PKGBUILD (Polski)

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PKGBUILD jest plikiem Arch Linuksa opisującym proces budowania pakietu używany podczas tworzenia pakietów.

Pakiety w Arch Linuksie budowane są za pomocą narzędzia makepkg i informacji zawartych w PKGBUILDach. Kiedy makepkg jest uruchamiany, szuka pliku PKGBUILD w aktualnym katalogu i postępuje zgodnie ze wskazówkami w nim zawartymi aby skompilować źródła lub w jakikolwiek inny sposób pobrać pliki potrzebne do zbudowania pliku pakietu (pkgname.pkg.tar.xz). Wynikowy pakiet zawiera pliki binarne i instrukcje instalacyjne, łatwo instalowane z pacmanem.

Zmienne

Poniżej przedstawiono zmienne które mogą być użyte w pliku PKGBUILD.

Powszechną praktyką jest zdefiniowanie zmiennych w PKGBUILD w tej samej kolejności, jak podano tutaj. Jednak nie jest to obowiązkowe, tak jak poprawna składnia Bash (Polski) jest używana.

pkgname

Nazwa pakietu. Powina składać się z alfanumerycznych i znaka myślnika ('-') i wszystkie litery muszą być małe. Dla zachowania spójności, pkgname powinien pasować do nazwy archiwum źródła które pakujesz. Na przykład, jeśli oprogramowanie jest w foobar-2.5.tar.gz, wartość pkgname powinna być foobar. Katalog roboczy pliku PKGBUILD powinien także pasować do pkgname.

pkgver

Wersja pakiet. Wartość powinna być taka sama jak wersja źródeł udostępnionych przez autora. Może zawierać litery, cyfry i kropki, ale nie może zawierać dwukropka. Jeśli autor pakietu używa tego łącznika w wersji systemu numeracji, zastąp go podkreśleniem. Na przykład, jeśli wersja jest 0.99-10, powinna zostać zmieniona na 0.99_10. Jeśli zmienna pkgver jest używana później w PKGBUILD wtedy podkreślenie można łatwo zastąpić kreską, na przykład:

source=($pkgname-${pkgver//_/-}.tar.gz)

pkgrel

Ostateczna wersja pakietu specyficzna dla Arch Linuksa. Ta wartość umożliwia użytkownikom odróżnić kolejne budowania tej samej wersji pakietu. Kiedy nowa wersja pakietu jest pierwszą wypuszczana, wtedy numer wersji zaczyna się od 1. Jeśli poprawki i optymalizacje są robione dla pliku PKGBUILD, wtedy pakiety będzie re-released i numer wersji zostanie zwiększony o 1. Kiedy nowa wersja pakietu źródłowego wyjdzie, numer wersji resetowany jest do 1.

epoch

An integer value, specific to Arch Linux, representing what 'lifetime' to compare version numbers against. This value allows overrides of the normal version comparison rules for packages that have inconsistent version numbering, require a downgrade, change numbering schemes, etc. By default, packages are assumed to have an epoch value of 0. Do not use this unless you know what you are doing.

pkgdesc

Opis pakietu. Opis powinien zawierać około 80 znaków lub mniej i nie powinien zawierać nazwy pakietu. Dla przykładu, "Nedit jest edytorem tekstu dla X11" powinien zostać zmieniony na "Edytor tekstu dla X11".

Note: Nie przestrzegaj tej zasady bezmyślnie kiedy wysyłasz pakiety do AUR. Jeśli nazwa pakietu różni się od nazwy aplikacji z jakiś powodów, dołączenie pełnej nazwy do opisu może być jedyną drogą do zapewnienia aby pakiet został znaleziony podczas wyszukiwania.

arch

Tablica architektur znanych plikowi PKGBUILD do zbudowania i pracowania na nich. Aktualnie, powinna zawierać i686 i/lub x86_64, arch=('i686' 'x86_64'). Wartość any może być użyta dla pakietów niezależnych-architekturowo.

Dostęp do architektury masz przez zmienną $CARCH podczas budowania a nawet przy definiowaniu zmiennych. Zobacz także FS#16352. Na przykład:

depends=(foobar)
if test "$CARCH" == x86_64; then
  depends=("${depends[@]}" lib32-glibc)
fi

url

The URL of the official site of the software being packaged.

license

The license under which the software is distributed. A licenses package has been created in [core] that stores common licenses in /usr/share/licenses/common, e.g. /usr/share/licenses/common/GPL. If a package is licensed under one of these licenses, the value should be set to the directory name, e.g. license=('GPL'). If the appropriate license is not included in the official licenses package, several things must be done:

  1. The license file(s) should be included in: /usr/share/licenses/pkgname/, e.g. /usr/share/licenses/foobar/LICENSE.
  2. If the source tarball does NOT contain the license details and the license is only displayed elsewhere, e.g. a website, then you need to copy the license to a file and include it.
  3. Add custom to the license array. Optionally, you can replace custom with custom:name of license. Once a license is used in two or more packages in an official repository (including [community]), it becomes a part of the licenses package.
  • The BSD, MIT, zlib/png and Python licenses are special cases and could not be included in the licenses package. For the sake of the license array, it is treated as a common license (license=('BSD'), license=('MIT'), license=('ZLIB') and license=('Python')) but technically each one is a custom license because each one has its own copyright line. Any packages licensed under these four should have its own unique license stored in /usr/share/licenses/pkgname. Some packages may not be covered by a single license. In these cases, multiple entries may be made in the license array, e.g. license=('GPL' 'custom:name of license').
  • Additionally, the (L)GPL has many versions and permutations of those versions. For (L)GPL software, the convention is:
    • (L)GPL - (L)GPLv2 or any later version
    • (L)GPL2 - (L)GPL2 only
    • (L)GPL3 - (L)GPL3 or any later version
  • If after researching the issue no license can be determined, PKGBUILD.proto suggests using unknown. However, upstream should be contacted about the conditions under which the software is (and is not) available.
Tip: Some software authors do not provide separate license file and describe distribution rules in section of common ReadMe.txt. This information can be extracted in separate file during build phase with something like this: sed -n '/This software/,/ thereof./p' ReadMe.txt > LICENSE.

groups

The group the package belongs in. For instance, when you install the kdebase package, it installs all packages that belong in the kde group.

depends

An array of package names that must be installed before this software can be run. If a software requires a minimum version of a dependency, the >= operator should be used to point this out, e.g. depends=('foobar>=1.8.0'). You do not need to list packages that your software depends on if other packages your software depends on already have those packages listed in their dependency. For instance, gtk2 depends on glib2 and glibc. However, glibc does not need to be listed as a dependency for gtk2 because it is a dependency for glib2.

makedepends

An array of package names that must be installed to build the software but unnecessary for using the software after installation. You can specify the minimum version dependency of the packages in the same format as the depends array.


Note: Specifying packages that are already in depends is not necessary.
Warning: The group base-devel is assumed already installed when building with makepkg . Members of "base-devel" should not be included in makedepends arrays.

checkdepends

An array of packages this package depends on to run its test suite but are not needed at runtime. Packages in this list follow the same format as depends. These dependencies are only considered when the check() function is present and is to be run by makepkg.

optdepends

An array of package names that are not needed for the software to function but provides additional features. A short description of what each package provides should also be noted. An optdepends may look like this:

optdepends=('cups: printing support'
'sane: scanners support'
'libgphoto2: digital cameras support'
'alsa-lib: sound support'
'giflib: GIF images support'
'libjpeg: JPEG images support'
'libpng: PNG images support')

provides

An array of package names that this package provides the features of (or a virtual package such as cron or sh). Packages that provide the same things can be installed at the same time unless conflict with each other (see below). If you use this variable, you should add the version (pkgver and perhaps the pkgrel) that this package will provide if dependencies may be affected by it. For instance, if you are providing a modified qt package named qt-foobar version 3.3.8 which provides qt then the provides array should look like provides=('qt=3.3.8'). Putting provides=('qt') will cause to fail those dependencies that require a specific version of qt. Do not add pkgname to your provides array, this is done automatically.

conflicts

An array of package names that may cause problems with this package if installed. Package with this name and all packages which provides virtual packages with this name will be removed. You can also specify the version properties of the conflicting packages in the same format as the depends array.

replaces

An array of obsolete package names that are replaced by this package, e.g. replaces=('wireshark') for the wireshark-gtk package. After syncing with pacman -Sy, it will immediately replace an installed package upon encountering another package with the matching replaces in the repositories. If you are providing an alternate version of an already existing package, use the conflicts variable which is only evaluated when actually installing the conflicting package.

backup

An array of files to be backed up as file.pacsave when the package is removed. This is commonly used for packages placing configuration files in /etc. The file paths in this array should be relative paths (e.g. etc/pacman.conf) not absolute paths (e.g. /etc/pacman.conf). See also Pacnew and Pacsave Files.

options

This array allows you to override some of the default behavior of makepkg, defined in /etc/makepkg.conf. To set an option, include the option name in the array. To reverse the default behavior, place an ! at the front of the option. The following options may be placed in the array:

  • strip - Strips symbols from binaries and libraries. If you frequently use a debugger on programs or libraries, it may be helpful to disable this option.
  • docs - Save /doc directories.
  • libtool - Leave libtool (.la) files in packages.
  • emptydirs - Leave empty directories in packages.
  • zipman - Compress man and info pages with gzip.
  • ccache - Allow the use of ccache during build. More useful in its negative form !ccache with select packages that have problems building with ccache.
  • distcc - Allow the use of distcc during build. More useful in its negative form !distcc with select packages that have problems building with distcc.
  • buildflags - Allow the use of user-specific buildflags (CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, LDFLAGS) during build. More useful in its negative form !buildflags with select packages that have problems building with custom buildflags.
  • makeflags - Allow the use of user-specific makeflags during build. More useful in its negative form !makeflags with select packages that have problems building with custom makeflags.

install

The name of the .install script to be included in the package. pacman has the ability to store and execute a package-specific script when it installs, removes or upgrades a package. The script contains the following functions which run at different times:

  • pre_install - The script is run right before files are extracted. One argument is passed: new package version.
  • post_install - The script is run right after files are extracted. One argument is passed: new package version.
  • pre_upgrade - The script is run right before files are extracted. Two arguments are passed in the following order: new package version, old package version.
  • post_upgrade - The script is run after files are extracted. Two arguments are passed in the following order: new package version, old package version.
  • pre_remove - The script is run right before files are removed. One argument is passed: old package version.
  • post_remove - The script is run right after files are removed. One argument is passed: old package version.

Each function is run chrooted inside the pacman install directory. See this thread.

Tip: A prototype .install is provided at /usr/share/pacman/proto.install.

changelog

The name of the package changelog. To view changelogs for installed packages (that have this file):

pacman -Qc pkgname
Tip: A prototype changelog file is provided at /usr/share/pacman/ChangeLog.proto.

source

An array of files which are needed to build the package. It must contain the location of the software source, which in most cases is a full HTTP or FTP URL. The previously set variables pkgname and pkgver can be used effectively here (e.g. source=(http://example.com/$pkgname-$pkgver.tar.gz))

Note: If you need to supply files which are not downloadable on the fly, e.g. self-made patches, you simply put those into the same directory where your PKGBUILD file is in and add the filename to this array. Any paths you add here are resolved relative to the directory where the PKGBUILD lies. Before the actual build process is started, all of the files referenced in this array will be downloaded or checked for existence, and makepkg will not proceed if any are missing.
Tip: You can specify a different name for the downloaded file - if the downloaded file has a different name for some reason like the URL had a GET parameter - using the following syntax: filename::fileuri, for example $pkgname-$pkgver.zip::http://199.91.152.193/7pd0l2tpkidg/jg2e1cynwii/Warez_collection_16.4.exe

noextract

An array of files listed under the source array which should not be extracted from their archive format by makepkg. This most commonly applies to certain zip files which cannot be handled by /usr/bin/bsdtar because libarchive processes all files as streams rather than random access as unzip does. In these situations unzip should be added in the makedepends array and the first line of the build() function should contain:

cd "$srcdir/$pkgname-$pkgver"
unzip [source].zip

Note that while the source array accepts URLs, noextract is just the file name portion. So, for example, you would do something like this (simplified from grub2's PKGBUILD):

source=("http://ftp.archlinux.org/other/grub2/grub2_extras_lua_r20.tar.xz")
noextract=("grub2_extras_lua_r20.tar.xz")

To extract nothing, you can do something fancy like this (taken from firefox-i18n):

noextract=(${source[@]##*/})
Note: More conservative Bash substitution would include quotes, or possibly even a loop that calls basename. If you have read this far, you should get the idea.

md5sums

An array of MD5 checksums of the files listed in the source array. Once all files in the source array are available, an MD5 hash of each file will be automatically generated and compared with the values of this array in the same order they appear in the source array. While the order of the source files itself does not matter, it is important that it matches the order of this array since makepkg cannot guess which checksum belongs to what source file. You can generate this array quickly and easily using the command makepkg -g in the directory that contains the PKGBUILD file. Note that the MD5 algorithm is known to have weaknesses, so you should consider using a stronger alternative.

sha1sums

An array of SHA-1 160-bit checksums. This is an alternative to md5sums described above, but it is also known to have weaknesses, so you should consider using a stronger alternative. To enable use and generation of these checksums, be sure to set up the INTEGRITY_CHECK option in /etc/makepkg.conf. See man makepkg.conf.

sha256sums, sha384sums, sha512sums

An array of SHA-2 checksums with digest sizes 256, 384 and 512 bits respectively. These are alternatives to md5sums described above and are generally believed to be stronger. To enable use and generation of these checksums, be sure to set up the INTEGRITY_CHECK option in /etc/makepkg.conf. See man makepkg.conf.

See also