Difference between revisions of "Pacman/Rosetta"

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m (package-cleanup --orphans is deprecated with yum-utils, dnf repoquery --extras is the successor, though honestly neither really do the listed action, still an improvement)
(Fix style with monospace CLI, italic software name, and adjust and/or; see Talk:Pacman/Rosetta#Monospace command lines in this page to follow ArchWiki style guide?)
 
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[[Category:Package management]]
 
[[Category:Package management]]
[[es:Pacman/Rosetta]]
+
[[es:Pacman (Español)/Rosetta]]
 
[[ja:Pacman 比較表]]
 
[[ja:Pacman 比較表]]
 
[[sr:Pacman/Rosetta]]
 
[[sr:Pacman/Rosetta]]
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{{Tip|Arch users having to temporarily deal with another Linux distribution can use [https://github.com/icy/pacapt pacapt], a simple wrapper around other package managers.}}
 
{{Tip|Arch users having to temporarily deal with another Linux distribution can use [https://github.com/icy/pacapt pacapt], a simple wrapper around other package managers.}}
  
{{Note|
+
{{Note|Some of the tools described here are specific to a certain version of ''pacman''. The {{ic|-Qk}} option is new in ''pacman'' 4.1.}}
* Some of the tools described here are specific to a certain version of pacman. The -Qk option is new in pacman 4.1.
 
}}
 
  
 
== Basic operations ==
 
== Basic operations ==
  
{|
+
{| class="wikitable"
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
+
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SLES/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Install a package(s) by name ||pacman -S||dnf install ||apt install||zypper install<br>zypper in|| emerge [-a]
+
| Install a package(s) by name || {{ic|pacman -S}} || {{ic|dnf install}} || {{ic|apt install}} || {{ic|zypper install}} or {{ic|zypper in}} || {{ic|emerge [-a]}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Remove a package(s) by name ||pacman -Rs||dnf remove ||apt remove||zypper remove<br>zypper rm ||emerge -C
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. ||pacman -Ss||dnf search ||apt search||zypper search<br>zypper se [-s]||emerge -S
+
| Remove a package(s) by name || {{ic|pacman -Rs}} || {{ic|dnf remove}} || {{ic|apt remove}} || {{ic|zypper remove}} or {{ic|zypper rm}} || {{ic|emerge -vc}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Upgrade Packages - Install packages which have an older version already installed ||pacman -Syu||dnf upgrade ||apt update && apt upgrade||zypper update  zypper up||emerge -u world
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Upgrade Packages - Another form of the update command, which can perform more complex updates -- like distribution upgrades. When the usual update command will omit package updates, which include changes in dependencies, this command can perform those updates. ||pacman -Syu||dnf distro-sync ||apt update && apt dist-upgrade||zypper dup||emerge -uDN world
+
| Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. || {{ic|pacman -Ss}} || {{ic|dnf search}} || {{ic|apt search}} || {{ic|zypper search}} or {{ic|zypper se [-s]}} || {{ic|emerge -S}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Clean up all local caches. Options might limit what is actually cleaned. Autoclean removes only unneeded, obsolete information. ||pacman -Sc<br/>pacman -Scc  ||dnf clean all ||apt autoclean<br>apt clean|| zypper clean || eclean distfiles
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Remove dependencies that are no longer needed, because e.g. the package which needed the dependencies was removed. ||<nowiki>pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs -</nowiki>||dnf autoremove||apt autoremove ||zypper rm -u||emerge --depclean
+
| Upgrade Packages - Install packages which have an older version already installed || {{ic|pacman -Syu}} || {{ic|dnf upgrade}} || {{ic|apt update}} and then {{ic|apt upgrade}} || {{ic|zypper update}} or {{ic|zypper up}} || {{ic|emerge -uDN @world}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Remove packages no longer included in any repositories. ||<nowiki>pacman -Qmq | pacman -Rs -</nowiki>||dnf repoquery --extras||aptitude purge '~o'||||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Mark a package previously installed as a dependency as explicitly required. ||pacman -D --asexplicit||dnf mark install||apt-mark manual||||emerge --select
+
| Upgrade Packages - Another form of the update command, which can perform more complex updates -- like distribution upgrades. When the usual update command will omit package updates, which include changes in dependencies, this command can perform those updates. || {{ic|pacman -Syu}} || {{ic|dnf distro-sync}} || {{ic|apt update}} and then {{ic|apt dist-upgrade}} || {{ic|zypper dup}} || {{ic|emerge -uDN @world}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Install package(s) as dependency / without marking as explicitly required. ||pacman -S --asdeps||dnf install => dnf mark remove||apt-mark auto||||emerge -1
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Only downloads the given package(s) without unpacking or installing them ||pacman -Sw||dnf download||apt install --download-only (into the package cache)<br>apt download (bypass the package cache)|| zypper --download-only ||emerge --fetchonly
+
| Clean up all local caches. Options might limit what is actually cleaned. {{ic|autoclean}} removes only unneeded, obsolete information. || {{ic|pacman -Sc}} or {{ic|pacman -Scc}} || {{ic|dnf clean all}} || {{ic|apt autoclean}} or {{ic|apt clean}} || {{ic|zypper clean}} || {{ic|eclean distfiles}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Start a shell to enter multiple commands in one session ||||||apt-config shell||zypper shell ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Show a log of actions taken by the software management. ||cat /var/log/pacman.log ||dnf history||cat /var/log/dpkg.log||cat /var/log/zypp/history || located in /var/log/portage
+
| Remove dependencies that are no longer needed, because e.g. the package which needed the dependencies was removed. || {{ic|<nowiki>pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs -</nowiki>}} || {{ic|dnf autoremove}} || {{ic|apt autoremove}} || {{ic|zypper rm -u}} || {{ic|emerge --depclean}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
+
|-
| Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) ||(see /var/lib/pacman/local)||(see /var/lib/rpm/Packages)||apt-cache stats||n/a ||emerge --info
+
| Remove packages no longer included in any repositories. || {{ic|<nowiki>pacman -Qmq | pacman -Rs -</nowiki>}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery --extras}} || {{ic|aptitude purge '~o'}} ||||
 +
|-
 +
| Mark a package previously installed as a dependency as explicitly required. || {{ic|pacman -D --asexplicit}} || {{ic|dnf mark install}} || {{ic|apt-mark manual}} |||| {{ic|emerge --select}}
 +
|-
 +
| Install package(s) as dependency / without marking as explicitly required. || {{ic|pacman -S --asdeps}} || {{ic|dnf install}} and then {{ic|dnf mark remove}} || {{ic|apt-mark auto}} |||| {{ic|emerge -1}}
 +
|-
 +
| Only downloads the given package(s) without unpacking or installing them || {{ic|pacman -Sw}} || {{ic|dnf download}} || {{ic|apt install --download-only}} (into the package cache) or {{ic|apt download}} (bypass the package cache) || {{ic|zypper --download-only}} || {{ic|emerge --fetchonly}}
 +
|-
 +
| Start a shell to enter multiple commands in one session |||||| {{ic|apt-config shell}} || {{ic|zypper shell}} ||
 +
|-
 +
| Show a log of actions taken by the software management. || read {{ic|/var/log/pacman.log}} || {{ic|dnf history}} || {{ic|read /var/log/dpkg.log}} || read {{ic|/var/log/zypp/history}} || see {{ic|/var/log/portage}}
 +
|-
 +
| Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) || see {{ic|/var/lib/pacman/local}} || see {{ic|/var/lib/rpm/Packages}} || {{ic|apt-cache stats}} |||| {{ic|emerge --info}}
 +
|-
 +
| e-mail delivery of package changes |||||| {{ic|apt install apt-listchanges}} ||||
 
