Difference between revisions of "Pacman/Rosetta"

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(Added pacman -Qk[k] stuff, and pkgfile -l.)
(→‎Querying package dependencies: Add RPM command that lists which installed packages require a package)
 
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[[Category:Package management]]
 
[[Category:Package management]]
[[es:Pacman Rosetta]]
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[[es:Pacman (Español)/Rosetta]]
[[sr:Pacman Rosetta]]
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[[ja:Pacman 比較表]]
[[zh-CN:Pacman Rosetta]]
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[[pt:Pacman (Português)/Rosetta]]
This page pulls heavily from [http://old-en.opensuse.org/Software_Management_Command_Line_Comparison openSUSE's Software Management Command Line Comparison]. It has been simplified and has added Arch to the comparison, as well as modified the order in which each distribution exists for the benefit of Arch users.
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[[sr:Pacman/Rosetta]]
 +
[[zh-hans:Pacman/Rosetta]]
 +
This page uses a table to display the correspondence of [[Wikipedia:Package manager|package management]] commands among some of the most popular Linux distributions. The original inspiration was given by [http://old-en.opensuse.org/Software_Management_Command_Line_Comparison openSUSE's Software Management Command Line Comparison].
  
Users from other Linux distributions can benefit from pacman by using a simple wrapper: [https://github.com/icy/pacapt pacapt]. The script could also be intended for Arch users having to temporarily deal with another distribution.
+
{{Tip|Arch users having to temporarily deal with another Linux distribution can use [https://github.com/icy/pacapt pacapt], a simple wrapper around other package managers.}}
  
[https://github.com/icy/pacapt pacapt] is a pacman shell script implementation for other linux distribution.
+
{{Note|Some of the tools described here are specific to a certain version of ''pacman''. The {{ic|-Qk}} option is new in ''pacman'' 4.1.}}
{|
+
 
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
+
== Basic operations ==
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
+
 
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
+
{| class="wikitable"
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
+
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''(Old) SUSE'''
 
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''openSUSE'''
 
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Install a package(s) by name ||pacman -S||yum install ||apt-get install||rug install||zypper install   zypper in|| emerge [-a]
+
| Install a package(s) by name || {{ic|pacman -S}} || {{ic|dnf install}} || {{ic|apt install}} || {{ic|zypper install}} or {{ic|zypper in}} || {{ic|emerge [-a]}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Remove a package(s) by name ||pacman -Rc||yum remove/erase ||apt-get remove||rug remove/erase||zypper remove  zypper rm ||emerge -C
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. ||pacman -Ss||yum search ||apt-cache search||rug search||zypper search  zypper se [-s]||emerge -S
+
| Remove a package(s) by name || {{ic|pacman -Rs}} || {{ic|dnf remove}} || {{ic|apt remove}} || {{ic|zypper remove}} or {{ic|zypper rm}} || {{ic|emerge -vc}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Upgrade Packages - Install packages which have an older version already installed ||pacman -Syu||yum update ||apt-get upgrade||rug update||zypper update  zypper up||emerge -u world
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Upgrade Packages - Another form of the update command, which can perform more complex updates -- like distribution upgrades. When the usual update command will omit package updates, which include changes in dependencies, this command can perform those updates. ||pacman -Syu||yum distro-sync ||apt-get dist-upgrade||||zypper dup||emerge -uDN world
+
| Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. || {{ic|pacman -Ss}} || {{ic|dnf search}} || {{ic|apt search}} || {{ic|zypper search}} or {{ic|zypper se [-s]}} || {{ic|emerge -S}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Reinstall given Package - Will reinstall the given package without dependency hassle. ||pacman -S||yum reinstall||apt-get install --reinstall||||zypper install --force||emerge [-a]
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Installs local package file, e.g. app.rpm and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies ||pacman -U||yum localinstall ||dpkg -i && apt-get install -f||||zypper in /path/to/local.rpm||emerge
+
| Upgrade Packages - Install packages which have an older version already installed || {{ic|pacman -Syu}} || {{ic|dnf upgrade}} || {{ic|apt update}} and then {{ic|apt upgrade}} || {{ic|zypper update}} or {{ic|zypper up}} || {{ic|emerge -uDN @world}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Updates package(s) with local packages and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies ||pacman -U||yum localupdate ||||||n/a||emerge||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Use some magic to fix broken dependencies in a system || pacman dep level - testdb, shared lib level - findbrokenpkgs or lddd||package-cleanup --problems||apt-get --fix-broken||rug* solvedeps || zypper verify ||revdep-rebuild
+
| Upgrade Packages - Another form of the update command, which can perform more complex updates -- like distribution upgrades. When the usual update command will omit package updates, which include changes in dependencies, this command can perform those updates. || {{ic|pacman -Syu}} || {{ic|dnf distro-sync}} || {{ic|apt update}} and then {{ic|apt dist-upgrade}} || {{ic|zypper dup}} || {{ic|emerge -uDN @world}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Only downloads the given package(s) without unpacking or installing them ||pacman -Sw||yumdownloader (found in yum-utils package)||apt-get --download-only|||| zypper --download-only ||emerge --fetchonly
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Remove dependencies that are no longer needed, because e.g. the package which needed the dependencies was removed. ||<nowiki>pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs -</nowiki>||package-cleanup  --leaves||apt-get autoremove ||||n/a||emerge --depclean
+
| Clean up all local caches. Options might limit what is actually cleaned. {{ic|autoclean}} removes only unneeded, obsolete information. || {{ic|pacman -Sc}} or {{ic|pacman -Scc}} || {{ic|dnf clean all}} || {{ic|apt autoclean}} or {{ic|apt clean}} || {{ic|zypper clean}} || {{ic|eclean distfiles}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Downloads the corresponding source package(s) to the given package name(s) || Use [[ABS]] && makepkg -o ||yumdownloader --source||apt-get source ||||zypper source-install||emerge --fetchonly
 
