Difference between revisions of "Pacman/Tips and tricks"

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[[Category:Package management]]
 
[[Category:Package management]]
 
[[es:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
 
[[es:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
[[fr:Astuces Pacman]]
+
[[fa:Pacman tips]]
 +
[[fr:Pacman/Trucs et Astuces]]
 
[[it:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
 
[[it:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
 
[[ja:Pacman ヒント]]
 
[[ja:Pacman ヒント]]
 +
[[pt:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
 
[[ru:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
 
[[ru:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
[[tr:Pacman ipuçları]]
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[[zh-hans:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
[[zh-cn:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
 
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related articles start}}
{{Related|pacman}}
 
 
{{Related|Mirrors}}
 
{{Related|Mirrors}}
 
{{Related|Creating packages}}
 
{{Related|Creating packages}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
See [[pacman]] for the main article.
+
For general methods to improve the flexibility of the provided tips or ''pacman'' itself, see [[Core utilities]] and [[Bash]].
  
For general methods to improve the flexibility of the provided tips or pacman itself, see [[Core utilities]] and [[Bash]].
+
== Maintenance ==
  
== Cosmetic and convenience ==
+
{{Expansion|{{ic|1=Usage=}} introduced with pacman 4.2, see [http://allanmcrae.com/2014/12/pacman-4-2-released/]}}
  
=== Operations and Bash syntax ===
+
{{Note|Instead of using ''comm'' (which requires sorted input with ''sort'') in the sections below, you may also use {{ic|grep -Fxf}} or {{ic|grep -Fxvf}}.}}
  
{{Merge|pacman#Installing specific packages|Although this is definitely a tip/trick, it fits to the main [[pacman]] page much better than here. It shows generic examples of how to do things, not specific commands needed to achieve something non-trivial/unrelated.}}
+
See also [[System maintenance]].
 +
 
 +
=== Listing packages ===
 +
 
 +
You may want to get the list of installed packages with their version, which is useful when reporting bugs or discussing installed packages.
 +
 
 +
* List all explicitly installed packages: {{ic|pacman -Qe}}.
 +
* List all packages in the group named {{ic|group}}: {{ic|pacman -Sg group}}
 +
* List all explicitly installed native packages (i.e. present in the sync database) that are not direct or optional dependencies: {{ic|pacman -Qent}}.
 +
* List all foreign packages (typically manually downloaded and installed or packages removed from the repositories): {{ic|pacman -Qm}}.
 +
* List all native packages (installed from the sync database(s)): {{ic|pacman -Qn}}.
 +
* List packages by regex: {{ic|pacman -Qs ''regex''}}.
 +
* List packages by regex with custom output format: {{ic|expac -s "%-30n %v" ''regex''}} (needs {{Pkg|expac}}).
  
In addition to pacman's standard set of features, there are ways to extend its usability through rudimentary [[Bash]] commands/syntax.
+
==== With size ====
  
To install a number of packages sharing similar patterns in their names -- not the entire group nor all matching packages; eg. {{Grp|plasma}}:
+
Figuring out which packages are largest can be useful when trying to free space on your hard drive. There are two options here: get the size of individual packages, or get the size of packages and their dependencies.
  
# pacman -S plasma-{desktop,mediacenter,nm}
+
===== Individual packages =====
  
Of course, that is not limited and can be expanded to however many levels needed:
+
The following command will list all installed packages and their individual sizes:
  
  # pacman -S plasma-{workspace{,-wallpapers},pa}
+
  $ pacman -Qi | awk '/^Name/{name=$3} /^Installed Size/{print $4$5, name}' | sort -h
  
Sometimes, {{Ic|-s}}'s builtin ERE can cause a lot of unwanted results, so it has to be limited to match the package name only; not the description nor any other field:
+
===== Packages and dependencies =====
  
# pacman -Ss '^vim-'
+
To list package sizes with their dependencies,
  
pacman has the {{ic|-q}} operand to hide the version column, so it is possible to query and reinstall packages with "compiz" as part of their name:
+
* Install {{Pkg|expac}} and run {{ic|<nowiki>expac -H M '%m\t%n' | sort -h</nowiki>}}.
 +
* Run {{Pkg|pacgraph}} with the {{ic|-c}} option.
  
# pacman -S $(pacman -Qq | grep compiz)
+
To list the download size of several packages (leave {{ic|''packages''}} blank to list all packages):
  
=== Graphical front-ends ===
+
$ expac -S -H M '%k\t%n' ''packages''
  
* {{App|Discover|A collection of package management tools for KDE, using PackageKit.|https://projects.kde.org/projects/kde/workspace/discover|{{Pkg|discover}}}}
+
To list explicitly installed packages not in {{Grp|base}} nor {{Grp|base-devel}} with size and description:
* {{App|GNOME packagekit|GTK based package management tool|http://www.freedesktop.org/software/PackageKit/|{{Pkg|gnome-packagekit}}}}
 
* {{App|GNOME Software|Gnome Software App. (Curated selection for GNOME)|https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Software|{{pkg|gnome-software}}}}
 
* {{App|pcurses|Package management in a curses frontend|https://github.com/schuay/pcurses|{{Pkg|pcurses}}}}
 
* {{App|tkPacman|GUI front-end for pacman. Depends on Tcl/Tk and X11 but neither on GTK+, nor on QT. It only interacts with the package database via the CLI of 'pacman'. So, installing and removing packages with tkPacman or with pacman leads to exactly the same result.|http://sourceforge.net/projects/tkpacman|{{AUR|tkpacman}}}}
 
  
=== Utilities ===
+
$ expac -H M "%011m\t%-20n\t%10d" $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qqen | sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel | sort)) | sort -n
  
* {{App|Lostfiles|Script for detecting orphaned files.|https://github.com/graysky2/lostfiles|{{AUR|lostfiles}}}}
+
To list the packages marked for upgrade with their download size
* {{App|[[Pacmatic]]|Pacman wrapper to check Arch News before upgrading, avoid partial upgrades, and warn about configuration file changes.|http://kmkeen.com/pacmatic|{{Pkg|pacmatic}}}}
 
* {{App|[[pkgfile]]|Tool that finds what package owns a file.|http://github.com/falconindy/pkgfile|{{Pkg|pkgfile}}}}
 
* {{App|[[pkgtools]]|Collection of scripts for Arch Linux packages.|https://github.com/Daenyth/pkgtools|{{AUR|pkgtools}}}}
 
* {{App|srcpac|Simple tool that automates rebuilding packages from source.|https://projects.archlinux.org/srcpac.git|{{Pkg|srcpac}}}}
 
* {{App|[[Snapper#snap-pac_pacman_hooks|snap-pac]]|Make pacman automatically use snapper to create pre/post snapshots like openSUSE's YaST.|https://github.com/wesbarnett/snap-pac|{{aur|snap-pac}}}}
 
  
== Maintenance ==
+
$ pacman -Quq|xargs expac -S -H M '%k\t%n' | sort -sh
  
See also [[System maintenance]].
+
==== By date ====
  
=== Listing packages ===
+
To list the 20 last installed packages with {{Pkg|expac}}, run:
  
You may want to get the list of installed packages with their version, which is useful when reporting bugs or discussing installed packages.
+
$ expac --timefmt='%Y-%m-%d %T' '%l\t%n' | sort | tail -n 20
  
* List all explicitly installed packages: {{ic| pacman -Qe }}.
+
or, with seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01 UTC):
* List all foreign packages (typically manually downloaded and installed): {{ic| pacman -Qm }}.
 
* List all native packages (installed from the sync database(s)): {{ic| pacman -Qn }}.
 
* List packages by regex: {{ic|pacman -Qs ''regex''}}.
 
* List packages by regex with custom output format: {{ic|expac -s "%-30n %v" ''regex''}} (needs {{Pkg|expac}}).
 
  
==== With size ====
+
$ expac --timefmt=%s '%l\t%n' | sort -n | tail -n 20
  
To get a list of installed packages sorted by size, which may be useful when freeing space on your hard drive:
+
==== Not in a specified group or repository ====
  
* Install {{Pkg|expac}} and run {{ic|<nowiki>expac -H M '%m\t%n' | sort -h</nowiki>}}.
+
{{Note|To get a list of packages installed as dependencies but no longer required by any installed package, see [[#Removing unused packages (orphans)]].}}
* Run {{Pkg|pacgraph}} with the {{ic|-c}} option.
 
* Run {{Aur|apacman}} with the {{ic|-L}} option.
 
  
To list the download size of several packages (leave {{ic|''packages''}} blank to list all packages):
+
List explicitly installed packages not in the {{Grp|base}} or {{Grp|base-devel}} groups:
  
  $ expac -S -H M '%k\t%n' ''packages''
+
  $ comm -23 <(pacman -Qeq | sort) <(pacman -Qgq base base-devel | sort)
  
To list explicitly installed packages not in {{Grp|base}} nor {{Grp|base-devel}} with size and description:
+
List all installed packages unrequired by other packages, and which are not in the {{Grp|base}} or {{Grp|base-devel}} groups:
  
  $ expac -H M "%011m\t%-20n\t%10d" $( comm -23 <(pacman -Qqen|sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel|sort) ) | sort -n
+
  $ comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt | sort) <(pacman -Sqg base base-devel | sort)
  
==== Latest installed packages ====
+
As above, but with descriptions:
  
Install {{Pkg|expac}} and run {{ic|<nowiki>expac --timefmt='%Y-%m-%d %T' '%l\t%n' | sort | tail -20</nowiki>}} or {{ic|<nowiki>expac --timefmt=%s '%l\t%n' | sort -n | tail -20</nowiki>}}
+
$ expac -HM '%-20n\t%10d' $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt | sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel | sort))
  
==== All packages that nothing else depends on ====
+
List all installed packages that are ''not'' in the specified repository ''repo_name''
  
If you want to generate a list of all installed packages that nothing else depends on, you can use the following script. This is very helpful if you are trying to free hard drive space and have installed a lot of packages that you may not remember. You can browse through the output to find packages which you no longer need.
+
$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(pacman -Slq ''repo_name'' | sort)
  
{{Note|This script will show all packages that nothing else depends on, including those explicitly installed. To get a list of packages installed as dependencies but no longer required by any installed package, see [[#Orphans]].}}
+
List all installed packages that are in the ''repo_name'' repository:
  
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
$ comm -12 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(pacman -Slq ''repo_name'' | sort)
ignoregrp="base base-devel"
 
ignorepkg=""
 
  
comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt | sort) <(echo $ignorepkg | tr ' ' '\n' | cat <(pacman -Sqg $ignoregrp) - | sort -u)
+
List all packages on the Arch Linux ISO that are not in the base group:
</nowiki>}}
 
  
For list with descriptions for packages:
+
<nowiki>$ comm -23 <(curl https://git.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.x86_64) <(pacman -Qqg base | sort)</nowiki>
  
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
==== Development packages ====
expac -HM "%-20n\t%10d" $( comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt|sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel|sort) )
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
==== Installed packages that are not in a specified group or repository ====
+
To list all development/unstable packages, run:
  
The following command will list any installed packages that are not in either {{Grp|base}} or {{Grp|base-devel}}, and as such were likely installed manually by the user:
+
$ pacman -Qq | grep -Ee '-(bzr|cvs|darcs|git|hg|svn)$'
  
$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qeq | sort) <(pacman -Qgq base base-devel | sort)
+
=== Browsing packages ===
  
List all installed packages that are not in specified repository ({{ic|''repo_name''}} in example):
+
To browse all installed packages with an instant preview of each package:
  
$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qtq | sort) <(pacman -Slq ''repo_name'' | sort)
+
  $ pacman -Qq | fzf --preview 'pacman -Qil {}' --layout=reverse --bind 'enter:execute(pacman -Qil {} | less)'
  
List all installed packages that are in the {{ic|''repo_name''}} repository:
+
This uses [[fzf]] to present a two-pane view listing all packages with package info shown on the right.
  