|-
 
|-
| e-mail delivery of package changes||||||apt install apt-listchanges||||
 
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SUSE/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== Querying specific packages ==
 
== Querying specific packages ==
  
{|
+
{| class="wikitable"
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
+
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SLES/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Show all or most information about a package. The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. ||pacman -[S<nowiki>|</nowiki>Q]i ||dnf list, dnf info ||apt show / apt-cache policy||zypper info     zypper if||emerge -S; emerge -pv; eix
+
| Show all or most information about a package. The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. || {{ic|pacman -Si}} or {{ic|pacman -Qi}} || {{ic|dnf list}} or {{ic|dnf info}} || {{ic|apt show}} or {{ic|apt-cache policy}} || {{ic|zypper info}} or {{ic|zypper if}} || {{ic|emerge -S}}, {{ic|emerge -pv}} or {{ic|eix}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Display local package information: Name, version, description, etc.||pacman -Qi ||rpm -qi ||dpkg -s / aptitude show||zypper info; rpm -qi ||emerge -pv and emerge -S
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Display remote package information: Name, version, description, etc.||pacman -Si ||dnf info ||apt-cache show / aptitude show||zypper info ||emerge -pv and emerge -S or equery m (meta)
+
| Display local package information: Name, version, description, etc. || {{ic|pacman -Qi}} || {{ic|rpm -qi}} / {{ic|dnf info installed}} || {{ic|dpkg -s}} or {{ic|aptitude show}} || {{ic|zypper info}} or {{ic|rpm -qi}} || {{ic|emerge -pv}} or {{ic|emerge -S}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Display files provided by local package||pacman -Ql ||rpm -ql||dpkg -L||rpm -Ql ||equery files
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Display files provided by a remote package||pacman -Fl||dnf repoquery -l or repoquery -l (from package yum-utils) ||apt-file list $pattern||||pfl
+
| Display remote package information: Name, version, description, etc.|| {{ic|pacman -Si}} || {{ic|dnf info}} || {{ic|apt-cache show}} or {{ic|aptitude show}} || {{ic|zypper info}} || {{ic|emerge -pv}} and {{ic|emerge -S}} or {{ic|equery meta}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Query the package which provides FILE ||pacman -Qo ||rpm -qf (installed only) or dnf provides (everything) or repoquery -f (from package yum-utils) ||dpkg -S / dlocate||zypper search -f ||equery belongs
 