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Remove packages no longer included in any repositories. ||||package-cleanup  --orphans||||||||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Install/Remove packages to satisfy build-dependencies. Uses information in the source package. ||automatic||yum-builddep||apt-get build-dep ||||zypper si -d||emerge -o
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| Remove dependencies that are no longer needed, because e.g. the package which needed the dependencies was removed. || {{ic|<nowiki>pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs -</nowiki>}} || {{ic|dnf autoremove}} || {{ic|apt autoremove}} || {{ic|zypper rm -u}} || {{ic|emerge --depclean}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Add a package lock rule to keep its current state from being changed ||${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf<br/>modify IgnorePkg array||yum.conf <--”exclude” option (add/amend)||<nowiki>echo "$PKGNAME hold" | dpkg --set-selections</nowiki> ||rug* lock-add  ||Put package name in /etc/zypp/locks||/etc/portage/package.mask
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Delete a package lock rule ||remove package from IgnorePkg line in /etc/pacman.conf||yum.conf <--”exclude” option (remove/amend)||<nowiki>echo "$PKGNAME install" | dpkg --set-selections</nowiki> ||rug* lock-delete||Remove package name from /etc/zypp/locks||/etc/portage/package.mask (or package.unmask)
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| Remove packages no longer included in any repositories. || {{ic|<nowiki>pacman -Qmq | pacman -Rs -</nowiki>}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery --extras}} || {{ic|aptitude purge '~o'}} ||||
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Show a listing of all lock rules ||cat /etc/pacman.conf||yum.conf (research needed)||/etc/apt/preferences ||rug* lock-list||View /etc/zypp/locks||cat /etc/portage/package.mask
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Add a checkpoint to the package system for later rollback ||||(unnecessary, done on every transaction)||||rug* checkpoint-add ||n/a ||
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| Mark a package previously installed as a dependency as explicitly required. || {{ic|pacman -D --asexplicit}} || {{ic|dnf mark install}} || {{ic|apt-mark manual}} |||| {{ic|emerge --select}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Remove a checkpoint from the system ||N/A||N/A||||rug* checkpoint-remove ||n/a ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Provide a list of all system checkpoints ||N/A||yum history list||||rug* checkpoints ||n/a ||
+
| Install package(s) as dependency / without marking as explicitly required. || {{ic|pacman -S --asdeps}} || {{ic|dnf install}} and then {{ic|dnf mark remove}} || {{ic|apt-mark auto}} |||| {{ic|emerge -1}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Rolls entire packages back to a certain date or checkpoint. ||N/A||yum history rollback||||rug* rollback ||n/a ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
|-  
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| Only downloads the given package(s) without unpacking or installing them || {{ic|pacman -Sw}} || {{ic|dnf download}} || {{ic|apt install --download-only}} (into the package cache) or {{ic|apt download}} (bypass the package cache) || {{ic|zypper --download-only}} || {{ic|emerge --fetchonly}}
| Undo a single specified transaction. ||N/A||yum history undo|||| ||n/a ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| ||||||||||||
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| Start a shell to enter multiple commands in one session |||||| {{ic|apt-config shell}} || {{ic|zypper shell}} ||
 
|-
 
|-
| ||||||||||||
+
| Show a log of actions taken by the software management. || read {{ic|/var/log/pacman.log}} || {{ic|dnf history}} || {{ic|read /var/log/dpkg.log}} || read {{ic|/var/log/zypp/history}} || see {{ic|/var/log/portage}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''''Package information management''''' ||||||||||||
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| Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) || see {{ic|/var/lib/pacman/local}} || see {{ic|/var/lib/rpm/Packages}} || {{ic|apt-cache stats}} |||| {{ic|emerge --info}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. One version of rug dumps information as a sqlite database. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) ||(see /var/lib/pacman/local)||(see /var/lib/rpm/Packages)||apt-cache stats||rug dump||n/a ||emerge --info
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Show all or most information about a package. The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. ||pacman -[S<nowiki>|</nowiki>Q]i ||yum list or info ||apt-cache showpkg  apt-cache show||rug info||zypper info      zypper if||emerge -S; emerge -pv; eix
+
| e-mail delivery of package changes |||||| {{ic|apt install apt-listchanges}} ||||
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. ||pacman -Ss ||yum search ||apt-cache search||rug search||zypper search  zypper se [-s]||emerge -S
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Lists packages which have an update available. Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. ||pacman -Qu ||yum list updates  yum check-update ||apt-get upgrade -> n||rug list-updates rug summary||zypper list-updates  zypper patch-check (just for patches) ||emerge -uDNp world
+
|}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
+
 
| Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. ||pacman -Sl ||yum list available||apt-cache dumpavail  apt-cache dump (Cache only)  apt-cache pkgnames||rug packages||zypper packages ||emerge -ep world
+
== Querying specific packages ==
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
 