$ comm -12 <(pacman -Qtq | sort) <(pacman -Slq ''repo_name'' | sort)
+
Enter letters to filter the list of packages; use arrow keys (or {{ic|Ctrl-j}}/{{ic|Ctrl-k}}) to navigate; press {{ic|Enter}} to see package info under ''less''.
  
 
=== Listing files owned by a package with size ===
 
=== Listing files owned by a package with size ===
Line 133: Line 126:
 
=== Identify files not owned by any package ===
 
=== Identify files not owned by any package ===
  
If your system has stray files not owned by any package (a common case if you do not [[Enhance system stability#Use the package manager to install software|use the package manager to install software]]), you may want to find such files in order to clean them up. The general process for doing so is:
+
If your system has stray files not owned by any package (a common case if you do not [[Enhance system stability#Use the package manager to install software|use the package manager to install software]]), you may want to find such files in order to clean them up.
 +
 
 +
One method is to use {{ic|# pacreport --unowned-files}} from {{Pkg|pacutils}} which will list unowned files among other details.
 +
 
 +
Another is to list all files of interest and check them against pacman:
  
# Create a sorted list of the files you want to check ownership of: {{bc|<nowiki>$ find /etc /opt /usr | sort > all_files.txt</nowiki>}}
+
# find /etc /usr /opt /var | LC_ALL=C pacman -Qqo - 2>&1 > /dev/null | cut -d ' ' -f 5-
# Create a sorted list of the files tracked by pacman (and remove the trailing slashes from directories): {{bc|<nowiki>$ pacman -Qlq | sed 's|/$||' | sort > owned_files.txt</nowiki>}}
 
# Find lines in the first list that are not in the second: {{bc|$ comm -23 all_files.txt owned_files.txt}}
 
  
This process is tricky in practice because many important files are not part of any package (e.g. files generated at runtime, custom configs) and so will be included in the final output, making it difficult to pick out the files that can be safely deleted.
+
{{Tip|The {{Pkg|lostfiles}} script performs similar steps, but also includes an extensive blacklist to remove common false positives from the output.}}
  
The {{AUR|lostfiles}} script performs similar steps, but also includes an extensive blacklist to remove common false positives from the output.
+
=== Tracking unowned files created by packages ===
  
=== Removing unused packages ===
+
Most systems will slowly collect several [http://ftp.rpm.org/max-rpm/s1-rpm-inside-files-list-directives.html#S3-RPM-INSIDE-FLIST-GHOST-DIRECTIVE ghost] files such as state files, logs, indexes, etc. through the course of usual operation.
  
==== Orphans ====
+
{{ic|pacreport}} from {{Pkg|pacutils}} can be used to track these files and their associations via {{ic|/etc/pacreport.conf}} (see {{man|1|pacreport|FILES}}).
  
For ''recursively'' removing orphans and their configuration files:
+
An example may look something like this (abridged):
  
# pacman -Rns $(pacman -Qtdq)
+
{{hc|/etc/pacreport.conf|<nowiki>
 +
[Options]
 +
IgnoreUnowned = usr/share/applications/mimeinfo.cache
  
If no orphans were found, pacman errors with {{ic|error: no targets specified}}. This is expected as no arguments were passed to {{ic|pacman -Rns}}.
+
[PkgIgnoreUnowned]
 +
alsa-utils = var/lib/alsa/asound.state
 +
bluez = var/lib/bluetooth
 +
ca-certificates = etc/ca-certificates/trust-source/*
 +
dbus = var/lib/dbus/machine-id
 +
glibc = etc/ld.so.cache
 +
grub = boot/grub/*
 +
linux = boot/initramfs-linux.img
 +
pacman = var/lib/pacman/local
 +
update-mime-database = usr/share/mime/magic
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
{{Note|Since pacman version 4.2.0 only true orphans are listed. To make pacman also list packages which are only optionally required by another package, pass the {{ic|-t}}/{{ic|--unrequired}} flag twice:
+
Then, when using {{ic|# pacreport --unowned-files}}, any unowned files will be listed if the associated package is no longer installed (or if any new files have been created).
$ pacman -Qdttq
 
Use this carefully, as it is not taken into account whether the package is an optional dependency and therefore bears the risk to remove packages which actually are not real orphans.}}
 
  
==== Explicitly installed ====
+
Additionally, [https://github.com/CyberShadow/aconfmgr aconfmgr] ({{AUR|aconfmgr-git}}) allows tracking modified and orphaned files using a configuration script.
  
Because a lighter system is easier to maintain, occasionally looking through explicitly installed packages and ''manually'' selecting unused packages to be removed can be helpful.
+
=== Removing unused packages (orphans) ===
  
To list explicitly installed packages available in the official repositories:
+
For recursively removing orphans and their configuration files:
  
  $ pacman -Qen
+
  # pacman -Rns $(pacman -Qtdq)
  
To list explicitly installed packages not available in official repositories:
+
If no orphans were found ''pacman'' outputs {{ic|error: no targets specified}}. This is expected as no arguments were passed to {{ic|pacman -Rns}}.
  
$ pacman -Qem
+
{{Note|The arguments {{ic|-Qt}} list only true orphans. To include packages which are ''optionally'' required by another package, pass the {{ic|-t}} flag twice (''i.e.'', {{ic|-Qtt}}).}}
  
 
=== Removing everything but base group ===
 
=== Removing everything but base group ===
  
If it is ever necessary to remove all packages except the base group, try this one liner:
+
If it is ever necessary to remove all packages except the base group, try this one-liner (requires {{Pkg|pacman-contrib}}):
  
  # pacman -R $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq|sort) <((for i in $(pacman -Qqg base); do pactree -ul $i; done)|sort -u|cut -d ' ' -f 1))
+
  # pacman -R $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <((for i in $(pacman -Qqg base); do pactree -ul "$i"; done) | sort -u))
  
 
The one-liner was originally devised in [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=130176 this discussion], and later improved in this article.
 
The one-liner was originally devised in [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=130176 this discussion], and later improved in this article.
  
Notes:
+
=== Getting the dependencies list of several packages ===
  
# {{ic|comm}} requires sorted input otherwise you get e.g. {{ic|comm: file 1 is not in sorted order}}.
+
Dependencies are alphabetically sorted and doubles are removed.
# {{ic|pactree}} prints the package name followed by what it provides. For example:
 
  
{{hc|$ pactree -lu logrotate|
+
{{Note|To only show the tree of local installed packages, use {{ic|pacman -Qi}}.}}
logrotate
 
popt
 
glibc
 
linux-api-headers
 
tzdata
 
dcron cron
 
bash
 
readline
 
ncurses
 
gzip}}
 
  
The {{ic|dcron cron}} line seems to cause problems, that is why {{ic|cut -d ' ' -f 1}} is needed - to keep just the package name.
+
$ pacman -Si ''packages'' | awk -F'[:<=>]' '/^Depends/ {print $2}' | xargs -n1 | sort -u
  
=== Getting the dependencies list of several packages ===
+
Alternatively, with {{Pkg|expac}}:
  
Dependencies are alphabetically sorted and doubles are removed.
+
  $ expac -l '\n' %E -S ''packages'' | sort -u
Note that you can use {{ic|pacman -Qi}} to improve response time a little. But
 
you will not be able to query as many packages. Unfound packages are simply skipped
 
(hence the {{ic|2>/dev/null}}).
 
 
 
  $ pacman -Si $@ 2>/dev/null | awk -F ": " -v filter="^Depends" \ '$0 ~ filter {gsub(/[>=<][^ ]*/,"",$2) ; gsub(/ +/,"\n",$2) ; print $2}' | sort -u
 
 
 
Alternatively, you can use {{ic|expac}}: {{ic|expac -l '\n' %E -S $@ &#124; sort -u}}.
 
  
 
=== Listing changed backup files ===
 
=== Listing changed backup files ===
Line 215: Line 202:
 
Running this command with root permissions will ensure that files readable only by root (such as {{ic|/etc/sudoers}}) are included in the output.
 
Running this command with root permissions will ensure that files readable only by root (such as {{ic|/etc/sudoers}}) are included in the output.
  
{{Tip|See [[#Listing all changed files from packages]] to list all changed files pacman knows, not only backup files.}}
+
{{Tip|See [[#Listing all changed files from packages]] to list all changed files ''pacman'' knows about, not only backup files.}}
  
=== Back-up the pacman database ===
+
=== Backup the pacman database ===
  
The following command can be used to back up the local pacman database:
+
The following command can be used to backup the local ''pacman'' database:
  
 
  $ tar -cjf pacman_database.tar.bz2 /var/lib/pacman/local
 
  $ tar -cjf pacman_database.tar.bz2 /var/lib/pacman/local
  
Store the backup pacman database file on one or more offline media, such as a USB stick, external hard drive, or CD-R.
+
Store the backup ''pacman'' database file on one or more offline media, such as a USB stick, external hard drive, or CD-R.
  