 
|-
 
|-
| List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. ||pacman -Ql <br/>pacman -Fl ||dnf repoquery -l ||dpkg-query -L || rpm -ql ||equery files
+
| Display files provided by local package || {{ic|pacman -Ql}} || {{ic|rpm -ql}} || {{ic|dpkg -L}} || {{ic|rpm -Ql}} || {{ic|equery files}} or {{ic|qlist}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. ||pacman -Fo||dnf provides ||apt-file search||zypper what-provides zypper wp|| equery belongs (only installed packages); pfl
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Search all packages to find the one which holds the specified file. auto-apt is using this functionality. ||pacman -Fs||dnf provides ||apt-file search||zypper search -f ||equery belongs
+
| Display files provided by a remote package || {{ic|pacman -Fl}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery -l}} or {{ic|repoquery -l}} (from package yum-utils) || {{ic|apt-file list}} |||| {{ic|pfl}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
+
|-
| Show the changelog of a package||pacman -Qc||rpm -q --changelog||apt-get changelog||rpm -q --changelog||equery changes -f
+
| Query the package which provides FILE || {{ic|pacman -Qo}} || {{ic|rpm -qf}} (installed only) or {{ic|dnf provides}} (everything) or {{ic|repoquery -f}} (from package yum-utils) || {{ic|dpkg -S}} or {{ic|dlocate}} || {{ic|zypper search -f}} || {{ic|equery belongs}} or {{ic|qfile}}
 +
|-
 +
| List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. || {{ic|pacman -Ql}} or {{ic|pacman -Fl}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery -l}} || {{ic|dpkg-query -L}} || {{ic|rpm -ql}} || {{ic|equery files}} or {{ic|qlist}}
 +
|-
 +
| Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. || {{ic|pacman -Fo}} || {{ic|dnf provides}} || {{ic|apt-file search}} || {{ic|zypper what-provides}} or {{ic|zypper wp}}|| {{ic|equery belongs}} (only installed packages) or {{ic|pfl}}
 +
|-
 +
| Search all packages to find the one which holds the specified file. ''auto-apt'' is using this functionality. || {{ic|pacman -Fs}} || {{ic|dnf provides}} || {{ic|apt-file search}} || {{ic|zypper search -f}} || {{ic|equery belongs}} or {{ic|qfile}}
 +
|-
 +
| Show the changelog of a package|| {{ic|pacman -Qc}} || {{ic|rpm -q --changelog}} || {{ic|apt-get changelog}} || {{ic|rpm -q --changelog}} || {{ic|equery changes -f}}
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SUSE/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== Querying package lists ==
 
== Querying package lists ==
  
{|
+
{| class="wikitable"
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
+
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
+
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
+
| Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. || {{ic|pacman -Ss}} || {{ic|dnf search}} || {{ic|apt search}} || {{ic|zypper search}} or {{ic|zypper se -s}} || {{ic|emerge -S}} or {{ic|eix}}
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
+
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SLES/openSUSE'''
+
| Lists packages which have an update available. Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. || {{ic|pacman -Qu}} || {{ic|dnf list updates}} or {{ic|dnf check-update}} || {{ic|apt-get upgrade}} (press {{ic|n}} to only see the list) || {{ic|zypper list-updates}} or {{ic|zypper patch-check}} (just for patches) || {{ic|emerge -uDNp @world}}
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
+
|-
 +
| Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. || {{ic|pacman -Sl}} || {{ic|dnf list available}} || {{ic|apt-cache dumpavail}} or {{ic|apt-cache dump}} (Cache only) or {{ic|apt-cache pkgnames}} || {{ic|zypper packages}} || {{ic|portageq all_best_visible /}}
 +
|-
 +
| Generates a list of installed packages || {{ic|pacman -Q}} || {{ic|dnf list installed}} || {{ic|<nowiki>dpkg --list | grep ^i</nowiki>}} || {{ic|zypper search --installed-only}} || {{ic|qlist -IC}}
 
|-
 
|-
| Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. ||pacman -Ss ||dnf search ||apt search||zypper search  zypper se [-s]||emerge -S
+
| List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). || {{ic|pacman -Qm}} || {{ic|dnf list extras}} || {{ic|deborphan}} || {{ic|<nowiki>zypper se -si | grep 'System Packages'</nowiki>}} || {{ic|eix-test-obsolete}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Lists packages which have an update available. Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. ||pacman -Qu ||dnf list updates, dnf check-update ||apt-get upgrade -> n||zypper list-updates  zypper patch-check (just for patches) ||emerge -uDNp world
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. ||pacman -Sl ||dnf list available||apt-cache dumpavail  apt-cache dump (Cache only)  apt-cache pkgnames||zypper packages ||emerge -ep world
+
| List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. || || {{ic|dnf list recent}} || {{ic|aptitude search '~N'}} or {{ic|aptitude forget-new}} || || {{ic|eix-diff}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Generates a list of installed packages || pacman -Q || dnf list installed || |dpkg --list | grep ^i || zypper search --installed-only ||emerge -ep world
 
 
|-
 
|-
| List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). ||pacman -Qm||dnf list extras || deborphan || |zypper se -si | grep 'System Packages'||eix-test-obsolete
+
| List installed local packages along with version || {{ic|pacman -Q}} || {{ic|rpm -qa}} || {{ic|dpkg -l}} || {{ic|zypper search -s}} or {{ic|rpm -qa}} || {{ic|qlist -ICv}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. ||(none)||dnf list recent ||aptitude search '~N' / aptitude forget-new||n/a||eix-diff
 
 
|-
 
|-
| List installed local packages along with version||pacman -Q||rpm -qa||dpkg -l||zypper search -s; rpm -qa ||emerge -e world
+
| Search locally installed package for names or descriptions || {{ic|pacman -Qs}} || {{ic|rpm -qa '*<str>*'}} || {{ic|aptitude search <nowiki>'~i(~n $name|~d $description)'</nowiki>}} || || {{ic|eix -S -I}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Search locally installed package for names or descriptions ||pacman -Qs||rpm -qa '*<str>*' ||aptitude search <nowiki>'~i(~n $name|~d $description)'</nowiki>|||||eix -S -I
 
 
|-
 
|-
| List packages not required by any other package||pacman -Qt||package-cleanup --all --leaves||deborphan -anp1||||
+
| List packages not required by any other package || {{ic|pacman -Qt}} || {{ic|dnf leaves}} || {{ic|deborphan -anp1}} || || {{ic|emerge -pc}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
+
|-
| List packages installed explicitly (not as dependencies)||pacman -Qe||dnf history userinstalled||apt-mark showmanual||||
+
| List packages installed explicitly (not as dependencies) || {{ic|pacman -Qe}} || {{ic|dnf history userinstalled}} || {{ic|apt-mark showmanual}} || || {{ic|emerge -pvO @selected}} or {{ic|eix --selected}}
 +
|-
 +
| List packages installed automatically (as dependencies)}} || {{ic|pacman -Qd}} || || {{ic|apt-mark showauto}} || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| List packages installed automatically (as dependencies)||pacman -Qd||||apt-mark showauto||||
 
