/common/GPL. If a package is licensed under one of these licenses, the value should be set to the directory name, e.g.
license=('GPL'). If the appropriate license is not included in the official package, several things must be done:
- The license file(s) should be included in:
- If the source tarball does NOT contain the license details and the license is only displayed elsewhere, e.g. a website, then you need to copy the license to a file and include it.
licensearray. Optionally, you can replace
custom:name of license. Once a license is used in two or more packages in an official repository (including
[community]), it becomes a part of the package.
- The BSD, MIT, zlib/png and Python licenses are special cases and could not be included in the package. For the sake of the
licensearray, it is treated as a common license (
license=('Python')) but technically each one is a custom license because each one has its own copyright line. Any packages licensed under these four should have its own unique license stored in
/usr/share/licenses/pkgname. Some packages may not be covered by a single license. In these cases, multiple entries may be made in the license array, e.g.
license=('GPL' 'custom:name of license').
- Additionally, the (L)GPL has many versions and permutations of those versions. For (L)GPL software, the convention is:
- (L)GPL - (L)GPLv2 or any later version
- (L)GPL2 - (L)GPL2 only
- (L)GPL3 - (L)GPL3 or any later version
- If after researching the issue no license can be determined,
unknown. However, upstream should be contacted about the conditions under which the software is (and is not) available.
buildphase with something like this:
sed -n '/This software/,/ thereof./p' ReadMe.txt > LICENSE.
The group the package belongs in. For instance, when you install thepackage, it installs all packages that belong in the group.
An array of package names that must be installed before this software can be run. Version restrictions can be specified with comparison operators, e.g.
depends=('foobar>=1.8.0'); if multiple restrictions are needed, the dependency can be repeated for each of them , e.g.
depends=('foobar>=1.8.0' 'foobar<2.0.0'). You do not need to list packages that your software depends on if other packages your software depends on already have those packages listed in their dependency. For instance, depends on and . However, does not need to be listed as a dependency for because it is a dependency for .
An array of package names that are not needed for the software to function but provides additional features. A short description of the extra functionality each optdepnd provides for the package should also be noted. An
optdepends may look like this:
optdepends=( 'cups: printing support' 'sane: scanners support' 'libgphoto2: digital cameras support' 'alsa-lib: sound support' 'giflib: GIF images support' 'libjpeg: JPEG images support' 'libpng: PNG images support' )
An array of package names that must be installed to build the software but unnecessary for using the software after installation. You can specify the minimum version dependency of the packages in the same format as the
dependsis not necessary.
An array of packages this package depends on to run its test suite but are not needed at runtime. Packages in this list follow the same format as depends. These dependencies are only considered when the check() function is present and is to be run by makepkg.
An array of package names that this package provides the features of (or a virtual package such as
sh). Packages that provide the same things can be installed at the same time unless conflict with each other (see below). If you use this variable, you should add the version (
pkgver and perhaps the
pkgrel) that this package will provide if dependencies may be affected by it. For instance, if you are providing a modified qt package named qt-foobar version 3.3.8 which provides qt then the
provides array should look like
provides=('qt') will cause to fail those dependencies that require a specific version of qt. Do not add
pkgname to your provides array; this is done automatically.
An array of package names that may cause problems with this package if installed. A package with this name and all packages which
provides virtual packages with this name will be removed. You can also specify the version properties of the conflicting packages in the same format as the
An array of obsolete package names that are replaced by this package, e.g.
replaces=('ethereal') for the package. After syncing with
pacman -Sy, it will immediately replace an installed package upon encountering another package with the matching
replaces in the repositories. If you are providing an alternate version of an already existing package, use the
conflicts variable which is only evaluated when actually installing the conflicting package.
An array of files that can contain user-made changes and should be preserved during upgrade or removal of a package, primarily intended for configuration files in
When updating, new version may be saved as
file.pacnew to avoid overwriting a file which already exists and was previously modified by the user. Similarly, when the package is removed, user-modified file will be preserved as
file.pacsave unless the package was removed with
pacman -Rn command.
The file paths in this array should be relative paths (e.g.
etc/pacman.conf) not absolute paths (e.g.
