PKGBUILD (Српски)

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Summary help replacing me
A PKGBUILD is a script that describes how software is to be compiled and packaged. This article provides an explanation of PKGBUILD variables used when Creating Packages.
Overview
Template:Package management overview
Related
Creating Packages
Custom local repository
pacman Tips
Resources
PKGBUILD(5) Manual Page

PKGBUILD је Arch Linux фајл који описује изградњу пакета кад се креирају пакети. Овај чланак описује могуће PKGBUILD променљиве.

Грађење пакета

Пакети се код Arch Linux-а граде уз помоћ makepkg и информација које се налазе унутар PKGBUILD фајла. Кад се makepkg покрене, он тражи PKGBUILD у директоријуму у којем се тренутно налази и прати инструкције које се налазе у том фајлу да би компајлирао или прибавио неопходне фајлове који се пакују у пакет (pkgname.pkg.tar.xz). Пакет који се тиме добија садржи бинарне фајлове и инсталациона упутства; и спреман је за инсталацију уз помоћ pacman софтвера.

Погледати:

  • Creating Packages за више информација о креирању пакета; и
  • Custom local repository за информације о коришћењу пакета пошто се креирају.

Променљиве

Следеће промељиве се могу попунити у PKGBUILD фајлу:

pkgname 
Име пакета, Треба да садржи алфанумеричке карактере и црте ('-') и сва слова би требало да буду мала. Због доследности, pkgname би требало да се подудара са именом изворног tarball-а софтвера који се пакује. На пример, ако је софтвер foobar-2.5.tar.gz, pkgname вредност би требало да буде foobar. Тренутни радни директоријум за PKGBUILD фајл би такође требало да се подудара са pkgname.
pkgver 
Верзија пакета. Вредност би требала да буде иста као и верзија пакета који је издао аутор. Садржи слова, бројеве и тачке али НЕ СМЕ да садржи црту. Ако аутор пакета користи црту у шеми означавања верзије, треба је заменити са доњом цртом. На пример, ако је верзија 0.99-10, требало би да се промени у 0.99_10. Ако се pkgver променљива користи касније у PKGBUILD-у онда се доња црта лако мења цртом, нпр. овако:
 source=($pkgname-${pkgver//_/-}.tar.gz)
pkgrel 
Број издања пакета специфичног за Arch Linux. Ова вредност омогућава корисницима да разликују узастопне изградње исте верзије пакета. Када се нова верзија пакета први пут објави, број издања почиње са 1. Како се креирају поправке и оптимизације PKGBUILD фајла, пакет се поново објављује и број издања се повећава за 1. Када нова верзија пакета изађе, број издања се враћа на 1.
epoch 
Целобројна вредност, специфична за Arch Linux, представља који 'животни век' да упореди са бројем верзије. Ова вредност дозвољава надјачавање нормалног поређења верзија за пакете који имају нередовно означавање верзија. Подразумевано, за пакете се претпоставља да имају epoch вредност 0. Не користите ову променљиву осим уколико знате шта радите.
pkgdesc 
Опис пакета. Опис би требало да садржи око 80 или мање карактера и не би требало да укључује име пакета само-референтни начин. На пример, "Nedit is a text editor for X11" треба написати као "A text editor for X11."
arch 
Ред архитектура на којим PKGBUILD фајл може да се изгради и на којим ради. Тренутно, требало би да садржи i686 и/или x86_64, arch=('i686' 'x86_64'). Вредност any се такође може користити за пакете који су независни од архитектуре. Овој вредности се може приступити променљивом $CARCH током изградње.
url 
URL адреса официјалног сајта софтвера који се пакује.
license 
The license under which the software is distributed. A licenses package has been created in [core] that stores common licenses in /usr/share/licenses/common, i.e. /usr/share/licenses/common/GPL. If a package is licensed under one of these licenses, the value should be set to the directory name, e.g. license=('GPL'). If the appropriate license is not included in the official licenses package, several things must be done:
  1. The license file(s) should be included in: /usr/share/licenses/pkgname/, e.g. /usr/share/licenses/foobar/LICENSE.
  2. If the source tarball does NOT contain the license details and the license is only displayed elsewhere, e.g. a website, then you need to copy the license to a file and include it.
  3. Add custom to the license array. Optionally, you can replace custom with custom:name of license. Once a license is used in two or more packages in an official repository (including [community]), it becomes a part of the licenses package.
  • The BSD, MIT, zlib/png and Python licenses are special cases and could not be included in the licenses package. For the sake of the license array, it is treated as a common license (license=('BSD'), license=('MIT'), license=('ZLIB') and license=('Python')) but technically each one is a custom license because each one has its own copyright line. Any packages licensed under these four should have its own unique license stored in /usr/share/licenses/pkgname. Some packages may not be covered by a single license. In these cases, multiple entries may be made in the license array, e.g. license=('GPL' 'custom:name of license').
  • Additionally, the (L)GPL has many versions and permutations of those versions. For (L)GPL software, the convention is:
    • (L)GPL - (L)GPLv2 or any later version
    • (L)GPL2 - (L)GPL2 only
    • (L)GPL3 - (L)GPL3 or any later version
groups 
The group the package belongs in. For instance, when you install the kdebase package, it installs all packages that belong in the kde group.
depends 
An array of package names that must be installed before this software can be run. If a software requires a minimum version of a dependency, the >= operator should be used to point this out, e.g. depends=('foobar>=1.8.0'). You do not need to list packages that your software depends on if other packages your software depends on already have those packages listed in their dependency. For instance, gtk2 depends on glib2 and glibc. However, glibc does not need to be listed as a dependency for gtk2 because it is a dependency for glib2.
makedepends 
An array of package names that must be installed to build the software but unnecessary for using the software after installation. You can specify the minimum version dependency of the packages in the same format as the depends array.
Warning: The group "base-devel" is assumed already installed when building with makepkg . Members of "base-devel" should not be included in makedepends arrays.
optdepends 
An array of package names that are not needed for the software to function but provides additional features. A short description of what each package provides should also be noted. An optdepends may look like this:
optdepends=('cups: printing support'
'sane: scanners support'
'libgphoto2: digital cameras support'
'alsa-lib: sound support'
'giflib: GIF images support'
'libjpeg: JPEG images support'
'libpng: PNG images support')
provides 