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SUSE/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== Querying package dependencies ==
 
== Querying package dependencies ==
  
{|
+
{| class="wikitable"
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
+
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
+
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
+
| Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse dependencies. || {{ic|pacman -Sii}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires}} or {{ic|repoquery --whatrequires}} || {{ic|apt-cache rdepends}} or {{ic|aptitude search ~D$pattern}} || {{ic|zypper search --requires}} || {{ic|emerge -pvc}}
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
+
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SLES/openSUSE'''
+
| Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function. || || {{ic|dnf repoquery --conflicts}} || {{ic|aptitude search '~C$pattern'}} || ||
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
+
|-
 +
| List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. || {{ic|pacman -Si}} or {{ic|pacman -Qi}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery --requires}} or {{ic|repoquery -R}} || {{ic|apt-cache depends}} or {{ic|apt-cache show}} || {{ic|zypper info --requires}} || {{ic|emerge -ep}}
 
|-
 
|-
| Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse dependencies.||pacman -Sii||dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires or repoquery --whatr[equires] ||apt-cache rdepends / aptitude search ~D$pattern||zypper search --requires || equery depends
+
| List what the current package provides || || {{ic|dnf provides}} || {{ic|dpkg -s}} or {{ic|aptitude show}} || {{ic|zypper info --provides}} || {{ic|equery files}} or {{ic|qlist}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function.||||dnf repoquery --conflicts||aptitude search '~C$pattern'|| ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. ||pacman -[S<nowiki>|</nowiki>Q]i||dnf repoquery --requires or repoquery -R||apt-cache depends / apt-cache show||zypper info --requires || emerge -ep
+
| List all packages that require a particular package || || {{ic|dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires}} || {{ic|aptitude search ~D{depends,recommends,suggests}:$pattern}} or {{ic|aptitude why}} || {{ic|zypper search --requires}} || {{ic|equery depends -a}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| List what the current package provides ||||dnf provides ||dpkg -s / aptitude show||zypper info --provides ||equery files
 
 
|-
 
|-
| List all packages that require a particular package ||||dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires||aptitude search ~D{depends,recommends,suggests}:$pattern / aptitude why||zypper search --requires ||equery depends -a
+
| Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes. || || {{ic|dnf list obsoletes}} || {{ic|apt-cache show}} || ||
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
+
|-
| Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes. ||||dnf list obsoletes ||apt-cache show||||  
+
| Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s). || || || {{ic|apt-cache dotty}} || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s). ||||||apt-cache dotty ||n/a||
 
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SUSE/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== Installation sources management ==
 
== Installation sources management ==
  
{|
+
{| class="wikitable"
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
+
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
+
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
+
| Installation sources management ||edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} || edit {{ic|/etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo}}|| edit {{ic|/etc/apt/sources.list}} || edit {{ic|/etc/zypp/repos.d/${REPO}.repo}} || {{ic|layman}} or {{ic|eselect repository}}
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
+
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SLES/openSUSE'''
+
| Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt and dnf force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. || edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} || {{ic|/etc/yum.repos.d/*.repo}} || {{ic|apt-cdrom add}} || {{ic|zypper service-add}} || {{ic|layman}} or {{ic|overlays}}
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Installation sources management ||${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf||${EDITOR} /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo||${EDITOR} /etc/apt/sources.list||${EDITOR} /etc/zypp/repos.d/${REPO}.repo ||layman
+
| Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. || {{ic|pacman -Sy}} ([[System_maintenance#Partial upgrades are unsupported|always upgrade the whole system afterwards]]) || {{ic|dnf clean expire-cache}} and then {{ic|dnf check-update}} || {{ic|apt-get update}} || {{ic|zypper refresh}} or {{ic|zypper ref}} || {{ic|emerge --sync}} or {{ic|layman -S}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt and dnf force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. ||/etc/pacman.conf||/etc/yum.repos.d/*.repo||apt-cdrom add||zypper service-add ||layman, overlays
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. ||pacman -Sy ([[System_maintenance#Partial upgrades are unsupported|always upgrade the whole system afterwards]]) ||dnf clean expire-cache && dnf check-update ||apt-get update||zypper refresh  zypper ref||emerge --sync;layman -S
+
| Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. || {{ic|cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} || {{ic|cat /etc/yum.repos.d/*}} || {{ic|apt-cache policy}} || {{ic|zypper service-list}} || {{ic|layman -l}} or {{ic|eselect repository list}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. ||cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist||cat /etc/yum.repos.d/*||apt-cache policy||zypper service-list ||layman -l
 