 
The database can be restored by moving the {{ic|pacman_database.tar.bz2}} file into the {{ic|/}} directory and executing the following command:
 
The database can be restored by moving the {{ic|pacman_database.tar.bz2}} file into the {{ic|/}} directory and executing the following command:
Line 229: Line 216:
 
  # tar -xjvf pacman_database.tar.bz2
 
  # tar -xjvf pacman_database.tar.bz2
  
{{Note|If the pacman database files are corrupted, and there is no backup file available, there exists some hope of rebuilding the pacman database. Consult [[Pacman tips#Restore pacman's local database]].}}
+
{{Note|If the ''pacman'' database files are corrupted, and there is no backup file available, there exists some hope of rebuilding the ''pacman'' database. Consult [[#Restore pacman's local database]].}}
  
 
{{Tip|The {{AUR|pakbak-git}} package provides a script and a [[systemd]] service to automate the task. Configuration is possible in {{ic|/etc/pakbak.conf}}.}}
 
{{Tip|The {{AUR|pakbak-git}} package provides a script and a [[systemd]] service to automate the task. Configuration is possible in {{ic|/etc/pakbak.conf}}.}}
Line 235: Line 222:
 
=== Check changelogs easily ===
 
=== Check changelogs easily ===
  
When maintainers update packages, commits are often commented in a useful fashion. Users can quickly check these from the command line by installing {{AUR|paclog}}. This utility lists recent commit messages for packages from the official repositories or the AUR, by using {{ic|paclog package}}.
+
When maintainers update packages, commits are often commented in a useful fashion. Users can quickly check these from the command line by installing {{AUR|pacolog}}. This utility lists recent commit messages for packages from the official repositories or the AUR, by using {{ic|pacolog <package>}}.
  
 
== Installation and recovery ==
 
== Installation and recovery ==
Line 242: Line 229:
  
 
=== Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick ===
 
=== Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick ===
 +
 +
{{Merge|#Custom local repository|Use as an example and avoid duplication}}
  
 
To download packages, or groups of packages:
 
To download packages, or groups of packages:
Line 266: Line 255:
 
Server = file:///mnt/repo/Packages}}
 
Server = file:///mnt/repo/Packages}}
  
'''3.''' Finally, synchronize the pacman database to be able to use the new repository:
+
'''3.''' Finally, synchronize the ''pacman'' database to be able to use the new repository:
  
 
  # pacman -Syu
 
  # pacman -Syu
Line 272: Line 261:
 
=== Custom local repository ===
 
=== Custom local repository ===
  
Use the ''repo-add'' script included with Pacman to generate a database for a personal repository. Use {{ic|repo-add --help}} for more details on its usage. Simply store all of the built packages to be included in the repository in one directory, and execute the following command (where ''repo'' is the name of the custom repository):
+
Use the ''repo-add'' script included with ''pacman'' to generate a database for a personal repository. Use {{ic|repo-add --help}} for more details on its usage.  
 +
A package database is a tar file, optionally compressed. Valid extensions are ''.db'' or ''.files'' followed by an archive extension of ''.tar'', ''.tar.gz'', ''.tar.bz2'', ''.tar.xz'', or ''.tar.Z''. The file does not need to exist, but all parent directories must exist.
 +
 
 +
To add a new package to the database, or to replace the old version of an existing package in the database, run:
  
  $ repo-add /path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/*.pkg.tar.xz
+
  $ repo-add ''/path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/package-1.0-1-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz''
  
{{Note|A package database is a tar file, optionally compressed. Valid extensions are “.db” or “.files” followed by an archive extension of “.tar”, “.tar.gz”, “.tar.bz2”, “.tar.xz”, or “.tar.Z”. The file does not need to exist, but all parent directories must exist.
+
The database and the packages do not need to be in the same directory when using ''repo-add'', but keep in mind that when using ''pacman'' with that database, they should be together. Storing all the built packages to be included in the repository in one directory also allows to use shell glob expansion to add or update multiple packages at once:
Furthermore when using {{ic|repo-add}} keep in mind that the database and the packages do not need to be in the same directory. But when using pacman with that database, they should be together.}}
 
  
To add a new package to the database, or to replace the old version of an existing package in the database, run:
+
$ repo-add ''/path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/*.pkg.tar.xz''
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|''repo-add'' adds the entries into the database in the same order as passed on the command line. If multiple versions of the same package are involved, care must be taken to ensure that the correct version is added last. In particular, note that lexical order used by the shell depends on the locale and differs from the [https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/vercmp.8.html vercmp] ordering used by ''pacman''.}}
 +
 
 +
If you are looking to support multiple architectures then precautions should be taken to prevent errors from occurring. Each architecture should have its own directory tree:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|$ tree ~/customrepo/ {{!}} sed "s/$(uname -m)/<arch>/g"|
 +
/home/archie/customrepo/
 +
└── <arch>
 +
    ├── customrepo.db -> customrepo.db.tar.xz
 +
    ├── customrepo.db.tar.xz
 +
    ├── customrepo.files -> customrepo.files.tar.xz
 +
    ├── customrepo.files.tar.xz
 +
    └── personal-website-git-b99cce0-1-<arch>.pkg.tar.xz
 +
 
 +
1 directory, 5 files
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
The ''repo-add'' executable checks if the package is appropriate. If this is not the case you will be running into error messages similar to this:
 +
 
 +
==> ERROR: '/home/archie/customrepo/<arch>/foo-<arch>.pkg.tar.xz' does not have a valid database archive extension.
  
$ repo-add /path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/packagetoadd-1.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
+
''repo-remove'' is used to remove packages from the package database, except that only package names are specified on the command line.
  
''repo-remove'' is used in the exact same manner as ''repo-add'', except that the packages listed on the command line are removed from the repository database.
+
$ repo-remove ''/path/to/repo.db.tar.gz pkgname''
  
 
Once the local repository database has been created, add the repository to {{ic|pacman.conf}} for each system that is to use the repository. An example of a custom repository is in {{ic|pacman.conf}}. The repository's name is the database filename with the file extension omitted. In the case of the example above the repository's name would simply be ''repo''. Reference the repository's location using a {{ic|file://}} url, or via FTP using ftp://localhost/path/to/directory.
 
Once the local repository database has been created, add the repository to {{ic|pacman.conf}} for each system that is to use the repository. An example of a custom repository is in {{ic|pacman.conf}}. The repository's name is the database filename with the file extension omitted. In the case of the example above the repository's name would simply be ''repo''. Reference the repository's location using a {{ic|file://}} url, or via FTP using ftp://localhost/path/to/directory.
Line 290: Line 301:
  
 
=== Network shared pacman cache ===
 
=== Network shared pacman cache ===
 
+
{{Merge|Package_Proxy_Cache|Same topic}}
If you happen to run several Arch boxes on your LAN, you can share packages so that you can greatly decrease your download times. Keep in mind you should not share between different architectures (i.e. i686 and x86_64) or you'll run into problems.
+
If you happen to run several Arch boxes on your LAN, you can share packages so that you can greatly decrease your download times. Keep in mind you should not share between different architectures (i.e. i686 and x86_64) or you will run into problems.
  
 
==== Read-only cache ====
 
==== Read-only cache ====
  
If you are looking for a quick and dirty solution, you can simply run a standalone webserver which other computers can use as a first mirror: {{ic|darkhttpd /var/cache/pacman/pkg}}. Just add this server at the top of your mirror list. Be aware that you might get a lot of 404 errors, due to cache misses, depending on what you do, but pacman will try the next (real) mirrors when that happens.
+
If you are looking for a quick solution, you can simply run a standalone webserver which other computers can use as a first mirror:
 +
# ln -s /var/lib/pacman/sync/*.db /var/cache/pacman/pkg
 +
$ sudo -u http darkhttpd /var/cache/pacman/pkg --no-server-id
 +
You could also run darkhttpd as a systemd service for convenience. Just add this server at the top of your {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} in client machines with {{ic|1=Server = http&#58;//mymirror:8080}}. Make sure to keep your mirror updated.
  
==== Read-write cache ====
+
If you are already running a web server for some other purpose, you might wish to reuse that as your local repo server instead of darkhttpd. For example, if you already serve a site with [[nginx]], you can add an nginx server block listening on port 8080:
  
{{Tip|See [[pacserve]] for an alternative (and probably simpler) solution than what follows.}}
+
{{hc|/etc/nginx/nginx.conf|
 +
server {
 +
    listen 8080;
 +
    root /var/cache/pacman/pkg;
 +
    server_name myarchrepo.localdomain;
 +
    try_files $uri $uri/;
 +
}
 +
}}
  
In order to share packages between multiple computers, simply share {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/}} using any network-based mount protocol. This section shows how to use shfs or sshfs to share a package cache plus the related library-directories between multiple computers on the same local network. Keep in mind that a network shared cache can be slow depending on the file-system choice, among other factors.
+
Remember to restart nginx after making this change.
  
First, install any network-supporting filesystem; for example [[sshfs]], [[shfs]], ftpfs, [[smbfs]] or [[nfs]].
+
Whichever web server you use, remember to open port 8080 to local traffic (and you probably want to deny anything not local), so add a rule like the following to [[iptables]]:
  
{{Tip|To use sshfs or shfs, consider reading [[Using SSH Keys]].}}
+
{{hc|/etc/iptables/iptables.rules|
 +
-A TCP -s 192.168.0.0/16 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 8080 -j ACCEPT
 +
}}
  
Then, to share the actual packages, mount {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}} from the server to {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}} on every client machine.
+
Remember to restart iptables after making this change.
  
==== Dynamic reverse proxy cache using nginx ====
+
==== Distributed read-only cache ====
  
[[nginx]] can be used to proxy requests to official upstream mirrors and cache the results to local disk. All subsequent requests for that file will be served directly from the local cache, minimizing the amount of internet traffic needed to update a large number of servers with minimal effort.  
+
There are Arch-specific tools for automatically discovering other computers on your network offering a package cache. Try {{Pkg|pacredir}}, [[pacserve]], {{AUR|pkgdistcache}}, or {{AUR|paclan}}. pkgdistcache uses Avahi instead of plain UDP which may work better in certain home networks that route instead of bridge between WiFi and Ethernet.
  
{{Warning| This method has a limitation. You must use mirrors that use the same relative path to package files and you must configure your cache to use that same path. In this example, we are using mirrors that use the relative path {{ic|/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch}} and our cache's {{ic|Server}} setting in {{ic|mirrorlist}} is configured similarly.}}
+
Historically, there was [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=64391 PkgD] and [https://github.com/toofishes/multipkg multipkg], but they are no longer maintained.
  
