From ArchWiki
< Pacman
Revision as of 15:54, 23 October 2016 by Wtachi (talk | contribs) (add pacman -Qm | pacman -Rs -)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

zh-cn:Pacman/Rosetta This page uses a table to display the correspondence of package management commands among some of the most popular Linux distributions. The original inspiration was given by openSUSE's Software Management Command Line Comparison.

Tip: Arch users having to temporarily deal with another Linux distribution can use pacapt, a simple wrapper around other package managers.
  • Some of the tools described here are specific to a certain version of pacman. The -Qk option is new in pacman 4.1.
  • The command pkgfile can be found in the pkgfile package.
Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Install a package(s) by name pacman -S dnf install apt install zypper install
zypper in
emerge [-a]
Remove a package(s) by name pacman -Rs dnf remove apt autoremove zypper remove
zypper rm
emerge -C
Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss dnf search apt search zypper search
zypper se [-s]
emerge -S
Upgrade Packages - Install packages which have an older version already installed pacman -Syu dnf upgrade apt update; apt upgrade zypper update zypper up emerge -u world
Upgrade Packages - Another form of the update command, which can perform more complex updates -- like distribution upgrades. When the usual update command will omit package updates, which include changes in dependencies, this command can perform those updates. pacman -Syu dnf distro-sync apt full-upgrade zypper dup emerge -uDN world
Reinstall given Package - Will reinstall the given package without dependency hassle. pacman -S dnf reinstall apt install --reinstall zypper install --force emerge [-a]
Installs local package file, e.g. app.rpm and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies pacman -U dnf install apt install zypper in emerge
Updates package(s) with local packages and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies pacman -U dnf upgrade debi emerge
Use some magic to fix broken dependencies in a system pacman dep level - pacman -Dk, shared lib level - findbrokenpkgs or lddd dnf repoquery --unsatisfied apt-get --fix-broken
aptitude install
zypper verify revdep-rebuild
Only downloads the given package(s) without unpacking or installing them pacman -Sw dnf download apt-get install --download-only (into the package cache)
apt-get download (bypass the package cache)
zypper --download-only emerge --fetchonly
Remove dependencies that are no longer needed, because e.g. the package which needed the dependencies was removed. pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs - dnf autoremove apt-get autoremove zypper rm -u emerge --depclean
Downloads the corresponding source package(s) to the given package name(s) Use ABS && makepkg -o dnf download --source apt-get source / debcheckout zypper source-install emerge --fetchonly
Remove packages no longer included in any repositories. pacman -Qm | pacman -Rs - package-cleanup --orphans aptitude purge '~o'
Install/Remove packages to satisfy build-dependencies. Uses information in the source package. automatic dnf builddep apt-get build-dep zypper si -d emerge -o
Add a package lock rule to keep its current state from being changed /etc/pacman.conf
modify IgnorePkg array
dnf.conf <--”exclude” option (add/amend) apt-mark hold pkg Put package name in /etc/zypp/locks, or zypper al /etc/portage/package.mask
Delete a package lock rule remove package from IgnorePkg line in /etc/pacman.conf apt-mark unhold pkg Remove package name from /etc/zypp/locks or zypper rl /etc/portage/package.mask (or package.unmask)
Show a listing of all lock rules cat /etc/pacman.conf /etc/apt/preferences View /etc/zypp/locks or zypper ll cat /etc/portage/package.mask
Add a checkpoint to the package system for later rollback (unnecessary, done on every transaction) n/a
Remove a checkpoint from the system N/A N/A n/a
Provide a list of all system checkpoints N/A dnf history list n/a
Rolls entire packages back to a certain date or checkpoint. N/A dnf history rollback n/a
Undo a single specified transaction. N/A dnf history undo n/a
Mark a package previously installed as a dependency as explicitly required. pacman -D --asexplicit dnf mark install apt-mark manual emerge --select
Install package(s) as dependency / without marking as explicitly required. pacman -S --asdeps dnf install => dnf mark remove aptitude install '$package&M' emerge -1
Package information management
Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) (see /var/lib/pacman/local) (see /var/lib/rpm/Packages) apt-cache stats n/a emerge --info
Show all or most information about a package. The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. pacman -[S|Q]i dnf list, dnf info apt show / apt-cache policy zypper info zypper if emerge -S; emerge -pv; eix
Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss dnf search apt search zypper search zypper se [-s] emerge -S
Display changelogs apt-get changelog rpm -q --changelog
e-mail delivery of package changes apt-get install apt-listchanges
Lists packages which have an update available. Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. pacman -Qu dnf list updates, dnf check-update apt-get upgrade -> n zypper list-updates zypper patch-check (just for patches) emerge -uDNp world
Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. pacman -Sl dnf list available apt-cache dumpavail apt-cache dump (Cache only) apt-cache pkgnames zypper packages emerge -ep world
Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. pkgfile dnf provides apt-file search zypper what-provides zypper wp equery belongs (only installed packages); pfl
Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse dependencies. pacman -Sii dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires apt-cache rdepends / aptitude search ~D$pattern zypper search --requires equery depends
Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function. dnf repoquery --conflicts aptitude search '~C$pattern'