 
|-
 
|-
| List all packages from a certain repo|| paclist <repo>|| || || ||
+
| List all packages from a certain repo|| {{ic|paclist <repo>}} || || || || {{ic|eix --in-overlay}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
+
|-
| Disable an installation source for an operation ||||dnf --disablerepo=||||||emerge package::repo-to-use
+
| Disable an installation source for an operation || || {{ic|1=dnf --disablerepo=}}|| || || {{ic|emerge package::repo-to-use}}
|-  
+
|-
| Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed. ||||dnf --releasever= ||apt-get install -t release package/ apt-get install package/release (deps not covered)||||echo "category/package ~amd64" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords && emerge package
+
| Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed. || || {{ic|1=dnf --releasever=}} || {{ic|apt-get install -t release package}} or {{ic|apt-get install package/release}} (dependencies not covered) || || {{ic|echo "category/package ~amd64" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords}} and then {{ic|emerge package}}
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SUSE/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== Overrides ==
 
== Overrides ==
  
{|
+
{| class="wikitable"
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
+
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SLES/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Add a package lock rule to keep its current state from being changed ||/etc/pacman.conf<br/>modify IgnorePkg array||dnf.conf <--”exclude” option (add/amend)||apt-mark hold pkg||Put package name in /etc/zypp/locks, or zypper al||/etc/portage/package.mask
+
| Add a package lock rule to keep its current state from being changed || edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} modifying IgnorePkg array || edit {{ic|dnf.conf}} adding/amending the {{ic|exclude}} option || {{ic|apt-mark hold pkg}} || {{ic|zypper al}} or put package name in {{ic|/etc/zypp/locks}} || {{ic|/etc/portage/package.mask}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Delete a package lock rule ||remove package from IgnorePkg line in /etc/pacman.conf|| ||apt-mark unhold pkg||Remove package name from /etc/zypp/locks or zypper rl||/etc/portage/package.mask (or package.unmask)
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Show a listing of all lock rules ||cat /etc/pacman.conf|| ||/etc/apt/preferences ||View /etc/zypp/locks or zypper ll||cat /etc/portage/package.mask
+
| Delete a package lock rule || edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} removing package from IgnorePkg line || || {{ic|apt-mark unhold pkg}} || {{ic|zypper rl}} or remove package name from {{ic|/etc/zypp/locks}} || {{ic|/etc/portage/package.mask}} (or {{ic|package.unmask}})
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. ||${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf<br/>Modify HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays||||/etc/apt/preferences, apt-cache policy|| zypper mr -p || ${EDITOR} /etc/portage/package.keywords<br/>Add a line with =category/package-version
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Remove a previously set priority ||||||/etc/apt/preferences ||zypper mr -p || ${EDITOR} /etc/portage/package.keywords<br/>remove offending line
+
| Show a listing of all lock rules || {{ic|cat /etc/pacman.conf}} || || {{ic|/etc/apt/preferences}} || {{ic|zypper ll}} or view {{ic|/etc/zypp/locks}} || {{ic|cat /etc/portage/package.mask}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
+
|-
| Show a list of set priorities. ||||||apt-cache policy /etc/apt/preferences ||zypper lr -p || cat /etc/portage/package.keywords
+
| Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. || edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} modifying HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays || || {{ic|/etc/apt/preferences}}, {{ic|apt-cache policy}}|| {{ic|zypper mr -p}} || edit {{ic|/etc/portage/package.accept_keywords}} adding a line with {{ic|1==category/package-version}}
 +
|-
 +
| Remove a previously set priority || || || {{ic|/etc/apt/preferences}} || {{ic|zypper mr -p}} || edit {{ic|/etc/portage/package.accept_keywords}} removing offending line
 +
|-
 +
| Show a list of set priorities || || || {{ic|apt-cache policy}} or {{ic|/etc/apt/preferences}} || {{ic|zypper lr -p}} || {{ic|grep -r . /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords}}
 +
|-
 +
| Ignore problems that priorities may trigger. || || || || n/a ||
 
|-
 
|-
| Ignores problems that priorities may trigger. ||||||||n/a||
 
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SUSE/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== Verification and repair ==
 