In this example, we will run the cache server on {{ic|<nowiki>http://cache.domain.local:8080/</nowiki>}} and storing the packages in {{ic|/srv/http/pacman-cache/}}.
+
==== Read-write cache ====
  
Create the directory for the cache and adjust the permissions so nginx can write files to it:
+
In order to share packages between multiple computers, simply share {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/}} using any network-based mount protocol. This section shows how to use [[shfs]] or [[SSHFS]] to share a package cache plus the related library-directories between multiple computers on the same local network. Keep in mind that a network shared cache can be slow depending on the file-system choice, among other factors.
  
  # mkdir /srv/http/pacman-cache
+
First, install any network-supporting filesystem packages: {{pkg|shfs-utils}}, {{pkg|sshfs}}, {{pkg|curlftpfs}}, {{pkg|samba}} or {{pkg|nfs-utils}}.
  # chown http:http /srv/http/pacman-cache
 
  
Next, configure nginx as our dynamic cache (read the comments for an explanation of the commands):
+
{{Tip|
 +
* To use ''sshfs'' or ''shfs'', consider reading [[Using SSH Keys]].
 +
* By default, ''smbfs'' does not serve filenames that contain colons, which results in the client downloading the offending package afresh. To prevent this, use the {{ic|mapchars}} mount option on the client.
 +
}}
  
{{hc|/etc/nginx/nginx.conf|<nowiki>
+
Then, to share the actual packages, mount {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}} from the server to {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}} on every client machine.
http
 
{
 
    ...
 
  
    # nginx may need to resolve domain names at run time
+
{{Warning|Do not make {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}} or any of its ancestors (e.g., {{ic|/var}}) a symlink. ''Pacman'' expects these to be directories. When ''pacman'' re-installs or upgrades itself, it will remove the symlinks and create empty directories instead. However during the transaction ''pacman'' relies on some files residing there, hence breaking the update process. Refer to {{bug|50298}} for further details.}}
    resolver 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4;
 
  
    # Pacman Cache
+
==== two-way with rsync ====
    server
 
    {
 
        listen      8080;
 
        server_name cache.domain.local;
 
        root        /srv/http/pacman-cache;
 
        autoindex  on;
 
  
        # Requests for package db and signature files should redirect upstream without caching
+
Another approach in a local environment is [[rsync]]. Choose a server for caching and enable the [[Rsync#rsync daemon]]. On clients synchronize two-way with this share via rsync protocol. Filenames that contain colons are no problem for the rsync protocol.
        location ~ \.(db|sig)$ {
 
            proxy_pass http://mirrors$request_uri;
 
        }
 
  
        # Requests for actual packages should be served directly from cache if available.
+
Draft example for a client, using {{ic|uname -m}} within the share name ensures an architecture dependant sync:
        If not available, retrieve and save the package from an upstream mirror.
+
  # rsync rsync://server/share_$(uname -m)/ /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ ...
        location ~ \.tar\.xz$ {
+
  # pacman ...
            try_files $uri @pkg_mirror;
+
   # paccache ...
        }
+
  # rsync /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ rsync://server/share_$(uname -m)/  ...
  
        # Retrieve package from upstream mirrors and cache for future requests
+
==== Dynamic reverse proxy cache using nginx ====
        location @pkg_mirror {
 
            proxy_store    on;
 
            proxy_redirect off;
 
            proxy_store_access  user:rw group:rw all:r;
 
            proxy_next_upstream error timeout http_404;
 
            proxy_pass          http://mirrors$request_uri;
 
        }
 
    }
 
 
 
    # Upstream Arch Linux Mirrors
 
    # - Configure as many backend mirrors as you want in the blocks below
 
    # - Servers are used in a round-robin fashion by nginx
 
    # - Add "backup" if you want to only use the mirror upon failure of the other mirrors
 
    # - Separate "server" configurations are required for each upstream mirror so we can set the "Host" header appropriately
 
    upstream mirrors {
 
        server localhost:8001;
 
        server localhost:8002 backup;
 
        server localhost:8003 backup;
 
    }
 
 
 
    # Arch Mirror 1 Proxy Configuration
 
    server
 
    {
 
        listen      8001;
 
        server_name localhost;
 
  
        location / {
+
[[nginx]] can be used to proxy package requests to official upstream mirrors and cache the results to the local disk. All subsequent requests for that package will be served directly from the local cache, minimizing the amount of internet traffic needed to update a large number of computers.  
            proxy_pass      http://mirror.rit.edu$request_uri;
 
            proxy_set_header Host mirror.rit.edu;
 
        }
 
    }
 
  
    # Arch Mirror 2 Proxy Configuration
+
In this example, the cache server will run at {{ic|<nowiki>http://cache.domain.example:8080/</nowiki>}} and store the packages in {{ic|/srv/http/pacman-cache/}}.
    server
 
    {
 
        listen      8002;
 
        server_name localhost;
 
  
        location / {
+
Install [[nginx]] on the computer that is going to host the cache. Create the directory for the cache and adjust the permissions so nginx can write files to it:
            proxy_pass      http://mirrors.acm.wpi.edu$request_uri;
 
            proxy_set_header Host mirrors.acm.wpi.edu;
 
        }
 
    }
 
  
    # Arch Mirror 3 Proxy Configuration
+
# mkdir /srv/http/pacman-cache
    server
+
# chown http:http /srv/http/pacman-cache
    {
 
        listen      8003;
 
        server_name localhost;
 
  
        location / {
+
Use the [https://github.com/nastasie-octavian/nginx_pacman_cache_config/blob/87d4897b8fa37e70da4238d7074c639c041daf39/nginx.conf nginx pacman cache config] as a starting point for {{ic|/etc/nginx/nginx.conf}}. Check that the {{ic|resolver}} directive works for your needs. In the upstream server blocks, configure the {{ic|proxy_pass}} directives with addresses of official mirrors, see examples in the config file about the expected format. Once you are satisfied with the configuration file [[Nginx#Running|start and enable nginx]].
            proxy_pass      http://lug.mtu.edu$request_uri;
 
            proxy_set_header Host lug.mtu.edu;
 
        }
 
    }
 
}
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
Finally, update your other Arch Linux servers to use this new cache by adding the following line to the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file:
+
In order to use the cache each Arch Linux computer (including the one hosting the cache) must have the following line at the top of the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file:
  
 
{{hc|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist|<nowiki>
Server = http://cache.domain.local:8080/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch
+
Server = http://cache.domain.example:8080/$repo/os/$arch
 
...
 
...
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
{{Note| You will need to create a method to clear old packages, as this directory will continue to grow over time. {{ic|paccache}} (which is included with {{ic|pacman}}) can be used to automate this using retention criteria of your choosing. For example, {{ic|find /srv/http/pacman-cache/ -type d -exec paccache -v -r -k 2 -c {} \;}} will keep the last 2 versions of packages in your cache directory.}}
+
{{Note| You will need to create a method to clear old packages, as the cache directory will continue to grow over time. {{ic|paccache}} (which is provided by {{pkg|pacman-contrib}}) can be used to automate this using retention criteria of your choosing. For example, {{ic|find /srv/http/pacman-cache/ -type d -exec paccache -v -r -k 2 -c {} \;}} will keep the last 2 versions of packages in your cache directory.}}
 
 
==== Synchronize pacman package cache using BitTorrent Sync ====
 
  
[[BitTorrent Sync]] is a new way of synchronizing folder via network (it works in LAN and over the internet). It is peer-to-peer so you do not need to set up a server: follow the link for more information.
+
==== Synchronize pacman package cache using synchronization programs ====
How to share a pacman cache using BitTorrent Sync:
 
* First install the {{AUR|btsync}} package from the AUR on the machines you want to sync
 
* Follow the installation instructions of the AUR package or on the [[BitTorrent Sync]] wiki page
 
** set up BitTorrent Sync to work for the root account. This process requires read/write to the pacman package cache.
 
** make sure to set a good password on btsync's web UI 
 
** start the systemd daemon for btsync.
 
** in the btsync Web GUI add a new synchronized folder on the first machine and generate a new Secret. Point the folder to {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}}
 
** Add the folder on all the other machines using the same Secret to share the cached packages between all systems. Or, to set the first system as a master and the others as slaves, use the Read Only Secret. Be sure to point it to {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}}
 
  
Now the machines should connect and start synchronizing their cache. Pacman works as expected even during synchronization. The process of syncing is entirely automatic.
+
Use [[Syncthing]] or [[Resilio Sync]] to synchronize the ''pacman'' cache folders (i.e. {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}}).
  
 
==== Preventing unwanted cache purges ====
 
==== Preventing unwanted cache purges ====
  
By default, {{Ic|pacman -Sc}} removes package tarballs from the cache that correspond to packages that are not installed on the machine the command was issued on. Because pacman cannot predict what packages are installed on all machines that share the cache, it will end up deleting files that should not be.
+
By default, {{Ic|pacman -Sc}} removes package tarballs from the cache that correspond to packages that are not installed on the machine the command was issued on. Because ''pacman'' cannot predict what packages are installed on all machines that share the cache, it will end up deleting files that should not be.
  
 
To clean up the cache so that only ''outdated'' tarballs are deleted, add this entry in the {{ic|[options]}} section of {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
 
To clean up the cache so that only ''outdated'' tarballs are deleted, add this entry in the {{ic|[options]}} section of {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
Line 443: Line 399:
 
=== Recreate a package from the file system ===
 
=== Recreate a package from the file system ===
  
To recreate a package from the file system, use ''bacman'' (included with pacman). Files from the system are taken as they are, hence any modifications will be present in the assembled package. Distributing the recreated package is therefore discouraged; see [[ABS]] and [[Arch Rollback Machine]] for alternatives.
+
To recreate a package from the file system, use {{AUR|fakepkg}}. Files from the system are taken as they are, hence any modifications will be present in the assembled package. Distributing the recreated package is therefore discouraged; see [[ABS]] and [[Arch Linux Archive]] for alternatives.
  