|-
 
|-
| Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. ||pkgfile <filename>||yum whatprovides  yum provides ||apt-file search <filename>||rug what-provides||zypper what-provides&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; zypper wp|| equery belongs (only installed packages); pfl
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| Show all or most information about a package. The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. || {{ic|pacman -Si}} or {{ic|pacman -Qi}} || {{ic|dnf list}} or {{ic|dnf info}} || {{ic|apt show}} or {{ic|apt-cache policy}} || {{ic|zypper info}} or {{ic|zypper if}} || {{ic|emerge -S}}, {{ic|emerge -pv}} or {{ic|eix}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse/ dependencies. rug's what-requires can operate on more than just package names. ||pacman -Sii||yum resolvedep ||apt-cache rdepends||rug what-requires||IN PROGRESS || equery depends
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function. rug's what-conflicts function operates on more than just package names ||(none)||repoquery --whatconflicts||||rug info-conflicts  rug what-conflicts||IN PROGRESS ||
+
| Display local package information: Name, version, description, etc. || {{ic|pacman -Qi}} || {{ic|rpm -qi}} / {{ic|dnf info installed}} || {{ic|dpkg -s}} or {{ic|aptitude show}} || {{ic|zypper info}} or {{ic|rpm -qi}} || {{ic|emerge -pv}} or {{ic|emerge -S}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. ||pacman -[S<nowiki>|</nowiki>Q]i||yum deplist ||apt-cache depends||rug info-requirements||IN PROGRESS || emerge -ep
 
 
|-
 
|-
| List what the current package provides ||||yum provides ||||rug info-provides||IN PROGRESS||equery files
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| Display remote package information: Name, version, description, etc.|| {{ic|pacman -Si}} || {{ic|dnf info}} || {{ic|apt-cache show}} or {{ic|aptitude show}} || {{ic|zypper info}} || {{ic|emerge -pv}} and {{ic|emerge -S}} or {{ic|equery meta}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. ||pacman -Ql $pkgname <br/>pkgfile -l ||yum provides ||apt-file list||rug* file-list||IN PROGRESS ||equery files
 
 
|-
 
|-
| List all packages that require a particular package ||||repoquery --whatrequires [--recursive]||||||||equery depends -a
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| Display files provided by local package || {{ic|pacman -Ql}} || {{ic|rpm -ql}} || {{ic|dpkg -L}} || {{ic|rpm -Ql}} || {{ic|equery files}} or {{ic|qlist}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Search all packages to find the one which holds the specified file. auto-apt is using this functionality. ||pkgfile -s||yum provides  yum whatprovides ||apt-file search||rug* package-file  rug what-provides||IN PROGRESS ||equery belongs
 
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes. ||||yum list obsoletes  ||apt-cache / grep||rug info-obsoletes||IN PROGRESS||  
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Verify dependencies of the complete system. Used if installation process was forcefully killed. ||testdb||yum deplist ||apt-get check ?  apt-cache unmet||rug verify  rug* dangling-requires||n/a || emerge -uDN world
+
| Display files provided by a remote package || {{ic|pacman -Fl}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery -l}} or {{ic|repoquery -l}} (from package yum-utils) || {{ic|apt-file list}} |||| {{ic|pfl}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Generates a list of installed packages || pacman -Q || yum list installed || dpkg --get-selections |||| zypper  ||emerge -ep world
 
 
|-
 
|-
| List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). ||pacman -Qm||yum list extras || deborphan || |||zypper se -si | grep 'System Packages'||eix-test-obsolete
+
| Query the package which provides FILE || {{ic|pacman -Qo}} || {{ic|rpm -qf}} (installed only) or {{ic|dnf provides}} (everything) or {{ic|repoquery -f}} (from package yum-utils) || {{ic|dpkg -S}} or {{ic|dlocate}} || {{ic|zypper search -f}} || {{ic|equery belongs}} or {{ic|qfile}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. Note: Synaptic has this functionality, however apt doesn't seem to be the provider. ||(none)||yum list recent ||||||n/a||eix-diff
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Show a log of actions taken by the software management. ||cat /var/log/pacman.log ||yum history  cat /var/log/yum.log||cat /var/log/dpkg.log||rug history || cat /var/log/zypp/history || located in /var/log/portage
+
| List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. || {{ic|pacman -Ql}} or {{ic|pacman -Fl}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery -l}} || {{ic|dpkg-query -L}} || {{ic|rpm -ql}} || {{ic|equery files}} or {{ic|qlist}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Clean up all local caches. Options might limit what is actually cleaned. Autoclean removes only unneeded, obsolete information. ||pacman -Sc<br/>pacman -Scc  ||yum clean ||apt-get clean  apt-get autoclean|||| zypper clean || eclean distfiles
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. ||cp $pkgname /var/cache/pacman/pkg/||||apt-cache add ||||n/a || cp $srcfile /usr/portage/distfiles
+
| Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. || {{ic|pacman -F}} || {{ic|dnf provides}} || {{ic|apt-file search}} || {{ic|zypper what-provides}} or {{ic|zypper wp}}|| {{ic|equery belongs}} (only installed packages) or {{ic|pfl}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Display the source package to the given package name(s) ||||repoquery -s||apt-cache showsrc ||||n/a||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s). ||||||apt-cache dotty ||||n/a ||
+
| Search all packages to find the one which holds the specified file. ''auto-apt'' is using this functionality. || {{ic|pacman -F}} || {{ic|dnf provides}} || {{ic|apt-file search}} || {{ic|zypper search -f}} || {{ic|equery belongs}} or {{ic|qfile}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. ||${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf<br/>Modify HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays||yum-plugin-priorities and yum-plugin-protect-packages||/etc/apt/preferences smart priority –set|||| zypper mr -p || ${EDITOR} /etc/portage/package.keywords<br/>Add a line with =category/package-version
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Remove a previously set priority ||||||/etc/apt/preferences  smart priority --remove ||||zypper mr -p || ${EDITOR} /etc/portage/package.keywords<br/>remove offending line
+
| Show the changelog of a package|| {{ic|pacman -Qc}} || {{ic|rpm -q --changelog}} || {{ic|apt-get changelog}} || {{ic|rpm -q --changelog}} || {{ic|equery changes -f}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Show a list of set priorities. ||||||apt-cache policy  /etc/apt/preferences  smart priority --show ||||n/a || cat /etc/portage/package.keywords
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Ignores problems that priorities may trigger. ||||||||||n/a ||
+
|}
 +
 