== Verification and repair ==
  
{|
+
{| class="wikitable"
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
+
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SLES/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Verify single package||pacman -Qk[k]||rpm -V||debsums||rpm -V||equery check
+
| Verify single package || {{ic|pacman -Qk}} (can add another {{ic|k}}) || {{ic|rpm -V}} || {{ic|debsums}} || {{ic|rpm -V}} || {{ic|equery check}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Verify all packages||pacman -Qk[k]||rpm -Va||debsums||rpm -Va||equery check
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Reinstall given Package - Will reinstall the given package without dependency hassle. ||pacman -S||dnf reinstall||apt install --reinstall||zypper install --force||emerge -1O
+
| Verify all packages || {{ic|pacman -Qk}} (can add another {{ic|k}}) || {{ic|rpm -Va}} || {{ic|debsums}} || {{ic|rpm -Va}} || {{ic|equery check}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Verify dependencies of the complete system. Used if installation process was forcefully killed. ||pacman -Dk||dnf repoquery --requires ||apt-get check||zypper verify || emerge -uDN world
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Use some magic to fix broken dependencies in a system || pacman dep level - pacman -Dk, shared lib level - findbrokenpkgs or lddd||dnf repoquery --unsatisfied||apt-get --fix-broken<br>aptitude install||zypper verify ||revdep-rebuild
+
| Reinstall given package; this will reinstall the given package without dependency hassle || {{ic|pacman -S}} || {{ic|dnf reinstall}} || {{ic|apt install --reinstall}} || {{ic|zypper install --force}} || {{ic|emerge -1O}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Add a checkpoint to the package system for later rollback ||||(unnecessary, done on every transaction)||||n/a||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Remove a checkpoint from the system ||N/A||N/A||||n/a||
+
| Verify dependencies of the complete system; used if installation process was forcefully killed || {{ic|pacman -Dk}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery --requires}} || {{ic|apt-get check}} || {{ic|zypper verify}} || {{ic|emerge -uDN @world}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Provide a list of all system checkpoints ||N/A||dnf history list||||n/a ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Rolls entire packages back to a certain date or checkpoint. ||N/A||dnf history rollback||||n/a ||
+
| Use some magic to fix broken dependencies in a system || for ''pacman'' dependency level, use {{ic|pacman -Dk}}; for shared library level, use {{AUR|findbrokenpkgs}} or {{ic|lddd}} (from {{pkg|devtools}}) || {{ic|dnf repoquery --unsatisfied}} ||  {{ic|apt-get --fix-broken}} and then {{ic|aptitude install}} || {{ic|zypper verify}} || {{ic|revdep-rebuild}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
+
|-
| Undo a single specified transaction. ||N/A||dnf history undo||||n/a||||
+
| Add a checkpoint to the package system for later rollback || || (unnecessary, it is done on every transaction) || || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
| Remove a checkpoint from the system || n/a || n/a || || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
| Provide a list of all system checkpoints || n/a || {{ic|dnf history list}} || || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
| Rolls entire packages back to a certain date or checkpoint || n/a || {{ic|dnf history rollback}} || || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
| Undo a single specified transaction || n/a || {{ic|dnf history undo}} || || n/a ||
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SUSE/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== Using package files and building packages ==
 
== Using package files and building packages ==
  
{|
+
{| class="wikitable"
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
+
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
+
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
+
| Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database || {{ic|pacman -Qp}} || {{ic|rpm -qp}} || {{ic|dpkg -I}} || ||
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
+
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SLES/openSUSE'''
+
| List the contents of a package file || {{ic|pacman -Qpl}} || {{ic|rpmls rpm -qpl}} || {{ic|dpkg -c}} || {{ic|rpm -qpl}} ||
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
+
|-
 +
| Install local package file, e.g. app.rpm and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies || {{ic|pacman -U}} || {{ic|dnf install}} || {{ic|apt install}} || {{ic|zypper in}} || {{ic|emerge}}
 +
|-
 +
| Updates package(s) with local packages and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies || {{ic|pacman -U}} || {{ic|dnf upgrade}} || {{ic|debi}} || || {{ic|emerge}}
 +
|-
 +
| Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. || {{ic|cp ''package-filename'' /var/cache/pacman/pkg/}} || || {{ic|apt-cache add ''package-filename''}} || n/a || {{ic|cp ''package-filename'' /usr/portage/distfiles}}
 +
|-
 +
| Extract a package || {{ic|tar -Jxvf}} || {{ic|<nowiki>rpm2cpio | cpio -vid</nowiki>}} || {{ic|dpkg-deb -x}} || {{ic|<nowiki>rpm2cpio | cpio -vid</nowiki>}} || {{ic|tar -jxvf}}
 
|-
 
|-
| Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database||pacman -Qp||rpm -qp||dpkg -I||||
+
| Install/Remove packages to satisfy build-dependencies. Uses information in the source package || Use [[ABS]] and {{ic|makepkg -seoc}} || {{ic|dnf builddep}} || {{ic|apt-get build-dep}} || {{ic|zypper si -d}} || {{ic|emerge -o}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| List the contents of a package file||pacman -Qpl||rpmls rpm -qpl||dpkg -c||rpm -qpl||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Installs local package file, e.g. app.rpm and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies ||pacman -U||dnf install ||apt install||zypper in||emerge
+
| Display the source package to the given package name(s) || || {{ic|dnf repoquery -s}} || {{ic|apt-cache showsrc}} || n/a ||
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Updates package(s) with local packages and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies ||pacman -U||dnf upgrade ||debi||||emerge||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. ||cp $filename /var/cache/pacman/pkg/||||apt-cache add ||n/a|| cp $filename /usr/portage/distfiles
+
| Download the corresponding source package(s) to the given package name(s) || Use [[ABS]] and {{ic|makepkg -o}} || {{ic|dnf download --source}} || {{ic|apt-get source}} or {{ic|debcheckout}} || {{ic|zypper source-install}} || {{ic|emerge --fetchonly}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Extract a package ||tar -Jxvf||<nowiki>rpm2cpio | cpio -vid</nowiki>||dpkg-deb -x||<nowiki>rpm2cpio | cpio -vid</nowiki>||tar -jxvf
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Install/Remove packages to satisfy build-dependencies. Uses information in the source package. ||automatic||dnf builddep||apt-get build-dep ||zypper si -d||emerge -o
+
| Build a package || {{ic|makepkg -s}} || {{ic|rpmbuild -ba}} (normal) or ''mock'' (in chroot) || {{ic|debuild}} || {{ic|rpmbuild -ba}}, then build, and then {{ic|osc build}} || {{ic|ebuild}} or {{ic|quickpkg}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Display the source package to the given package name(s) ||||dnf repoquery -s||apt-cache showsrc ||n/a||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Downloads the corresponding source package(s) to the given package name(s) || Use [[ABS]] && makepkg -o ||dnf download --source||apt-get source / debcheckout||zypper source-install||emerge --fetchonly
+
| Check for possible packaging issues || ''namcap''<br>(requires {{Pkg|namcap}}) || ''rpmlint'' || ''lintian'' || ''rpmlint'' || ''repoman''
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Build a package||makepkg -s||rpmbuild -ba (normal)<br>mock (in chroot)||debuild||rpmbuild -ba; build; osc build ||ebuild; quickpkg
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Check for possible packaging issues||namcap||rpmlint ||lintian||rpmlint ||repoman
 
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''SUSE/openSUSE'''
 
| style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|}
 
|}
  

Latest revision as of 13:04, 8 October 2019

This page uses a table to display the correspondence of package management commands among some of the most popular Linux distributions. The original inspiration was given by openSUSE's Software Management Command Line Comparison.