{{Tip|''bacman'' honours the {{ic|PACKAGER}}, {{ic|PKGDEST}} and {{ic|PKGEXT}} options from {{ic|makepkg.conf}}. Custom options for the compression tools can be configured by exporting the relevant environment variable, for example {{ic|1=XZ_OPT="-T 0"}} will enable parallel compression for ''xz''.}}
+
=== List of installed packages ===
  
An alternative tool would be {{AUR|fakepkg}}. It supports parallelization and can handle multiple input packages in one command, which ''bacman'' both does not support.
+
Keeping a list of all the explicitly installed packages can be useful, to backup a system for example or speed up installation on a new system:
  
=== Backing up and retrieving a list of installed packages ===
+
$ pacman -Qqe > pkglist.txt
  
{{Expansion|Optional dependencies that are not required by any other package ({{ic|comm -13 <(pacman -Qdtq) <(pacman -Qdttq)}}) are ignored by this procedure.}}
+
{{Note|
 +
* With option {{ic|-t}}, the packages already required by other explicitly installed packages are not mentioned. If reinstalling from this list they will be installed but as dependencies only.
 +
* With option {{ic|-n}}, foreign packages (e.g. from [[AUR]]) would be omitted from the list.
 +
* Use {{ic|comm -13 <(pacman -Qqdt {{!}} sort) <(pacman -Qqdtt {{!}} sort) > optdeplist.txt}} to also create a list of the installed optional dependencies which can be reinstalled with {{ic|--asdeps}}.
 +
* Use {{ic|pacman -Qqem > foreignpkglist.txt}} to create the list of AUR and other foreign packages that have been explicitly installed.}}
  
{{Tip|1=You may want to use {{AUR|plist-gist}} or [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=200067 bacpac] to automatise the below tasks.}}
+
To keep an up-to-date list of explicitly installed packages (e.g. in combination with a versioned {{ic|/etc/}}), you can set up a [[Pacman#Hooks|hook]]. Example:
  
It is good practice to keep periodic backups of all pacman-installed packages. In the event of a system crash which is unrecoverable by other    means, pacman can then easily reinstall the very same packages onto a new installation.
+
[Trigger]
 +
Operation = Install
 +
Operation = Remove
 +
Type = Package
 +
Target = *
 +
 +
[Action]
 +
When = PostTransaction
 +
Exec = /bin/sh -c '/usr/bin/pacman -Qqe > /etc/pkglist.txt'
  
* First, backup the current list of non-local packages: {{ic|$ pacman -Qqen > pkglist.txt}}
+
=== Install packages from a list ===
  
* Store the {{ic|pkglist.txt}} on a USB key or other convenient medium or gist.github.com or Evernote, Dropbox, etc.
+
To install packages from a previously saved list of packages, while not reinstalling previously installed packages that are already up-to-date, run:
  
* Copy the {{ic|pkglist.txt}} file to the new installation, and navigate to the directory containing it.
+
# pacman -S --needed - < pkglist.txt
  
* Issue the following command to install from the backup list: {{ic|# pacman -S $(< pkglist.txt)}}
+
However, it is likely foreign packages such as from the AUR or installed locally are present in the list. To filter out from the list the foreign packages, the previous command line can be enriched as follows:
  
In the case you have a list which was not generated like mentioned above, there may be foreign packages in it (i.e. packages not belonging to any repos you have configured, or packages from the AUR).
+
# pacman -S --needed $(comm -12 <(pacman -Slq | sort) <(sort pkglist.txt))
  
In such a case, you may still want to install all available packages from that list:
+
Eventually, to make sure the installed packages of your system match the list and remove all the packages that are not mentioned in it:
  
  # pacman -S --needed $(comm -12 <(pacman -Slq|sort) <(sort badpkdlist) )
+
  # pacman -Rsu $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(sort pkglist.txt))
  
Explanation:
+
{{Tip|These tasks can be automated. See {{AUR|bacpac}}, {{AUR|packup}}, {{AUR|pacmanity}}, and {{AUR|pug}} for examples.}}
 
 
* {{ic|pacman -Slq}} lists all available softwares, but the list is sorted by repository first, hence the {{ic|sort}} command.
 
* Sorted files are required in order to make the {{ic|comm}} command work.
 
* The {{ic|-12}} parameter display lines common to both entries.
 
* The {{ic|--needed}} switch is used to skip already installed packages.
 
 
 
Finally, you may want to remove all the packages on your system that are not mentioned in the list.
 
 
 
{{Warning|Use this command wisely, and always check the result prompted by pacman.}}
 
 
 
# pacman -Rsu $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq|sort) <(sort pkglist))
 
  
 
=== Listing all changed files from packages ===
 
=== Listing all changed files from packages ===
If you are suspecting file corruption (e.g. by software / hardware failure), but don't know for sure whether / which files really got corrupted, you might want to compare with the hash sums in the packages. This can be done with the following script.
 
 
The script depends on the accuracy of pacman's database in {{ic|/var/lib/pacman/local/}} and the used programs such as ''bash'', ''grep'' and so on. For recovery of the database see [[#Restore pacman's local database]]. The {{ic|mtree}} files can also be [[#Viewing a single file inside a .pkg file|extracted as {{ic|.MTREE}} from the respective package files]].
 
 
{{Note|
 
* This should '''not''' be used as is when suspecting malicious changes! In this case security precautions such as using a live medium and an independent source for the hash sums are advised.
 
* This could take a long time, depending on the hardware and installed packages.
 
}}
 
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
#!/bin/bash -e
 
  
# Select the hash algorithm. Currently available (see mtree files and mtree(5)):
+
If you are suspecting file corruption (e.g. by software/hardware failure), but are unsure if files were corrupted, you might want to compare with the hash sums in the packages. This can be done with {{Pkg|pacutils}}:
# md5, sha256
 
algo="md5"
 
  
for package in /var/lib/pacman/local/*; do
+
# paccheck --md5sum --quiet
    [ "$package" = "/var/lib/pacman/local/ALPM_DB_VERSION" ] && continue
 
  
    # get files and hash sums
+
For recovery of the database see [[#Restore pacman's local database]]. The {{ic|mtree}} files can also be [[#Viewing a single file inside a .pkg file|extracted as {{ic|.MTREE}} from the respective package files]].
    zgrep " ${algo}digest=" "$package/mtree" | grep -Ev '^\./\.[A-Z]+' | \
 
        sed 's/^\([^ ]*\).*'"${algo}"'digest=\([a-f0-9]*\).*/\1 \2/' | \
 
        while read -r file hash
 
    do
 
        # expand "\nnn" (in mtree) / "\0nnn" (for echo) escapes of ASCII
 
        # characters (octal representation)
 
        for ascii in $(grep -Eo '\\[0-9]{1,3}' <<< "$file"); do
 
            file="$(sed "s/\\$ascii/$(echo -e "\0${ascii:1}")/" <<< "$file")"
 
        done
 
  
        # check file hash
+
{{Note|This should '''not''' be used as is when suspecting malicious changes! In this case security precautions such as using a live medium and an independent source for the hash sums are advised.}}
        if [ "$("${algo}sum" /"$file" | awk '{ print $1; }')" != "$hash" ]; then
 
            echo "$(basename "$package")" /"$file"
 
        fi
 
    done
 
done
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
 
=== Reinstalling all packages ===
 
=== Reinstalling all packages ===
 
To reinstall all native packages, use:
 
To reinstall all native packages, use:
  
  # pacman -Qenq | pacman -S -
+
  # pacman -Qqn | pacman -S -
  
Foreign (AUR) packages must be reinstalled separately; you can list them with {{ic|pacman -Qemq}}.
+
Foreign (AUR) packages must be reinstalled separately; you can list them with {{ic|pacman -Qqm}}.
  
Pacman preserves the installation reason by default.
+
''Pacman'' preserves the [[installation reason]] by default.
  
 
=== Restore pacman's local database ===
 
=== Restore pacman's local database ===
  
{{Out of date|1=''testdb'' has been removed in pacman 5.0 [https://projects.archlinux.org/pacman.git/tree/NEWS?h=v5.0.0].}}
+
See [[Pacman/Restore local database]].
 
 
Signs that pacman needs a local database restoration:
 
 
 
* {{ic|pacman -Q}} gives absolutely no output, and {{Ic|pacman -Syu}} erroneously reports that the system is up to date.
 
* When trying to install a package using {{ic|pacman -S package}}, and it outputs a list of already satisfied dependencies.
 
* When {{ic|testdb}} (part of {{Pkg|pacman}}) reports database inconsistency.
 
 
 
Most likely, pacman's database of installed software, {{ic|/var/lib/pacman/local}}, has been corrupted or deleted. While this is a serious problem, it can be restored by following the instructions below.
 
 
 
Firstly, make sure pacman's log file is present:
 
 
 
$ ls /var/log/pacman.log
 
 
 
If it does not exist, it is ''not'' possible to continue with this method. You may be able to use [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=670876 Xyne's package detection script] to recreate the database. If not, then the likely solution is to re-install the entire system.
 
 
 
==== Generating the package recovery list ====
 
 
 
{{Warning|If for some reason your [[pacman]] cache or [[makepkg]] package destination contain packages for other architectures, remove them before continuation.}}
 
 
 
Create the log filter script and make it executable:
 
 
 
{{hc|pacrecover|<nowiki>
 
#!/bin/bash -e
 
 
 
. /etc/makepkg.conf
 
 
 
PKGCACHE=$((grep -m 1 '^CacheDir' /etc/pacman.conf || echo 'CacheDir = /var/cache/pacman/pkg') | sed 's/CacheDir = //')
 
 
 
pkgdirs=("$@" "$PKGDEST" "$PKGCACHE")
 
 
 
while read -r -a parampart; do
 
  pkgname="${parampart[0]}-${parampart[1]}-*.pkg.tar.xz"
 
  for pkgdir in ${pkgdirs[@]}; do
 
    pkgpath="$pkgdir"/$pkgname
 
    [ -f $pkgpath ] && { echo $pkgpath; break; };
 
  done || echo ${parampart[0]} 1>&2
 
done
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
Run the script (optionally passing additional directories with packages as parameters):
 
 
 
$ paclog-pkglist /var/log/pacman.log | ./pacrecover >files.list 2>pkglist.orig
 
 
 
This way two files will be created: {{Ic|files.list}} with package files, still present on machine and {{Ic|pkglist.orig}}, packages from which should be downloaded. Later operation may result in mismatch between files of older versions of package, still present on machine, and files, found in new version. Such mismatches will have to be fixed manually.
 
 
 
Here is a way to automatically restrict second list to packages available in a repository:
 
 
 
$ { cat pkglist.orig; pacman -Slq; } | sort | uniq -d > pkglist
 
 
 
Check if some important ''base'' package are missing, and add them to the list:
 
 
 
$ comm -23 <(pacman -Sgq base) pkglist.orig >> pkglist
 
 
 
Proceed once the contents of both lists are satisfactory, since they will be used to restore pacman's installed package database; {{ic|/var/lib/pacman/local/}}.
 