 +
== Querying package lists ==
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
 
|-
 
|-
| ||||||||||||
+
| Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. || {{ic|pacman -Ss}} || {{ic|dnf search}} || {{ic|apt search}} || {{ic|zypper search}} or {{ic|zypper se -s}} || {{ic|emerge -S}} or {{ic|eix}}
 
|-
 
|-
| ||||||||||||
+
| Lists packages which have an update available. Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. || {{ic|pacman -Qu}} || {{ic|dnf list updates}} or {{ic|dnf check-update}} || {{ic|apt-get upgrade}} (press {{ic|n}} to only see the list) || {{ic|zypper list-updates}} or {{ic|zypper patch-check}} (just for patches) || {{ic|emerge -uDNp @world}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Installation sources management ||${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf||${EDITOR} /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo||${EDITOR} /etc/apt/sources.list|| || ||layman
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt and yum force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. ||${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf||${EDITOR} /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo||apt-cdrom add||rug service-add  rug mount /local/dir||zypper service-add ||layman, overlays
+
| Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. || {{ic|pacman -Sl}} || {{ic|dnf list available}} || {{ic|apt-cache dumpavail}} or {{ic|apt-cache dump}} (Cache only) or {{ic|apt-cache pkgnames}} || {{ic|zypper packages}} || {{ic|portageq all_best_visible /}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. ||pacman -Sy ||yum clean expire-cache && yum check-update ||apt-get update||rug refresh||zypper refresh  zypper ref||layman -f
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. ||cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist||cat /etc/yum.repos.d/*||||rug service-list||zypper service-list ||layman -l
+
| Generates a list of installed packages || {{ic|pacman -Q}} || {{ic|dnf list installed}} || {{ic|<nowiki>dpkg --list | grep ^i</nowiki>}} || {{ic|zypper search --installed-only}} || {{ic|qlist -IC}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Disable an installation source for an operation ||||yum --disablerepo=${REPO} ||||||||emerge package::repo-to-use
 
|-  
 
| Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed. ||||yum --releasever=${VERSION} ||||||||echo "category/package ~amd64" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords && emerge package
 
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| '''''Other commands''''' ||||||||||||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Start a shell to enter multiple commands in one session ||||yum shell ||apt-config shell||||zypper shell ||
+
| List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). || {{ic|pacman -Qm}} || {{ic|dnf list extras}} || {{ic|deborphan}} || {{ic|<nowiki>zypper se -si | grep 'System Packages'</nowiki>}} || {{ic|eix-test-obsolete}}
 
|-
 
|-
| ||||||||||||
+
| List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. || || {{ic|dnf list recent}} || {{ic|aptitude search '~N'}} or {{ic|aptitude forget-new}} || || {{ic|eix-diff}}
 
|-
 
|-
| ||||||||||||
+
| List installed local packages along with version || {{ic|pacman -Q}} || {{ic|rpm -qa}} || {{ic|dpkg -l}} || {{ic|zypper search -s}} or {{ic|rpm -qa}} || {{ic|qlist -ICv}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| '''''Package Verification'''''||||||||||||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Single package||pacman -Qk[k] <package>||rpm -V <package>||debsums||rpm -V <package>||rpm -V <package>||equery check
+
| Search locally installed package for names or descriptions || {{ic|pacman -Qs}} || {{ic|rpm -qa '*<str>*'}} || {{ic|aptitude search <nowiki>'~i(~n $name|~d $description)'</nowiki>}} || || {{ic|eix -S -I}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| All packages||pacman -Qk[k]||rpm -Va||debsums||rpm -Va||rpm -Va||equery check
 
 
|-
 
|-
| ||||||||||||
+
| List packages not required by any other package || {{ic|pacman -Qt}} || {{ic|dnf leaves}} || {{ic|deborphan -anp1}} || || {{ic|emerge -pc}}
 
|-
 
|-
| ||||||||||||
+
| List packages installed explicitly (not as dependencies) || {{ic|pacman -Qe}} || {{ic|dnf history userinstalled}} || {{ic|apt-mark showmanual}} || || {{ic|emerge -pvO @selected}} or {{ic|eix --selected}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''''Package Querying'''''||||||||||||
+
| List packages installed automatically (as dependencies)}} || {{ic|pacman -Qd}} || || {{ic|apt-mark showauto}} || ||
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| List installed local packages along with version||pacman -Q||rpm -qa||dpkg-query -l||||||emerge -e world
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Display local package information: Name, version, description, etc.||pacman -Qi ||rpm -qi ||dpkg-query -p||||||emerge -pv and emerge -S
+
|}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
+
 
| Display remote package information: Name, version, description, etc.||pacman -Si ||yum info ||apt-cache show||||||emerge -pv and emerge -S
+
== Querying package dependencies ==
|-  
+
 
| Display files provided by local package||pacman -Ql ||rpm -ql||dpkg-query -L||||||equery files
+
{| class="wikitable"
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
+
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
| Display files provided by a remote package||pkgfile -l||repoquery -l||||||||pfl
+
|-
|-  
+
| Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse dependencies. || {{ic|pacman -Sii}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires}} or {{ic|repoquery --whatrequires}} || {{ic|apt-cache rdepends}} or {{ic|aptitude search ~D$pattern}} || {{ic|zypper search --requires}} || {{ic|emerge -pvc}}
| Query the package which provides FILE ||pacman -Qo ||rpm -qf (installed only) or yum whatprovides (everything) ||dpkg-query -S||||||equery belongs
 