List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. pacman -[S|Q]i dnf repoquery --requires apt-cache depends / apt-cache show zypper info --requires emerge -ep
List what the current package provides dnf provides dpkg -s / aptitude show zypper info --provides equery files
List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. pacman -Ql
pkgfile -l
dnf repoquery -l dpkg-query -L rpm -ql equery files
List all packages that require a particular package dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires aptitude search ~D{depends,recommends,suggests}:$pattern / aptitude why zypper search --requires equery depends -a
Search all packages to find the one which holds the specified file. auto-apt is using this functionality. pkgfile -s dnf provides apt-file search zypper search -f equery belongs
Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes. dnf list obsoletes apt-cache show
Verify dependencies of the complete system. Used if installation process was forcefully killed. pacman -Dk dnf repoquery --requires apt-get check zypper verify emerge -uDN world
Generates a list of installed packages pacman -Q dnf list installed dpkg --list | grep ^i zypper search --installed-only emerge -ep world
List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). pacman -Qm dnf list extras deborphan zypper se -si | grep 'System Packages' eix-test-obsolete
List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. (none) dnf list recent aptitude search '~N' / aptitude forget-new n/a eix-diff
Show a log of actions taken by the software management. cat /var/log/pacman.log dnf history cat /var/log/dpkg.log cat /var/log/zypp/history located in /var/log/portage
Clean up all local caches. Options might limit what is actually cleaned. Autoclean removes only unneeded, obsolete information. pacman -Sc
pacman -Scc
dnf clean all apt-get clean / apt-get autoclean / aptitude clean zypper clean eclean distfiles
Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. cp $filename /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ apt-cache add n/a cp $filename /usr/portage/distfiles
Display the source package to the given package name(s) dnf repoquery -s apt-cache showsrc n/a
Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s). apt-cache dotty n/a
Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf
Modify HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays
/etc/apt/preferences, apt-cache policy zypper mr -p ${EDITOR} /etc/portage/package.keywords
Add a line with =category/package-version
Remove a previously set priority /etc/apt/preferences zypper mr -p ${EDITOR} /etc/portage/package.keywords
remove offending line
Show a list of set priorities. apt-cache policy /etc/apt/preferences zypper lr -p cat /etc/portage/package.keywords
Ignores problems that priorities may trigger. n/a
Installation sources management ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf ${EDITOR} /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo ${EDITOR} /etc/apt/sources.list ${EDITOR} /etc/zypp/repos.d/${REPO}.repo layman
Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt and dnf force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. /etc/pacman.conf /etc/yum.repos.d/*.repo apt-cdrom add zypper service-add layman, overlays
Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. pacman -Sy (always upgrade the whole system afterwards) dnf clean expire-cache && dnf check-update apt-get update zypper refresh zypper ref emerge --sync;layman -S
Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist cat /etc/yum.repos.d/* apt-cache policy zypper service-list layman -l
Disable an installation source for an operation dnf --disablerepo= emerge package::repo-to-use
Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed. dnf --releasever= apt-get install -t release package/ apt-get install package/release (deps not covered) echo "category/package ~amd64" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords && emerge package
Other commands
Start a shell to enter multiple commands in one session apt-config shell zypper shell
Package Verification
Single package pacman -Qk[k] rpm -V debsums rpm -V equery check
All packages pacman -Qk[k] rpm -Va debsums rpm -Va equery check
Package Querying
List installed local packages along with version pacman -Q rpm -qa dpkg -l zypper search -s; rpm -qa emerge -e world
Display local package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Qi rpm -qi dpkg -s / aptitude show zypper info; rpm -qi emerge -pv and emerge -S
Display remote package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Si dnf info apt-cache show / aptitude show zypper info emerge -pv and emerge -S
Display files provided by local package pacman -Ql rpm -ql dpkg -L rpm -Ql equery files
Display files provided by a remote package pkgfile -l dnf repoquery -l apt-file list $pattern pfl
Query the package which provides FILE pacman -Qo rpm -qf (installed only) or dnf provides (everything) dpkg -S / dlocate zypper search -f equery belongs
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
Show the changelog of a package pacman -Qc rpm -q --changelog apt-get changelog equery changes -f
Search locally installed package for names or descriptions pacman -Qs rpm -qa '*<str>*' aptitude search '~i(~n $name|~d $description)' eix -S -I
List packages not required by any other package pacman -Qt package-cleanup --all --leaves deborphan -anp1
List packages installed explicitly (not as dependencies) pacman -Qe apt-mark showmanual
List packages installed automatically (as dependencies) pacman -Qd apt-mark showauto
Building Packages
Build a package makepkg -s rpmbuild -ba (normal)
mock (in chroot)
debuild rpmbuild -ba; build; osc build ebuild; quickpkg
Check for possible packaging issues namcap rpmlint lintian rpmlint repoman
List the contents of a package file pacman -Qpl rpmls rpm -qpl dpkg -c rpm -qpl
Extract a package tar -Jxvf rpm2cpio | cpio -vid dpkg-deb -x rpm2cpio | cpio -vid tar -jxvf
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SUSE/openSUSE Gentoo

See also