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The pacman package manager is one of the major distinguishing features of Arch Linux. It combines a simple binary package format with an easy-to-use build system. The goal of pacman is to make it possible to easily manage packages, whether they are from the official Arch repositories or the user's own builds.
Pacman keeps the system up to date by synchronizing package lists with the master server. This server/client model also allows the user to download/install packages with a simple command, complete with all required dependencies.
Pacman is written in the C programming language and uses the
.pkg.tar.xz package format.
- 1 Configuration
- 2 Usage
- 3 Troubleshooting
- 4 See also
Pacman's settings are located in
/etc/pacman.conf. This is the place where the user configures the program to work in the desired manner. In-depth information about the configuration file can be found in man pacman.conf.
General options are in the
[options] section. Read the man page or look in the default
pacman.conf for information on what can be done here.
Skip package from being upgraded
To skip upgrading a specific package, specify it as such:
For multiple packages use a space-separated list, or use additional
Skip package group from being upgraded
As with packages, skipping a whole package group is also possible:
Skip files from being installed to system
To always skip installation of specific directories list them under
NoExtract. For example, to avoid installation of systemd units use this:
This section defines which repositories to use, as referred to in
/etc/pacman.conf. They can be stated here directly or included from another file (such as
/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist), thus making it necessary to maintain only one list. See here for mirror configuration.
#[testing] #SigLevel = PackageRequired #Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist [core] SigLevel = PackageRequired Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist [extra] SigLevel = PackageRequired Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist #[community-testing] #SigLevel = PackageRequired #Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist [community] SigLevel = PackageRequired Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist # If you want to run 32 bit applications on your x86_64 system, # enable the multilib repositories as required here. #[multilib-testing] #SigLevel = PackageRequired #Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist #[multilib] #SigLevel = PackageRequired #Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist # An example of a custom package repository. See the pacman manpage for # tips on creating your own repositories. #[custom] #SigLevel = Optional TrustAll #Server = file:///home/custompkgs
Pacman 4 supports package signatures, which add an extra layer of security to the packages. The default configuration,
SigLevel = Required DatabaseOptional, enables signature verification for all the packages on a global level: this can be overridden by per-repository
SigLevel lines as shown above. For more details on package signing and signature verification, take a look at pacman-key.
Installing specific packages
To install a single package or list of packages (including dependencies), issue the following command:
# pacman -S package_name1 package_name2 ...
Sometimes there are multiple versions of a package in different repositories, e.g. [extra] and [testing]. To install the former version, the repository needs to be defined in front:
# pacman -S extra/package_name
Installing package groups
Some packages belong to a group of packages that can all be installed simultaneously. For example, issuing the command:
# pacman -S gnome
will prompt you to select the packages from thegroup that you wish to install.
Sometimes a package group will contain a large amount of packages, and there may be only a few that you do or do not want to install. Instead of having to enter all the numbers except the ones you do not want, it is sometimes more convenient to select or exclude packages or ranges of packages with the following syntax:
Enter a selection (default=all): 1-10 15
which will select packages 1 through 10 and 15 for installation, or:
Enter a selection (default=all): ^5-8 ^2
which will select all packages except 5 through 8 and 2 for installation.
To see what packages belong to the gnome group, run:
# pacman -Sg gnome
Also visit https://www.archlinux.org/groups/ to see what package groups are available.
To remove a single package, leaving all of its dependencies installed:
# pacman -R package_name
To remove a package and its dependencies which are not required by any other installed package:
# pacman -Rs package_name
To remove a package, its dependencies and all the packages that depend on the target package:
# pacman -Rsc package_name
To remove a package, which is required by another package, without removing the dependent package:
# pacman -Rdd package_name
Pacman saves important configuration files when removing certain applications and names them with the extension:
.pacsave. To prevent the creation of these backup files use the
# pacman -Rn package_name
Pacman can update all packages on the system with just one command. This could take quite a while depending on how up-to-date the system is. This command can synchronize the repository databases and update the system's packages (excluding 'local' packages that are not in the configured repositories):
# pacman -Syu
Pacman is a powerful package management tool, but it does not attempt to handle all corner cases. Read The Arch Way if this causes confusion. Users must be vigilant and take responsibility for maintaining their own system. When performing a system update, it is essential that users read all information output by pacman and use common sense. If a user-modified configuration file needs to be upgraded for a new version of a package, a
.pacnew file will be created to avoid overwriting settings modified by the user. Pacman will prompt the user to merge them. These files require manual intervention from the user and it is good practice to handle them right after every package upgrade or removal. See Pacnew and Pacsave Files for more info.
Before upgrading, it is advisable to visit the Arch Linux home page to check the latest news (alternatively subscribe to the RSS feed, arch-announce mailing list, or follow @archlinux on Twitter), when updates require out-of-the-ordinary user intervention (more than what can be handled simply by following the instructions given by pacman), an appropriate news post will be made.
Querying package databases
Pacman queries the local package database with the
-Q flag; see:
$ pacman -Q --help
and queries the sync databases with the
-S flag; see:
$ pacman -S --help
Pacman can search for packages in the database, searching both in packages' names and descriptions:
$ pacman -Ss string1 string2 ...
To search for already installed packages:
$ pacman -Qs string1 string2 ...
To display extensive information about a given package:
$ pacman -Si package_name
For locally installed packages:
$ pacman -Qi package_name
-i flags will also display the list of backup files and their modification states:
$ pacman -Qii package_name
To retrieve a list of the files installed by a package:
$ pacman -Ql package_name
For packages not installed, use pkgfile.
One can also query the database to know which package a file in the file system belongs to:
$ pacman -Qo /path/to/file_name
To list all packages no longer required as dependencies (orphans):
$ pacman -Qdt
To list a dependency tree of a package:
$ pactree package_name
To list all the packages depending on an installed package, use
whoneeds from pkgtools:
$ whoneeds package_name
Upgrade the system and install a list of packages (one-liner):
# pacman -Syu package_name1 package_name2 ...
Download a package without installing it:
# pacman -Sw package_name
Install a 'local' package that is not from a remote repository (e.g. the package is from the AUR):
# pacman -U /path/to/package/package_name-version.pkg.tar.xz
Install a 'remote' package (not from a repository stated in pacman's configuration files):
# pacman -U http://www.example.com/repo/example.pkg.tar.xz
Clean the package cache of packages that are not currently installed (
# pacman -Sc
Clean the entire package cache:
# pacman -Scc
Partial upgrades are unsupported
Arch Linux is a rolling release, and new library versions will be pushed to the repositories. The developers and Trusted Users will rebuild all the packages in the repositories that need to be rebuilt against the libraries. If the system has locally installed packages (such as AUR packages), users will need to rebuild them when their dependencies receive a soname bump.
This means that partial upgrades are not supported. Do not use
pacman -Sy package or any equivalent such as
pacman -Sy and then
pacman -S package. Always upgrade before installing a package -- particularly if pacman has refreshed the sync repositories. Be very careful when using
IgnoreGroup for the same reason.
If a partial upgrade scenario has been created, and binaries are broken because they cannot find the libraries they are linked against, do not "fix" the problem simply by symlinking. Libraries receive soname bumps when they are not backwards compatible. A simple
pacman -Syu to a properly synced mirror will fix the problem as long as pacman is not broken.