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database||pacman -Qp||rpm -qp||dpkg-deb -I||||||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Show the changelog of a package||pacman -Qc||rpm -q --changelog|||||||||equery changes -f
+
| Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function. || || {{ic|dnf repoquery --conflicts}} || {{ic|aptitude search '~C$pattern'}} || ||
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Search locally installed package for names or descriptions ||pacman -Qs|| |||||||||eix -S -I
 
 
|-
 
|-
| ||||||||||||
+
| List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. || {{ic|pacman -Si}} or {{ic|pacman -Qi}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery --requires}} or {{ic|repoquery -R}} || {{ic|apt-cache depends}} or {{ic|apt-cache show}} || {{ic|zypper info --requires}} || {{ic|emerge -ep}}
 
|-
 
|-
| ||||||||||||
+
| List what the current package provides || || {{ic|dnf provides}} || {{ic|dpkg -s}} or {{ic|aptitude show}} || {{ic|zypper info --provides}} || {{ic|equery files}} or {{ic|qlist}}
 
|-
 
|-
| '''''Building Packages'''''||||||||||||
+
| List all packages that require a particular package || || {{ic|dnf repoquery --installed --alldeps --whatrequires}} || {{ic|aptitude search ~D{depends,recommends,suggests}:$pattern}} or {{ic|aptitude why}} || {{ic|zypper search --requires}} || {{ic|equery depends -a}}
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Build a package||makepkg -s||rpmbuild -ba (normal) mock (in chroot)||dpkg-buildpkg||rpmbuild -ba ||rpmbuild -ba ||ebuild; quickpkg
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Check for possible packaging issues||||rpmlint ||lintian||||||repoman
+
| Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes. || || {{ic|dnf list obsoletes}} || {{ic|apt-cache show}} || ||
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| List the contents of a package file|| ||rpmls rpm -qpl||||rpm -qpl||rpm -qpl||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Extract a package ||tar -Jxvf||<nowiki>rpm2cpio | cpio -vid</nowiki>||<nowiki>ar vx | tar -zxvf data.tar.gz</nowiki>||<nowiki>rpm2cpio | cpio -vid</nowiki>||<nowiki>rpm2cpio | cpio -vid</nowiki>||tar -jxvf
+
| Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s). || || || {{ic|apt-cache dotty}} || ||
|- style="background:#e4e4e4"
 
| Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database||pacman -Qp||rpm -qp||dpkg-deb -I||||||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''<font color="#707070">Action</font>'''
 
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Arch'''
 
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Red Hat/Fedora'''
 
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Debian/Ubuntu'''
 
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''(Old) SUSE'''
 
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''openSUSE'''
 