/etc/pacman.conf). See also Pacnew and Pacsave Files.
This array allows you to override some of the default behavior of
makepkg, defined in
/etc/makepkg.conf. To set an option, include the option name in the array. To reverse the default behavior, place an
! at the front of the option. The following options may be placed in the array:
- strip - Strips symbols from binaries and libraries. If you frequently use a debugger on programs or libraries, it may be helpful to disable this option.
- docs - Save
- libtool - Leave libtool (
.la) files in packages.
- staticlibs - Leave static library (.a) files in packages
- emptydirs - Leave empty directories in packages.
- zipman - Compress man and info pages with gzip.
- purge - Remove files specified by the
PURGE_TARGETSvariable from the package.
- upx - Compress binary executable files using UPX. Additional options can be passed to UPX by specifying the
- ccache - Allow the use of
ccacheduring build. More useful in its negative form
!ccachewith select packages that have problems building with
- distcc - Allow the use of
distccduring build. More useful in its negative form
!distccwith select packages that have problems building with
- buildflags - Allow the use of user-specific
buildflags(CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, LDFLAGS) during build. More useful in its negative form
!buildflagswith select packages that have problems building with custom
- makeflags - Allow the use of user-specific
makeflagsduring build. More useful in its negative form
!makeflagswith select packages that have problems building with custom
The name of the
.install script to be included in the package. pacman has the ability to store and execute a package-specific script when it installs, removes or upgrades a package. The script contains the following functions which run at different times:
- pre_install - The script is run right before files are extracted. One argument is passed: new package version.
- post_install - The script is run right after files are extracted. One argument is passed: new package version.
- pre_upgrade - The script is run right before files are extracted. Two arguments are passed in the following order: new package version, old package version.
- post_upgrade - The script is run right after files are extracted. Two arguments are passed in the following order: new package version, old package version.
- pre_remove - The script is run right before files are removed. One argument is passed: old package version.
- post_remove - The script is run right after files are removed. One argument is passed: old package version.
Each function is run chrooted inside the pacman install directory. See this thread.
.installis provided at
/usr/share/pacman/proto.install. For a web-based prototype, refer to pacman's gitweb page.
The name of the package changelog. To view changelogs for installed packages (that have this file):
pacman -Qc pkgname
An array of files which are needed to build the package. It must contain the location of the software source, which in most cases is a full HTTP or FTP URL. The previously set variables
pkgver can be used effectively here (e.g.
PKGBUILDfile is in and add the file name to this array. Any paths you add here are resolved relative to the directory where the
PKGBUILDlies. Before the actual build process is started, all of the files referenced in this array will be downloaded or checked for existence, and
makepkgwill not proceed if any are missing.
An array of files listed under the
source array which should not be extracted from their archive format by
makepkg. This most commonly applies to archives which cannot be handled by
/usr/bin/bsdtar because processes all files as streams rather than random access as does. In these situations, the alternative unarchiving tool (e.g.,
p7zip, etc.) should be added in the
makedepends array and the first line of the prepare() function should extract the source archive manually; for example:
Note that while the
source array accepts URLs,
noextract is just the file name portion. So, for example, you would do something like this (simplified from grub2's PKGBUILD):
To extract nothing, you can do something fancy like this (taken from firefox-i18n):
basename. If you have read this far, you should get the idea.
An array of MD5 checksums of the files listed in the
source array. Once all files in the
source array are available, an MD5 hash of each file will be automatically generated and compared with the values of this array in the same order they appear in the
source array. While the order of the source files itself does not matter, it is important that it matches the order of this array because
makepkg cannot guess which checksum belongs to what source file. You can generate this array quickly and easily using the command
updpkgsums in the directory that contains the
An array of 160-bit SHA-1 checksums. This is an alternative to
md5sums described above. To enable use and generation of these checksums, set up the
INTEGRITY_CHECK option in
sha256sums, sha384sums, sha512sums
An array of SHA-2 checksums with digest sizes 256, 384, and 512 bits, respectively. These are alternatives to
sha1sums described above and have fewer known weaknesses. To enable use and generation of these checksums, set up the
INTEGRITY_CHECK option in