 
 
==== Performing the recovery ====
 
 
 
Define bash alias for recovery purposes:
 
 
 
# recovery-pacman() {
 
    pacman "$@"      \
 
    --log /dev/null  \
 
    --noscriptlet    \
 
    --dbonly          \
 
    --force          \
 
    --nodeps          \
 
    --needed          \
 
    #
 
}
 
 
 
{{ic|--log /dev/null}} allows to avoid needless pollution of pacman log, {{Ic|--needed}} will save some time by skipping packages, already present in database, {{Ic|--nodeps}} will allow installation of cached packages, even if packages being installed depend on newer versions. Rest of options will allow '''pacman''' to operate without reading/writing filesystem.
 
 
 
Populate the sync database:
 
 
 
# pacman -Sy
 
 
 
Start database generation by installing locally available package files from {{ic|files.list}}:
 
 
 
# recovery-pacman -U $(< files.list)
 
 
 
Install the rest from {{ic|pkglist}}:
 
 
 
# recovery-pacman -S $(< pkglist)
 
 
 
Update the local database so that packages that are not required by any other package are marked as explicitly installed and the other as dependences. You will need be extra careful in the future when removing packages, but with the original database lost is the best we can do.
 
 
 
# pacman -D --asdeps $(pacman -Qq)
 
# pacman -D --asexplicit $(pacman -Qtq)
 
 
 
Optionally check all installed packages for corruption:
 
 
 
# pacman -Qk
 
 
 
Optionally [[#Identify files not owned by any package]].
 
 
 
Update all packages:
 
 
 
# pacman -Su
 
  
 
=== Recovering a USB key from existing install ===
 
=== Recovering a USB key from existing install ===
  
If you have Arch installed on a USB key and manage to mess it up (e.g. removing it while it is still being written to), then it is possible to re-install all the packages and hopefully get it back up and working again (assuming USB key is mounted in /newarch)
+
If you have Arch installed on a USB key and manage to mess it up (e.g. removing it while it is still being written to), then it is possible to re-install all the packages and hopefully get it back up and working again (assuming USB key is mounted in {{ic|/newarch}})
  
 
  # pacman -S $(pacman -Qq --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman) --root /newarch --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman
 
  # pacman -S $(pacman -Qq --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman) --root /newarch --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman
 
=== Extracting contents of a .pkg file ===
 
 
The {{ic|.pkg}} files ending in {{ic|.xz}} are simply tar'ed archives that can be decompressed with:
 
 
$ tar xvf package.tar.xz
 
 
If you want to extract a couple of files out of a {{ic|.pkg}} file, this would be a way to do it.
 
  
 
=== Viewing a single file inside a .pkg file ===
 
=== Viewing a single file inside a .pkg file ===
Line 652: Line 474:
 
For example, if you want to see the contents of {{ic|/etc/systemd/logind.conf}} supplied within the {{Pkg|systemd}} package:
 
For example, if you want to see the contents of {{ic|/etc/systemd/logind.conf}} supplied within the {{Pkg|systemd}} package:
  
  $ tar -xOf /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz etc/systemd/logind.conf
+
  $ bsdtar -xOf /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz etc/systemd/logind.conf
  
Or you can use {{pkg|vim}}, then browse the archive:
+
Or you can use {{pkg|vim}} to browse the archive:
  
 
  $ vim /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz
 
  $ vim /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz
Line 667: Line 489:
 
It will print running program name and old library that was removed or replaced with newer content.
 
It will print running program name and old library that was removed or replaced with newer content.
  
== Performance ==
+
=== Installing only content in required languages  ===
  
=== Database access speeds ===
+
Many packages attempt to install documentation and translations in several languages. Some programs are designed to remove such unnecessary files, such as {{AUR|localepurge}}, which runs after a package is installed to delete the unneeded locale files. A more direct approach is provided through the {{ic|NoExtract}} directive in {{ic|pacman.conf}}, which prevent these files from ever being installed. The example below installs English (US) files, or none at all:
  
Pacman stores all package information in a collection of small files, one for each package. Improving database access speeds reduces the time taken in database-related tasks, e.g. searching packages and resolving package dependencies.  The safest and easiest method is to run as root:
+
{{hc|/etc/pacman.conf|2=
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/help/* !usr/share/help/en*
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/gtk-doc/html/*
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/locale/* usr/share/X11/locale/* usr/share/i18n/* opt/google/chrome/locales/*
 +
NoExtract = !*locale*/en*/* !usr/share/i18n/charmaps/UTF-8.gz !usr/share/*locale*/locale.*
 +
NoExtract = !usr/share/*locales/en_?? !usr/share/*locales/i18n !usr/share/*locales/iso*
 +
NoExtract = !usr/share/*locales/trans*
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/qt4/translations/*
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/man/* !usr/share/man/man*
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/vim/vim*/lang/*
 +
NoExtract = usr/lib/libreoffice/help/en-US/*
 +
}}
  
# pacman-optimize
+
Some users noted that removing locales has resulted in [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php?title=Talk:Pacman&oldid=460285#Dangerous_NoExtract_example unintended consequences].
  
This will attempt to put all the small files together in one (physical) location on the hard disk so that the hard disk head does not have to move so much when accessing all the data.  This method is safe, but is not foolproof: it depends on your filesystem, disk usage and empty space fragmentation.  Another, more aggressive, option would be to first remove uninstalled packages from cache and to remove unused repositories before database optimization:
+
== Performance ==
 
 
# pacman -Sc && pacman-optimize
 
  
 
=== Download speeds ===
 
=== Download speeds ===
Line 683: Line 514:
 
{{Note|If your download speeds have been reduced to a crawl, ensure you are using one of the many [[mirrors]] and not ftp.archlinux.org, which is [https://www.archlinux.org/news/302/ throttled since  March 2007].}}
 
{{Note|If your download speeds have been reduced to a crawl, ensure you are using one of the many [[mirrors]] and not ftp.archlinux.org, which is [https://www.archlinux.org/news/302/ throttled since  March 2007].}}
  
When downloading packages pacman uses the mirrors in the order they are in {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}. The mirror which is at the top of the list by default however may not be the fastest for you. To select a faster mirror, see [[Mirrors]].
+
When downloading packages ''pacman'' uses the mirrors in the order they are in {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}. The mirror which is at the top of the list by default however may not be the fastest for you. To select a faster mirror, see [[Mirrors]].
  
Pacman's speed in downloading packages can also be improved by using a different application to download packages, instead of Pacman's built-in file downloader.
+
''Pacman''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s speed in downloading packages can also be improved by using a different application to download packages, instead of ''pacman''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s built-in file downloader.
  
In all cases, make sure you have the latest Pacman before doing any modifications.
+
In all cases, make sure you have the latest ''pacman'' before doing any modifications.
  
 
  # pacman -Syu
 
  # pacman -Syu
Line 693: Line 524:
 
==== Powerpill ====
 
==== Powerpill ====
  
Powerpill is a full wrapper for Pacman that uses parallel and segmented downloads to speed up the download process. Normally Pacman will download one package at a time, waiting for it to complete before beginning the next download. Powerpill takes a different approach: it tries to download as many packages as possible at once.
+
[[Powerpill]] is a ''pacman'' wrapper that uses parallel and segmented downloading to try to speed up downloads for ''pacman''.
 
 
The [[Powerpill|Powerpill wiki page]] provides basic configuration and usage examples along with package and upstream links.
 
  
 
==== wget ====
 
==== wget ====
  
This is also very handy if you need more powerful proxy settings than pacman's built-in capabilities.  
+
This is also very handy if you need more powerful proxy settings than ''pacman''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s built-in capabilities.  
  
 
To use {{ic|wget}}, first [[install]] the {{Pkg|wget}} package then modify {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} by uncommenting the following line in the {{ic|[options]}} section:
 
To use {{ic|wget}}, first [[install]] the {{Pkg|wget}} package then modify {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} by uncommenting the following line in the {{ic|[options]}} section:
  
  XferCommand = /usr/bin/wget -c -q --show-progress --passive-ftp -O %o %u
+
  XferCommand = /usr/bin/wget --passive-ftp -c -O %o %u
  
 
Instead of uncommenting the {{ic|wget}} parameters in {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}, you can also modify the {{ic|wget}} configuration file directly (the system-wide file is {{ic|/etc/wgetrc}}, per user files are {{ic|$HOME/.wgetrc}}.
 
Instead of uncommenting the {{ic|wget}} parameters in {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}, you can also modify the {{ic|wget}} configuration file directly (the system-wide file is {{ic|/etc/wgetrc}}, per user files are {{ic|$HOME/.wgetrc}}.
Line 711: Line 540:
 
[[aria2]] is a lightweight download utility with support for resumable and segmented HTTP/HTTPS and FTP downloads. aria2 allows for multiple and simultaneous HTTP/HTTPS and FTP connections to an Arch mirror, which should result in an increase in download speeds for both file and package retrieval.
 
[[aria2]] is a lightweight download utility with support for resumable and segmented HTTP/HTTPS and FTP downloads. aria2 allows for multiple and simultaneous HTTP/HTTPS and FTP connections to an Arch mirror, which should result in an increase in download speeds for both file and package retrieval.
  
{{Note|Using aria2c in Pacman's XferCommand will '''not''' result in parallel downloads of multiple packages. Pacman invokes the XferCommand with a single package at a time and waits for it to complete before invoking the next. To download multiple packages in parallel, see the [[#Using_Powerpill|powerpill]] section above.}}
+
{{Note|Using aria2c in ''pacman''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s XferCommand will '''not''' result in parallel downloads of multiple packages. ''Pacman'' invokes the XferCommand with a single package at a time and waits for it to complete before invoking the next. To download multiple packages in parallel, see [[Powerpill]].}}
  
 
Install {{Pkg|aria2}}, then edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} by adding the following line to the {{ic|[options]}} section:
 
Install {{Pkg|aria2}}, then edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} by adding the following line to the {{ic|[options]}} section:
Line 717: Line 546:
 
  XferCommand = /usr/bin/aria2c --allow-overwrite=true --continue=true --file-allocation=none --log-level=error --max-tries=2 --max-connection-per-server=2 --max-file-not-found=5 --min-split-size=5M --no-conf --remote-time=true --summary-interval=60 --timeout=5 --dir=/ --out %o %u
 
  XferCommand = /usr/bin/aria2c --allow-overwrite=true --continue=true --file-allocation=none --log-level=error --max-tries=2 --max-connection-per-server=2 --max-file-not-found=5 --min-split-size=5M --no-conf --remote-time=true --summary-interval=60 --timeout=5 --dir=/ --out %o %u
  
{{Tip|1=[https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1491879#p1491879 This alternative configuration for using pacman with aria2] tries to simplify configuration and adds more configuration options.}}
+
{{Tip|1=[https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1491879#p1491879 This alternative configuration for using ''pacman'' with aria2] tries to simplify configuration and adds more configuration options.}}
  
See [http://aria2.sourceforge.net/manual/en/html/aria2c.html#options OPTIONS] in {{ic|man aria2c}} for used aria2c options.
+
See [http://aria2.sourceforge.net/manual/en/html/aria2c.html#options OPTIONS] in {{man|1|aria2c}} for used aria2c options.
  