| align="center" style="background:#f0f0f0;"|'''Gentoo'''
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
== Installation sources management ==
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
 +
|-
 +
| Installation sources management ||edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} || edit {{ic|/etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo}}|| edit {{ic|/etc/apt/sources.list}} || edit {{ic|/etc/zypp/repos.d/${REPO}.repo}} || {{ic|layman}} or {{ic|eselect repository}}
 +
|-
 +
| Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt and dnf force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. || edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} || {{ic|/etc/yum.repos.d/*.repo}} || {{ic|apt-cdrom add}} || {{ic|zypper service-add}} || {{ic|layman}} or {{ic|overlays}}
 +
|-
 +
| Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. || {{ic|pacman -Sy}} ([[System_maintenance#Partial upgrades are unsupported|always upgrade the whole system afterwards]]) || {{ic|dnf clean expire-cache}} and then {{ic|dnf check-update}} || {{ic|apt-get update}} || {{ic|zypper refresh}} or {{ic|zypper ref}} || {{ic|emerge --sync}} or {{ic|layman -S}}
 +
|-
 +
| Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. || {{ic|cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} || {{ic|cat /etc/yum.repos.d/*}} || {{ic|apt-cache policy}} || {{ic|zypper service-list}} || {{ic|layman -l}} or {{ic|eselect repository list}}
 +
|-
 +
| List all packages from a certain repo|| {{ic|paclist <repo>}} || || || || {{ic|eix --in-overlay}}
 +
|-
 +
| Disable an installation source for an operation || || {{ic|1=dnf --disablerepo=}}|| || || {{ic|emerge package::repo-to-use}}
 +
|-
 +
| Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed. || || {{ic|1=dnf --releasever=}} || {{ic|apt-get install -t release package}} or {{ic|apt-get install package/release}} (dependencies not covered) || || {{ic|echo "category/package ~amd64" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords}} and then {{ic|emerge package}}
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 +
== Overrides ==
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
 +
|-
 +
| Add a package lock rule to keep its current state from being changed || edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} modifying IgnorePkg array || edit {{ic|dnf.conf}} adding/amending the {{ic|exclude}} option || {{ic|apt-mark hold pkg}} || {{ic|zypper al}} or put package name in {{ic|/etc/zypp/locks}} || {{ic|/etc/portage/package.mask}}
 +
|-
 +
| Delete a package lock rule || edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} removing package from IgnorePkg line || || {{ic|apt-mark unhold pkg}} || {{ic|zypper rl}} or remove package name from {{ic|/etc/zypp/locks}} || {{ic|/etc/portage/package.mask}} (or {{ic|package.unmask}})
 +
|-
 +
| Show a listing of all lock rules || {{ic|cat /etc/pacman.conf}} || || {{ic|/etc/apt/preferences}} || {{ic|zypper ll}} or view {{ic|/etc/zypp/locks}} || {{ic|cat /etc/portage/package.mask}}
 +
|-
 +
| Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. || edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} modifying HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays || || {{ic|/etc/apt/preferences}}, {{ic|apt-cache policy}}|| {{ic|zypper mr -p}} || edit {{ic|/etc/portage/package.accept_keywords}} adding a line with {{ic|1==category/package-version}}
 +
|-
 +
| Remove a previously set priority || || || {{ic|/etc/apt/preferences}} || {{ic|zypper mr -p}} || edit {{ic|/etc/portage/package.accept_keywords}} removing offending line
 +
|-
 +
| Show a list of set priorities || || || {{ic|apt-cache policy}} or {{ic|/etc/apt/preferences}} || {{ic|zypper lr -p}} || {{ic|grep -r . /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords}}
 +
|-
 +
| Ignore problems that priorities may trigger. || || || || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 +
== Verification and repair ==
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
 +
|-
 +
| Verify single package || {{ic|pacman -Qk}} (can add another {{ic|k}}) || {{ic|rpm -V}} || {{ic|debsums}} || {{ic|rpm -V}} || {{ic|equery check}}
 +
|-
 +
| Verify all packages || {{ic|pacman -Qk}} (can add another {{ic|k}}) || {{ic|rpm -Va}} || {{ic|debsums}} || {{ic|rpm -Va}} || {{ic|equery check}}
 +
|-
 +
| Reinstall given package; this will reinstall the given package without dependency hassle || {{ic|pacman -S}} || {{ic|dnf reinstall}} || {{ic|apt install --reinstall}} || {{ic|zypper install --force}} || {{ic|emerge -1O}}
 +
|-
 +
| Verify dependencies of the complete system; used if installation process was forcefully killed || {{ic|pacman -Dk}} || {{ic|dnf repoquery --requires}} || {{ic|apt-get check}} || {{ic|zypper verify}} || {{ic|emerge -uDN @world}}
 +
|-
 +
| Use some magic to fix broken dependencies in a system || for ''pacman'' dependency level, use {{ic|pacman -Dk}}; for shared library level, use {{AUR|findbrokenpkgs}} or {{ic|lddd}} (from {{pkg|devtools}}) || {{ic|dnf repoquery --unsatisfied}} ||  {{ic|apt-get --fix-broken}} and then {{ic|aptitude install}} || {{ic|zypper verify}} || {{ic|revdep-rebuild}}
 +
|-
 +
| Add a checkpoint to the package system for later rollback || || (unnecessary, it is done on every transaction) || || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
| Remove a checkpoint from the system || n/a || n/a || || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
| Provide a list of all system checkpoints || n/a || {{ic|dnf history list}} || || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
| Rolls entire packages back to a certain date or checkpoint || n/a || {{ic|dnf history rollback}} || || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
| Undo a single specified transaction || n/a || {{ic|dnf history undo}} || || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 +
== Using package files and building packages ==
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Action !! Arch !! Red Hat/Fedora !! Debian/Ubuntu !! SLES/openSUSE !! Gentoo
 +
|-
 +
| Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database || {{ic|pacman -Qp}} || {{ic|rpm -qp}} || {{ic|dpkg -I}} || ||
 +
|-
 +
| List the contents of a package file || {{ic|pacman -Qpl}} || {{ic|rpmls rpm -qpl}} || {{ic|dpkg -c}} || {{ic|rpm -qpl}} ||
 +
|-
 +
| Install local package file, e.g. app.rpm and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies || {{ic|pacman -U}} || {{ic|dnf install}} || {{ic|apt install}} || {{ic|zypper in}} || {{ic|emerge}}
 +
|-
 +
| Updates package(s) with local packages and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies || {{ic|pacman -U}} || {{ic|dnf upgrade}} || {{ic|debi}} || || {{ic|emerge}}
 +
|-
 +
| Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. || {{ic|cp ''package-filename'' /var/cache/pacman/pkg/}} || || {{ic|apt-cache add ''package-filename''}} || n/a || {{ic|cp ''package-filename'' /usr/portage/distfiles}}
 +
|-
 +
| Extract a package || {{ic|tar -Jxvf}} || {{ic|<nowiki>rpm2cpio | cpio -vid</nowiki>}} || {{ic|dpkg-deb -x}} || {{ic|<nowiki>rpm2cpio | cpio -vid</nowiki>}} || {{ic|tar -jxvf}}
 +
|-
 +
| Install/Remove packages to satisfy build-dependencies. Uses information in the source package || Use [[ABS]] and {{ic|makepkg -seoc}} || {{ic|dnf builddep}} || {{ic|apt-get build-dep}} || {{ic|zypper si -d}} || {{ic|emerge -o}}
 +
|-
 +
| Display the source package to the given package name(s) || || {{ic|dnf repoquery -s}} || {{ic|apt-cache showsrc}} || n/a ||
 +
|-
 +
| Download the corresponding source package(s) to the given package name(s) || Use [[ABS]] and {{ic|makepkg -o}} || {{ic|dnf download --source}} || {{ic|apt-get source}} or {{ic|debcheckout}} || {{ic|zypper source-install}} || {{ic|emerge --fetchonly}}
 +
|-
 +
| Build a package || {{ic|makepkg -s}} || {{ic|rpmbuild -ba}} (normal) or ''mock'' (in chroot) || {{ic|debuild}} || {{ic|rpmbuild -ba}}, then build, and then {{ic|osc build}} || {{ic|ebuild}} or {{ic|quickpkg}}
 +
|-
 +
| Check for possible packaging issues || ''namcap''<br>(requires {{Pkg|namcap}}) || ''rpmlint'' || ''lintian'' || ''rpmlint'' || ''repoman''
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 +
== See also ==
 +
 +
* [http://dnf.readthedocs.org/en/latest/cli_vs_yum.html Changes in DNF CLI compared to Yum]