Tip: Arch users having to temporarily deal with another Linux distribution can use pacapt, a simple wrapper around other package managers.
Note: Some of the tools described here are specific to a certain version of pacman. The -Qk option is new in pacman 4.1.

Basic operations

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Install a package(s) by name pacman -S dnf install apt install zypper install or zypper in emerge [-a]
Remove a package(s) by name pacman -Rs dnf remove apt remove zypper remove or zypper rm emerge -vc
Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss dnf search apt search zypper search or zypper se [-s] emerge -S
Upgrade Packages - Install packages which have an older version already installed pacman -Syu dnf upgrade apt update and then apt upgrade zypper update or zypper up emerge -uDN @world
Upgrade Packages - Another form of the update command, which can perform more complex updates -- like distribution upgrades. When the usual update command will omit package updates, which include changes in dependencies, this command can perform those updates. pacman -Syu dnf distro-sync apt update and then apt dist-upgrade zypper dup emerge -uDN @world
Clean up all local caches. Options might limit what is actually cleaned. autoclean removes only unneeded, obsolete information. pacman -Sc or pacman -Scc dnf clean all apt autoclean or apt clean zypper clean eclean distfiles
Remove dependencies that are no longer needed, because e.g. the package which needed the dependencies was removed. pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs - dnf autoremove apt autoremove zypper rm -u emerge --depclean
Remove packages no longer included in any repositories. pacman -Qmq | pacman -Rs - dnf repoquery --extras aptitude purge '~o'
Mark a package previously installed as a dependency as explicitly required. pacman -D --asexplicit dnf mark install apt-mark manual emerge --select
Install package(s) as dependency / without marking as explicitly required. pacman -S --asdeps dnf install and then dnf mark remove apt-mark auto emerge -1
Only downloads the given package(s) without unpacking or installing them pacman -Sw dnf download apt install --download-only (into the package cache) or apt download (bypass the package cache) zypper --download-only emerge --fetchonly
Start a shell to enter multiple commands in one session apt-config shell zypper shell
Show a log of actions taken by the software management. read /var/log/pacman.log dnf history read /var/log/dpkg.log read /var/log/zypp/history see /var/log/portage
Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) see /var/lib/pacman/local see /var/lib/rpm/Packages apt-cache stats emerge --info
e-mail delivery of package changes apt install apt-listchanges

Querying specific packages

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Show all or most information about a package. The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. pacman -Si or pacman -Qi dnf list or dnf info apt show or apt-cache policy zypper info or zypper if emerge -S, emerge -pv or eix
Display local package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Qi rpm -qi / dnf info installed dpkg -s or aptitude show zypper info or rpm -qi emerge -pv or emerge -S
Display remote package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Si dnf info apt-cache show or aptitude show zypper info emerge -pv and emerge -S or equery meta
Display files provided by local package pacman -Ql rpm -ql dpkg -L rpm -Ql equery files or qlist
Display files provided by a remote package pacman -Fl dnf repoquery -l or repoquery -l (from package yum-utils) apt-file list pfl
Query the package which provides FILE pacman -Qo rpm -qf (installed only) or dnf provides (everything) or repoquery -f (from package yum-utils) dpkg -S or dlocate zypper search -f equery belongs or qfile
List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. pacman -Ql or pacman -Fl dnf repoquery -l dpkg-query -L rpm -ql equery files or qlist
Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. pacman -Fo dnf provides apt-file search zypper what-provides or zypper wp equery belongs (only installed packages) or pfl
Search all packages to find the one which holds the specified file. auto-apt is using this functionality. pacman -Fs dnf provides apt-file search zypper search -f equery belongs or qfile
Show the changelog of a package pacman -Qc rpm -q --changelog apt-get changelog rpm -q --changelog equery changes -f

Querying package lists

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss dnf search apt search zypper search or zypper se -s emerge -S or eix
Lists packages which have an update available. Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. pacman -Qu dnf list updates or dnf check-update apt-get upgrade (press n to only see the list) zypper list-updates or zypper patch-check (just for patches) emerge -uDNp @world
Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. pacman -Sl dnf list available apt-cache dumpavail or apt-cache dump (Cache only) or apt-cache pkgnames zypper packages portageq all_best_visible /
Generates a list of installed packages pacman -Q dnf list installed dpkg --list | grep ^i zypper search --installed-only qlist -IC
List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). pacman -Qm dnf list extras deborphan zypper se -si | grep 'System Packages' eix-test-obsolete
List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. dnf list recent aptitude search '~N' or aptitude forget-new eix-diff
List installed local packages along with version pacman -Q rpm -qa dpkg -l zypper search -s or rpm -qa qlist -ICv
Search locally installed package for names or descriptions pacman -Qs rpm -qa '*<str>*' aptitude search '~i(~n $name|~d $description)' eix -S -I
List packages not required by any other package pacman -Qt dnf leaves deborphan -anp1 emerge -pc
List packages installed explicitly (not as dependencies) pacman -Qe dnf history userinstalled apt-mark showmanual emerge -pvO @selected or eix --selected
List packages installed automatically (as dependencies)}} pacman -Qd apt-mark showauto