{{ic|-d, --dir}}
+
* {{ic|-d, --dir}}: The directory to store the downloaded file(s) as specified by ''pacman''.
:The directory to store the downloaded file(s) as specified by [[pacman]].
+
* {{ic|-o, --out}}: The output file name(s) of the downloaded file(s).  
 
+
* {{ic|%o}}: Variable which represents the local filename(s) as specified by ''pacman''.
{{ic|-o, --out}}
+
* {{ic|%u}}: Variable which represents the download URL as specified by ''pacman''.
:The output file name(s) of the downloaded file(s).  
 
 
 
{{ic|%o}}
 
:Variable which represents the local filename(s) as specified by pacman.
 
 
 
{{ic|%u}}
 
:Variable which represents the download URL as specified by pacman.
 
  
 
==== Other applications ====
 
==== Other applications ====
  
There are other downloading applications that you can use with Pacman. Here they are, and their associated XferCommand settings:
+
There are other downloading applications that you can use with ''pacman''. Here they are, and their associated XferCommand settings:
  
 
* {{ic|snarf}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/snarf -N %u}}
 
* {{ic|snarf}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/snarf -N %u}}
 
* {{ic|lftp}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/lftp -c pget %u}}
 
* {{ic|lftp}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/lftp -c pget %u}}
 
* {{ic|axel}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/axel -n 2 -v -a -o %o %u}}
 
* {{ic|axel}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/axel -n 2 -v -a -o %o %u}}
 +
* {{ic|hget}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/hget %u -n 2 -skip-tls false}} (please read the [https://github.com/huydx/hget documentation on the Github project page] for more info)
 +
 +
== Utilities ==
 +
 +
* {{App|Lostfiles|Script that identifies files not owned by any package.|https://github.com/graysky2/lostfiles|{{Pkg|lostfiles}}}}
 +
* {{App|Pacmatic|''Pacman'' wrapper to check Arch News before upgrading, avoid partial upgrades, and warn about configuration file changes.|http://kmkeen.com/pacmatic|{{Pkg|pacmatic}}}}
 +
* {{App|pacutils|Helper library for libalpm based programs.|https://github.com/andrewgregory/pacutils|{{Pkg|pacutils}}}}
 +
* {{App|[[pkgfile]]|Tool that finds what package owns a file.|http://github.com/falconindy/pkgfile|{{Pkg|pkgfile}}}}
 +
* {{App|pkgtools|Collection of scripts for Arch Linux packages.|https://github.com/Daenyth/pkgtools|{{AUR|pkgtools}}}}
 +
* {{App|[[Powerpill]]|Uses parallel and segmented downloading through [[aria2]] and [[Reflector]] to try to speed up downloads for ''pacman''.|https://xyne.archlinux.ca/projects/powerpill/|{{AUR|powerpill}}}}
 +
* {{App|repoctl|Tool to help manage local repositories.|https://github.com/cassava/repoctl|{{AUR|repoctl}}}}
 +
* {{App|repose|An Arch Linux repository building tool.|https://github.com/vodik/repose|{{Pkg|repose}}}}
 +
* {{App|[[Snapper#Wrapping_pacman_transactions_in_snapshots|snap-pac]]|Make ''pacman'' automatically use snapper to create pre/post snapshots like openSUSE's YaST.|https://github.com/wesbarnett/snap-pac|{{pkg|snap-pac}}}}
 +
* {{App|vrms-arch|A virtual Richard M. Stallman to tell you which non-free packages are installed.|https://github.com/orospakr/vrms-arch|{{AUR|vrms-arch}}}}
 +
 +
=== Graphical ===
 +
 +
{{Warning|PackageKit opens up system permissions by default, and is otherwise not recommended for general usage. See {{Bug|50459}} and {{Bug|57943}}.}}
 +
 +
* {{App|Apper|Qt 5 application and package manager using PackageKit written in C++. Supports [https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Distributions/AppStream/ AppStream metadata].|https://userbase.kde.org/Apper|{{Pkg|apper}}}}
 +
* {{App|Discover|Qt 5 application manager using PackageKit written in C++/QML. Supports [https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Distributions/AppStream/ AppStream metadata], [[Flatpak]] and [[fwupd|firmware updates]]. |https://userbase.kde.org/Discover|{{Pkg|discover}}}}
 +
* {{App|GNOME PackageKit|GTK 3 package manager using PackageKit written in C.|https://freedesktop.org/software/PackageKit/|{{Pkg|gnome-packagekit}}}}
 +
* {{App|GNOME Software|GTK 3 application manager using PackageKit written in C. Supports [https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Distributions/AppStream/ AppStream metadata], [[Flatpak]] and [[fwupd|firmware updates]]. |https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Software|{{pkg|gnome-software}}}}
 +
* {{App|pcurses|Curses TUI pacman wrapper written in C++.|https://github.com/schuay/pcurses|{{Pkg|pcurses}}}}
 +
* {{App|tkPacman|Tk pacman wrapper written in Tcl.|https://sourceforge.net/projects/tkpacman|{{AUR|tkpacman}}}}

Latest revision as of 19:17, 29 June 2019

For general methods to improve the flexibility of the provided tips or pacman itself, see Core utilities and Bash.

Contents

Maintenance

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Usage= introduced with pacman 4.2, see [1] (Discuss in Talk:Pacman/Tips and tricks#)
Note: Instead of using comm (which requires sorted input with sort) in the sections below, you may also use grep -Fxf or grep -Fxvf.

See also System maintenance.

Listing packages

You may want to get the list of installed packages with their version, which is useful when reporting bugs or discussing installed packages.

  • List all explicitly installed packages: pacman -Qe.
  • List all packages in the group named group: pacman -Sg group
  • List all explicitly installed native packages (i.e. present in the sync database) that are not direct or optional dependencies: pacman -Qent.
  • List all foreign packages (typically manually downloaded and installed or packages removed from the repositories): pacman -Qm.
  • List all native packages (installed from the sync database(s)): pacman -Qn.
  • List packages by regex: pacman -Qs regex.
  • List packages by regex with custom output format: expac -s "%-30n %v" regex (needs expac).

With size

Figuring out which packages are largest can be useful when trying to free space on your hard drive. There are two options here: get the size of individual packages, or get the size of packages and their dependencies.

Individual packages

The following command will list all installed packages and their individual sizes:

$ pacman -Qi | awk '/^Name/{name=$3} /^Installed Size/{print $4$5, name}' | sort -h
Packages and dependencies

To list package sizes with their dependencies,

  • Install expac and run expac -H M '%m\t%n' | sort -h.
  • Run pacgraph with the -c option.

To list the download size of several packages (leave packages blank to list all packages):

$ expac -S -H M '%k\t%n' packages

To list explicitly installed packages not in base nor base-devel with size and description:

$ expac -H M "%011m\t%-20n\t%10d" $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qqen | sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel | sort)) | sort -n

To list the packages marked for upgrade with their download size

$ pacman -Quq|xargs expac -S -H M '%k\t%n' | sort -sh

By date

To list the 20 last installed packages with expac, run:

$ expac --timefmt='%Y-%m-%d %T' '%l\t%n' | sort | tail -n 20

or, with seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01 UTC):

$ expac --timefmt=%s '%l\t%n' | sort -n | tail -n 20

Not in a specified group or repository

Note: To get a list of packages installed as dependencies but no longer required by any installed package, see #Removing unused packages (orphans).

List explicitly installed packages not in the base or base-devel groups:

$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qeq | sort) <(pacman -Qgq base base-devel | sort)

List all installed packages unrequired by other packages, and which are not in the base or base-devel groups:

$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt | sort) <(pacman -Sqg base base-devel | sort)

As above, but with descriptions:

$ expac -HM '%-20n\t%10d' $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt | sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel | sort))

List all installed packages that are not in the specified repository repo_name

$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(pacman -Slq repo_name | sort)

List all installed packages that are in the repo_name repository:

$ comm -12 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(pacman -Slq repo_name | sort)

List all packages on the Arch Linux ISO that are not in the base group:

$ comm -23 <(curl https://git.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.x86_64) <(pacman -Qqg base | sort)

Development packages

To list all development/unstable packages, run:

$ pacman -Qq | grep -Ee '-(bzr|cvs|darcs|git|hg|svn)$'

Browsing packages

To browse all installed packages with an instant preview of each package:

 $ pacman -Qq | fzf --preview 'pacman -Qil {}' --layout=reverse --bind 'enter:execute(pacman -Qil {} | less)'

This uses fzf to present a two-pane view listing all packages with package info shown on the right.

Enter letters to filter the list of packages; use arrow keys (or Ctrl-j/Ctrl-k) to navigate; press Enter to see package info under less.

Listing files owned by a package with size

This one might come in handy if you have found that a specific package uses a huge amount of space and you want to find out which files make up the most of that.

$ pacman -Qlq package | grep -v '/$' | xargs du -h | sort -h

Identify files not owned by any package

If your system has stray files not owned by any package (a common case if you do not use the package manager to install software), you may want to find such files in order to clean them up.

One method is to use # pacreport --unowned-files from pacutils which will list unowned files among other details.

Another is to list all files of interest and check them against pacman:

# find /etc /usr /opt /var | LC_ALL=C pacman -Qqo - 2>&1 > /dev/null | cut -d ' ' -f 5-
Tip: The lostfiles script performs similar steps, but also includes an extensive blacklist to remove common false positives from the output.

Tracking unowned files created by packages

Most systems will slowly collect several ghost files such as state files, logs, indexes, etc. through the course of usual operation.

pacreport from pacutils can be used to track these files and their associations via /etc/pacreport.conf (see pacreport(1)).