Latest revision as of 19:10, 1 December 2019

This page uses a table to display the correspondence of package management commands among some of the most popular Linux distributions. The original inspiration was given by openSUSE's Software Management Command Line Comparison.

Tip: Arch users having to temporarily deal with another Linux distribution can use pacapt, a simple wrapper around other package managers.
Note: Some of the tools described here are specific to a certain version of pacman. The -Qk option is new in pacman 4.1.

Basic operations

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Install a package(s) by name pacman -S dnf install apt install zypper install or zypper in emerge [-a]
Remove a package(s) by name pacman -Rs dnf remove apt remove zypper remove or zypper rm emerge -vc
Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss dnf search apt search zypper search or zypper se [-s] emerge -S
Upgrade Packages - Install packages which have an older version already installed pacman -Syu dnf upgrade apt update and then apt upgrade zypper update or zypper up emerge -uDN @world
Upgrade Packages - Another form of the update command, which can perform more complex updates -- like distribution upgrades. When the usual update command will omit package updates, which include changes in dependencies, this command can perform those updates. pacman -Syu dnf distro-sync apt update and then apt dist-upgrade zypper dup emerge -uDN @world
Clean up all local caches. Options might limit what is actually cleaned. autoclean removes only unneeded, obsolete information. pacman -Sc or pacman -Scc dnf clean all apt autoclean or apt clean zypper clean eclean distfiles
Remove dependencies that are no longer needed, because e.g. the package which needed the dependencies was removed. pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs - dnf autoremove apt autoremove zypper rm -u emerge --depclean
Remove packages no longer included in any repositories. pacman -Qmq | pacman -Rs - dnf repoquery --extras aptitude purge '~o'
Mark a package previously installed as a dependency as explicitly required. pacman -D --asexplicit dnf mark install apt-mark manual emerge --select
Install package(s) as dependency / without marking as explicitly required. pacman -S --asdeps dnf install and then dnf mark remove apt-mark auto emerge -1
Only downloads the given package(s) without unpacking or installing them pacman -Sw dnf download apt install --download-only (into the package cache) or apt download (bypass the package cache) zypper --download-only emerge --fetchonly
Start a shell to enter multiple commands in one session apt-config shell zypper shell
Show a log of actions taken by the software management. read /var/log/pacman.log dnf history read /var/log/dpkg.log read /var/log/zypp/history see /var/log/portage
Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) see /var/lib/pacman/local see /var/lib/rpm/Packages apt-cache stats emerge --info
e-mail delivery of package changes apt install apt-listchanges

Querying specific packages

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Show all or most information about a package. The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. pacman -Si or pacman -Qi dnf list or dnf info apt show or apt-cache policy zypper info or zypper if emerge -S, emerge -pv or eix
Display local package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Qi rpm -qi / dnf info installed dpkg -s or aptitude show zypper info or rpm -qi emerge -pv or emerge -S
Display remote package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Si dnf info apt-cache show or aptitude show zypper info emerge -pv and emerge -S or equery meta
Display files provided by local package pacman -Ql rpm -ql dpkg -L rpm -Ql equery files or qlist
Display files provided by a remote package pacman -Fl dnf repoquery -l or repoquery -l (from package yum-utils) apt-file list pfl
Query the package which provides FILE pacman -Qo rpm -qf (installed only) or dnf provides (everything) or repoquery -f (from package yum-utils) dpkg -S or dlocate zypper search -f equery belongs or qfile
List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. pacman -Ql or pacman -Fl dnf repoquery -l dpkg-query -L rpm -ql equery files or qlist
Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. pacman -F dnf provides apt-file search zypper what-provides or zypper wp equery belongs (only installed packages) or pfl
Search all packages to find the one which holds the specified file. auto-apt is using this functionality. pacman -F dnf provides apt-file search zypper search -f equery belongs or qfile
Show the changelog of a package pacman -Qc rpm -q --changelog apt-get changelog rpm -q --changelog equery changes -f

Querying package lists

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss dnf search apt search zypper search or zypper se -s emerge -S or eix
Lists packages which have an update available. Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. pacman -Qu dnf list updates or dnf check-update apt-get upgrade (press n to only see the list) zypper list-updates or zypper patch-check (just for patches) emerge -uDNp @world
Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. pacman -Sl dnf list available apt-cache dumpavail or apt-cache dump (Cache only) or apt-cache pkgnames zypper packages portageq all_best_visible /
Generates a list of installed packages pacman -Q dnf list installed dpkg --list | grep ^i zypper search --installed-only qlist -IC
List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). pacman -Qm dnf list extras deborphan zypper se -si | grep 'System Packages' eix-test-obsolete
List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. dnf list recent aptitude search '~N' or aptitude forget-new eix-diff
List installed local packages along with version pacman -Q rpm -qa dpkg -l zypper search -s or rpm -qa qlist -ICv
Search locally installed package for names or descriptions pacman -Qs rpm -qa '*<str>*' aptitude search '~i(~n $name|~d $description)' eix -S -I
List packages not required by any other package pacman -Qt dnf leaves deborphan -anp1 emerge -pc
List packages installed explicitly (not as dependencies) pacman -Qe dnf history userinstalled apt-mark showmanual emerge -pvO @selected or eix --selected
List packages installed automatically (as dependencies)}} pacman -Qd apt-mark showauto