An array of package names that this package provides the features of (or a virtual package such as cron or sh). If you use this variable, you should add the version (pkgver and perhaps the pkgrel) that this package will provide if dependencies may be affected by it. For instance, if you are providing a modified qt package named qt-foobar version 3.3.8 which provides qt then the provides array should look like provides=('qt=3.3.8'). Putting provides=('qt') will cause to fail those dependencies that require a specific version of qt. Do not add pkgname to your provides array, this is done automatically.
conflicts 
An array of package names that may cause problems with this package if installed. You can also specify the version properties of the conflicting packages in the same format as the depends array.
replaces 
An array of obsolete package names that are replaced by this package, e.g. replaces=('ethereal') for the wireshark package. After syncing with pacman -Sy, it will immediately replace an installed package upon encountering another package with the matching replaces in the repositories. If you are providing an alternate version of an already existing package, use the conflicts variable which is only evaluated when actually installing the conflicting package.
backup 
An array of files to be backed up as file.pacsave when the package is removed. This is commonly used for packages placing configuration files in /etc. The file paths in this array should be relative paths (e.g. etc/pacman.conf) not absolute paths (e.g. /etc/pacman.conf).
options 
This array allows you to override some of the default behavior of makepkg. To set an option, include the option name in the array. To reverse the default behavior, place an ! at the front of the option. The following options may be placed in the array:
  • strip - Strips symbols from binaries and libraries.
  • docs - Save /doc directories.
  • libtool - Leave libtool (.la) files in packages.
  • emptydirs - Leave empty directories in packages.
  • zipman - Compress man and info pages with gzip.
  • ccache - Allow the use of ccache during build. More useful in its negative form !ccache with select packages that have problems building with ccache.
  • distcc - Allow the use of distcc during build. More useful in its negative form !distcc with select packages that have problems building with distcc.
  • makeflags - Allow the use of user-specific makeflags during build. More useful in its negative form !makeflags with select packages that have problems building with custom makeflags.
install 
The name of the .install script to be included in the package. pacman has the ability to store and execute a package-specific script when it installs, removes or upgrades a package. The script contains the following functions which run at different times:
  • pre_install - The script is run right before files are extracted. One argument is passed: new package version.
  • post_install - The script is run right after files are extracted. One argument is passed: new package version.
  • pre_upgrade - The script is run right before files are extracted. Two arguments are passed in the following order: new package version, old package version.
  • post_upgrade - The script is run after files are extracted. Two arguments are passed in the following order: new package version, old package version.
  • pre_remove - The script is run right before files are removed. One argument is passed: old package version.
  • post_remove - The script is run right after files are removed. One argument is passed: old package version.
Each function is run chrooted inside the pacman install directory. See this thread.
Tip: A prototype .install is provided at /usr/share/pacman/proto.install.
source 
An array of files which are needed to build the package. It must contain the location of the software source, which in most cases is a full HTTP or FTP URL. The previously set variables pkgname and pkgver can be used effectively here (e.g. source=(http://example.com/$pkgname-$pkgver.tar.gz))
Note: If you need to supply files which are not downloadable on the fly, e.g. self-made patches, you simply put those into the same directory where your PKGBUILD file is in and add the filename to this array. Any paths you add here are resolved relative to the directory where the PKGBUILD lies. Before the actual build process is started, all of the files referenced in this array will be downloaded or checked for existence, and makepkg will not proceed if any are missing.
Note: You can specify a different name for the downloaded file - if the downloaded file has a different name for some reason like the url had a GET parameter - using the following syntax: <filename>::<fileuri>, do not include the '<' and '>' characters
noextract 
An array of files listed under the source array which should not be extracted from their archive format by makepkg. This most commonly applies to certain zip files which cannot be handled by bsdtar because libarchive processes all files as streams rather than random access as unzip does. In these situations unzip should be added in the makedepends array and the first line of the build() function should contain:
cd $srcdir/$pkgname-$pkgver
unzip [source].zip
md5sums 
An array of MD5 checksums of the files listed in the source array. Once all files in the source array are available, an MD5 hash of each file will be automatically generated and compared with the values of this array in the same order they appear in the source array. While the order of the source files itself does not matter, it is important that it matches the order of this array since makepkg cannot guess which checksum belongs to what source file. You can generate this array quickly and easily using the command makepkg -g in the directory that contains the PKGBUILD file. Note that the MD5 algorithm is known to have weaknesses, so you should consider using a stronger alternative.
sha1sums 
An array of SHA-1 160-bit checksums. This is an alternative to md5sums described above, but is also known to have weaknesses, so you should consider using a stronger alternative. To enable use and generation of these checksums, be sure to set up the INTEGRITY_CHECK option in makepkg.conf. See man makepkg.conf.
sha256sums, sha384sums, sha512sums 
An array of SHA-2 checksums with digest sizes 256, 384 and 512 bits respectively. These are alternatives to md5sums described above and are generally believed to be stronger. To enable use and generation of these checksums, be sure to set up the INTEGRITY_CHECK option in makepkg.conf. See man makepkg.conf.

It is common practice to preserve the order of the PKGBUILD variables as shown above. However, this is not mandatory, as the only requirement in this context is correct Bash syntax.

See also