Querying package dependencies

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse dependencies. pacman -Sii dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires or repoquery --whatrequires apt-cache rdepends or aptitude search ~D$pattern zypper search --requires emerge -pvc
Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function. dnf repoquery --conflicts aptitude search '~C$pattern'
List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. pacman -Si or pacman -Qi dnf repoquery --requires or repoquery -R apt-cache depends or apt-cache show zypper info --requires emerge -ep
List what the current package provides dnf provides dpkg -s or aptitude show zypper info --provides equery files or qlist
List all packages that require a particular package dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires aptitude search ~D{depends,recommends,suggests}:$pattern or aptitude why zypper search --requires equery depends -a
Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes. dnf list obsoletes apt-cache show
Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s). apt-cache dotty

Installation sources management

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Installation sources management edit /etc/pacman.conf edit /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo edit /etc/apt/sources.list edit /etc/zypp/repos.d/${REPO}.repo layman or eselect repository
Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt and dnf force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. edit /etc/pacman.conf /etc/yum.repos.d/*.repo apt-cdrom add zypper service-add layman or overlays
Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. pacman -Sy (always upgrade the whole system afterwards) dnf clean expire-cache and then dnf check-update apt-get update zypper refresh or zypper ref emerge --sync or layman -S
Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist cat /etc/yum.repos.d/* apt-cache policy zypper service-list layman -l or eselect repository list
List all packages from a certain repo paclist <repo> eix --in-overlay
Disable an installation source for an operation dnf --disablerepo= emerge package::repo-to-use
Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed. dnf --releasever= apt-get install -t release package or apt-get install package/release (dependencies not covered) echo "category/package ~amd64" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords and then emerge package

Overrides

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Add a package lock rule to keep its current state from being changed edit /etc/pacman.conf modifying IgnorePkg array edit dnf.conf adding/amending the exclude option apt-mark hold pkg zypper al or put package name in /etc/zypp/locks /etc/portage/package.mask
Delete a package lock rule edit /etc/pacman.conf removing package from IgnorePkg line apt-mark unhold pkg zypper rl or remove package name from /etc/zypp/locks /etc/portage/package.mask (or package.unmask)
Show a listing of all lock rules cat /etc/pacman.conf /etc/apt/preferences zypper ll or view /etc/zypp/locks cat /etc/portage/package.mask
Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. edit /etc/pacman.conf modifying HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays /etc/apt/preferences, apt-cache policy zypper mr -p edit /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords adding a line with =category/package-version
Remove a previously set priority /etc/apt/preferences zypper mr -p edit /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords removing offending line
Show a list of set priorities apt-cache policy or /etc/apt/preferences zypper lr -p grep -r . /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords
Ignore problems that priorities may trigger. n/a

Verification and repair

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Verify single package pacman -Qk (can add another k) rpm -V debsums rpm -V equery check
Verify all packages pacman -Qk (can add another k) rpm -Va debsums rpm -Va equery check
Reinstall given package; this will reinstall the given package without dependency hassle pacman -S dnf reinstall apt install --reinstall zypper install --force emerge -1O
Verify dependencies of the complete system; used if installation process was forcefully killed pacman -Dk dnf repoquery --requires apt-get check zypper verify emerge -uDN @world
Use some magic to fix broken dependencies in a system for pacman dependency level, use pacman -Dk; for shared library level, use findbrokenpkgsAUR or lddd (from devtools) dnf repoquery --unsatisfied apt-get --fix-broken and then aptitude install zypper verify revdep-rebuild
Add a checkpoint to the package system for later rollback (unnecessary, it is done on every transaction) n/a
Remove a checkpoint from the system n/a n/a n/a
Provide a list of all system checkpoints n/a dnf history list n/a
Rolls entire packages back to a certain date or checkpoint n/a dnf history rollback n/a
Undo a single specified transaction n/a dnf history undo n/a

Using package files and building packages

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
List the contents of a package file pacman -Qpl rpmls rpm -qpl dpkg -c rpm -qpl
Install local package file, e.g. app.rpm and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies pacman -U dnf install apt install zypper in emerge
Updates package(s) with local packages and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies pacman -U dnf upgrade debi emerge
Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. cp package-filename /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ apt-cache add package-filename n/a cp package-filename /usr/portage/distfiles
Extract a package tar -Jxvf rpm2cpio | cpio -vid dpkg-deb -x rpm2cpio | cpio -vid tar -jxvf
Install/Remove packages to satisfy build-dependencies. Uses information in the source package Use ABS and makepkg -seoc dnf builddep apt-get build-dep zypper si -d emerge -o
Display the source package to the given package name(s) dnf repoquery -s apt-cache showsrc n/a
Download the corresponding source package(s) to the given package name(s) Use ABS and makepkg -o dnf download --source apt-get source or debcheckout zypper source-install emerge --fetchonly
Build a package makepkg -s rpmbuild -ba (normal) or mock (in chroot) debuild rpmbuild -ba, then build, and then osc build ebuild or quickpkg
Check for possible packaging issues namcap
(requires namcap)
rpmlint lintian rpmlint repoman

See also