Querying package dependencies

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse dependencies. pacman -Sii dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires or repoquery --whatrequires apt-cache rdepends or aptitude search ~D$pattern zypper search --requires emerge -pvc
Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function. dnf repoquery --conflicts aptitude search '~C$pattern'
List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. pacman -Si or pacman -Qi dnf repoquery --requires or repoquery -R apt-cache depends or apt-cache show zypper info --requires emerge -ep
List what the current package provides dnf provides dpkg -s or aptitude show zypper info --provides equery files or qlist
List all packages that require a particular package dnf repoquery --installed --alldeps --whatrequires aptitude search ~D{depends,recommends,suggests}:$pattern or aptitude why zypper search --requires equery depends -a
Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes. dnf list obsoletes apt-cache show
Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s). apt-cache dotty

Installation sources management

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Installation sources management edit /etc/pacman.conf edit /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo edit /etc/apt/sources.list edit /etc/zypp/repos.d/${REPO}.repo layman or eselect repository
Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt and dnf force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. edit /etc/pacman.conf /etc/yum.repos.d/*.repo apt-cdrom add zypper service-add layman or overlays
Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. pacman -Sy (always upgrade the whole system afterwards) dnf clean expire-cache and then dnf check-update apt-get update zypper refresh or zypper ref emerge --sync or layman -S
Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist cat /etc/yum.repos.d/* apt-cache policy zypper service-list layman -l or eselect repository list
List all packages from a certain repo paclist <repo> eix --in-overlay
Disable an installation source for an operation dnf --disablerepo= emerge package::repo-to-use
Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed. dnf --releasever= apt-get install -t release package or apt-get install package/release (dependencies not covered) echo "category/package ~amd64" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords and then emerge package

Overrides

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Add a package lock rule to keep its current state from being changed edit /etc/pacman.conf modifying IgnorePkg array edit dnf.conf adding/amending the exclude option apt-mark hold pkg zypper al or put package name in /etc/zypp/locks /etc/portage/package.mask
Delete a package lock rule edit /etc/pacman.conf removing package from IgnorePkg line apt-mark unhold pkg zypper rl or remove package name from /etc/zypp/locks /etc/portage/package.mask (or package.unmask)
Show a listing of all lock rules cat /etc/pacman.conf /etc/apt/preferences zypper ll or view /etc/zypp/locks cat /etc/portage/package.mask
Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. edit /etc/pacman.conf modifying HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays /etc/apt/preferences, apt-cache policy zypper mr -p edit /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords adding a line with =category/package-version
Remove a previously set priority /etc/apt/preferences zypper mr -p edit /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords removing offending line
Show a list of set priorities apt-cache policy or /etc/apt/preferences zypper lr -p grep -r . /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords
Ignore problems that priorities may trigger. n/a

Verification and repair

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Verify single package pacman -Qk (can add another k) rpm -V debsums rpm -V equery check
Verify all packages pacman -Qk (can add another k) rpm -Va debsums rpm -Va equery check
Reinstall given package; this will reinstall the given package without dependency hassle pacman -S dnf reinstall apt install --reinstall zypper install --force emerge -1O
Verify dependencies of the complete system; used if installation process was forcefully killed pacman -Dk dnf repoquery --requires apt-get check zypper verify emerge -uDN @world
Use some magic to fix broken dependencies in a system for pacman dependency level, use pacman -Dk; for shared library level, use findbrokenpkgsAUR or lddd (from devtools) dnf repoquery --unsatisfied apt-get --fix-broken and then aptitude install zypper verify revdep-rebuild
Add a checkpoint to the package system for later rollback (unnecessary, it is done on every transaction) n/a
Remove a checkpoint from the system n/a n/a n/a
Provide a list of all system checkpoints n/a dnf history list n/a
Rolls entire packages back to a certain date or checkpoint n/a dnf history rollback n/a
Undo a single specified transaction n/a dnf history undo n/a

Using package files and building packages

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
List the contents of a package file pacman -Qpl rpmls rpm -qpl dpkg -c rpm -qpl
Install local package file, e.g. app.rpm and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies pacman -U dnf install apt install zypper in emerge
Updates package(s) with local packages and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies pacman -U dnf upgrade debi emerge
Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. cp package-filename /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ apt-cache add package-filename n/a cp package-filename /usr/portage/distfiles
Extract a package tar -Jxvf rpm2cpio | cpio -vid dpkg-deb -x rpm2cpio | cpio -vid tar -jxvf
Install/Remove packages to satisfy build-dependencies. Uses information in the source package Use ABS and makepkg -seoc dnf builddep apt-get build-dep zypper si -d emerge -o
Display the source package to the given package name(s) dnf repoquery -s apt-cache showsrc n/a
Download the corresponding source package(s) to the given package name(s) Use ABS and makepkg -o dnf download --source apt-get source or debcheckout zypper source-install emerge --fetchonly
Build a package makepkg -s rpmbuild -ba (normal) or mock (in chroot) debuild rpmbuild -ba, then build, and then osc build ebuild or quickpkg
Check for possible packaging issues namcap
(requires namcap)
rpmlint lintian rpmlint repoman

See also