An example may look something like this (abridged):

/etc/pacreport.conf
[Options]
IgnoreUnowned = usr/share/applications/mimeinfo.cache

[PkgIgnoreUnowned]
alsa-utils = var/lib/alsa/asound.state
bluez = var/lib/bluetooth
ca-certificates = etc/ca-certificates/trust-source/*
dbus = var/lib/dbus/machine-id
glibc = etc/ld.so.cache
grub = boot/grub/*
linux = boot/initramfs-linux.img
pacman = var/lib/pacman/local
update-mime-database = usr/share/mime/magic

Then, when using # pacreport --unowned-files, any unowned files will be listed if the associated package is no longer installed (or if any new files have been created).

Additionally, aconfmgr (aconfmgr-gitAUR) allows tracking modified and orphaned files using a configuration script.

Removing unused packages (orphans)

For recursively removing orphans and their configuration files:

# pacman -Rns $(pacman -Qtdq)

If no orphans were found pacman outputs error: no targets specified. This is expected as no arguments were passed to pacman -Rns.

Note: The arguments -Qt list only true orphans. To include packages which are optionally required by another package, pass the -t flag twice (i.e., -Qtt).

Removing everything but base group

If it is ever necessary to remove all packages except the base group, try this one-liner (requires pacman-contrib):

# pacman -R $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <((for i in $(pacman -Qqg base); do pactree -ul "$i"; done) | sort -u))

The one-liner was originally devised in this discussion, and later improved in this article.

Getting the dependencies list of several packages

Dependencies are alphabetically sorted and doubles are removed.

Note: To only show the tree of local installed packages, use pacman -Qi.
$ pacman -Si packages | awk -F'[:<=>]' '/^Depends/ {print $2}' | xargs -n1 | sort -u

Alternatively, with expac:

$ expac -l '\n' %E -S packages | sort -u

Listing changed backup files

If you want to backup your system configuration files you could copy all files in /etc/, but usually you are only interested in the files that you have changed. Modified backup files can be viewed with the following command:

# pacman -Qii | awk '/^MODIFIED/ {print $2}'

Running this command with root permissions will ensure that files readable only by root (such as /etc/sudoers) are included in the output.

Tip: See #Listing all changed files from packages to list all changed files pacman knows about, not only backup files.

Backup the pacman database

The following command can be used to backup the local pacman database:

$ tar -cjf pacman_database.tar.bz2 /var/lib/pacman/local

Store the backup pacman database file on one or more offline media, such as a USB stick, external hard drive, or CD-R.

The database can be restored by moving the pacman_database.tar.bz2 file into the / directory and executing the following command:

# tar -xjvf pacman_database.tar.bz2
Note: If the pacman database files are corrupted, and there is no backup file available, there exists some hope of rebuilding the pacman database. Consult #Restore pacman's local database.
Tip: The pakbak-gitAUR package provides a script and a systemd service to automate the task. Configuration is possible in /etc/pakbak.conf.

Check changelogs easily

When maintainers update packages, commits are often commented in a useful fashion. Users can quickly check these from the command line by installing pacologAUR. This utility lists recent commit messages for packages from the official repositories or the AUR, by using pacolog <package>.

Installation and recovery

Alternative ways of getting and restoring packages.

Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with #Custom local repository.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: Use as an example and avoid duplication (Discuss in Talk:Pacman/Tips and tricks#)

To download packages, or groups of packages:

# cd ~/Packages
# pacman -Syw base base-devel grub-bios xorg gimp --cachedir .
# repo-add ./custom.db.tar.gz ./*

Then you can burn the "Packages" folder to a CD/DVD or transfer it to a USB stick, external HDD, etc.

To install:

1. Mount the media:

# mkdir /mnt/repo
# mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/repo    #For a CD/DVD.
# mount /dev/sdxY /mnt/repo   #For a USB stick.

2. Edit pacman.conf and add this repository before the other ones (e.g. extra, core, etc.). This is important. Do not just uncomment the one on the bottom. This way it ensures that the files from the CD/DVD/USB take precedence over those in the standard repositories:

/etc/pacman.conf
[custom]
SigLevel = PackageRequired
Server = file:///mnt/repo/Packages

3. Finally, synchronize the pacman database to be able to use the new repository:

# pacman -Syu

Custom local repository

Use the repo-add script included with pacman to generate a database for a personal repository. Use repo-add --help for more details on its usage. A package database is a tar file, optionally compressed. Valid extensions are .db or .files followed by an archive extension of .tar, .tar.gz, .tar.bz2, .tar.xz, or .tar.Z. The file does not need to exist, but all parent directories must exist.

To add a new package to the database, or to replace the old version of an existing package in the database, run:

$ repo-add /path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/package-1.0-1-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz

The database and the packages do not need to be in the same directory when using repo-add, but keep in mind that when using pacman with that database, they should be together. Storing all the built packages to be included in the repository in one directory also allows to use shell glob expansion to add or update multiple packages at once:

$ repo-add /path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/*.pkg.tar.xz
Warning: repo-add adds the entries into the database in the same order as passed on the command line. If multiple versions of the same package are involved, care must be taken to ensure that the correct version is added last. In particular, note that lexical order used by the shell depends on the locale and differs from the vercmp ordering used by pacman.

If you are looking to support multiple architectures then precautions should be taken to prevent errors from occurring. Each architecture should have its own directory tree:

$ tree ~/customrepo/ | sed "s/$(uname -m)/<arch>/g"
/home/archie/customrepo/
└── <arch>
    ├── customrepo.db -> customrepo.db.tar.xz
    ├── customrepo.db.tar.xz
    ├── customrepo.files -> customrepo.files.tar.xz
    ├── customrepo.files.tar.xz
    └── personal-website-git-b99cce0-1-<arch>.pkg.tar.xz

1 directory, 5 files

The repo-add executable checks if the package is appropriate. If this is not the case you will be running into error messages similar to this:

==> ERROR: '/home/archie/customrepo/<arch>/foo-<arch>.pkg.tar.xz' does not have a valid database archive extension.

repo-remove is used to remove packages from the package database, except that only package names are specified on the command line.

$ repo-remove /path/to/repo.db.tar.gz pkgname

Once the local repository database has been created, add the repository to pacman.conf for each system that is to use the repository. An example of a custom repository is in pacman.conf. The repository's name is the database filename with the file extension omitted. In the case of the example above the repository's name would simply be repo. Reference the repository's location using a file:// url, or via FTP using ftp://localhost/path/to/directory.

If willing, add the custom repository to the list of unofficial user repositories, so that the community can benefit from it.

Network shared pacman cache

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with Package_Proxy_Cache.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: Same topic (Discuss in Talk:Pacman/Tips and tricks#)

If you happen to run several Arch boxes on your LAN, you can share packages so that you can greatly decrease your download times. Keep in mind you should not share between different architectures (i.e. i686 and x86_64) or you will run into problems.

Read-only cache

If you are looking for a quick solution, you can simply run a standalone webserver which other computers can use as a first mirror:

# ln -s /var/lib/pacman/sync/*.db /var/cache/pacman/pkg
$ sudo -u http darkhttpd /var/cache/pacman/pkg --no-server-id

You could also run darkhttpd as a systemd service for convenience. Just add this server at the top of your /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist in client machines with Server = http://mymirror:8080. Make sure to keep your mirror updated.

If you are already running a web server for some other purpose, you might wish to reuse that as your local repo server instead of darkhttpd. For example, if you already serve a site with nginx, you can add an nginx server block listening on port 8080:

/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
server {
    listen 8080;
    root /var/cache/pacman/pkg;
    server_name myarchrepo.localdomain;
    try_files $uri $uri/;
}

Remember to restart nginx after making this change.

Whichever web server you use, remember to open port 8080 to local traffic (and you probably want to deny anything not local), so add a rule like the following to iptables:

/etc/iptables/iptables.rules
-A TCP -s 192.168.0.0/16 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 8080 -j ACCEPT

Remember to restart iptables after making this change.

Distributed read-only cache

There are Arch-specific tools for automatically discovering other computers on your network offering a package cache. Try pacredir, pacserve, pkgdistcacheAUR, or paclanAUR. pkgdistcache uses Avahi instead of plain UDP which may work better in certain home networks that route instead of bridge between WiFi and Ethernet.

Historically, there was PkgD and multipkg, but they are no longer maintained.

Read-write cache

In order to share packages between multiple computers, simply share /var/cache/pacman/ using any network-based mount protocol. This section shows how to use shfs or SSHFS to share a package cache plus the related library-directories between multiple computers on the same local network. Keep in mind that a network shared cache can be slow depending on the file-system choice, among other factors.

First, install any network-supporting filesystem packages: shfs-utils, sshfs, curlftpfs, samba or nfs-utils.

Tip:
  • To use sshfs or shfs, consider reading Using SSH Keys.
  • By default, smbfs does not serve filenames that contain colons, which results in the client downloading the offending package afresh. To prevent this, use the mapchars mount option on the client.

Then, to share the actual packages, mount /var/cache/pacman/pkg from the server to /var/cache/pacman/pkg on every client machine.

Warning: Do not make /var/cache/pacman/pkg or any of its ancestors (e.g., /var) a symlink. Pacman expects these to be directories. When pacman re-installs or upgrades itself, it will remove the symlinks and create empty directories instead. However during the transaction pacman relies on some files residing there, hence breaking the update process. Refer to FS#50298 for further details.

two-way with rsync

Another approach in a local environment is rsync. Choose a server for caching and enable the Rsync#rsync daemon. On clients synchronize two-way with this share via rsync protocol. Filenames that contain colons are no problem for the rsync protocol.

Draft example for a client, using uname -m within the share name ensures an architecture dependant sync:

 # rsync rsync://server/share_$(uname -m)/ /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ ...
 # pacman ...
 # paccache ...
 # rsync /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ rsync://server/share_$(uname -m)/  ...

Dynamic reverse proxy cache using nginx

nginx can be used to proxy package requests to official upstream mirrors and cache the results to the local disk. All subsequent requests for that package will be served directly from the local cache, minimizing the amount of internet traffic needed to update a large number of computers.

In this example, the cache server will run at http://cache.domain.example:8080/ and store the packages in /srv/http/pacman-cache/.

Install nginx on the computer that is going to host the cache. Create the directory for the cache and adjust the permissions so nginx can write files to it:

# mkdir /srv/http/pacman-cache
# chown http:http /srv/http/pacman-cache

Use the nginx pacman cache config as a starting point for /etc/nginx/nginx.conf. Check that the resolver directive works for your needs. In the upstream server blocks, configure the proxy_pass directives with addresses of official mirrors, see examples in the config file about the expected format. Once you are satisfied with the configuration file start and enable nginx.

In order to use the cache each Arch Linux computer (including the one hosting the cache) must have the following line at the top of the mirrorlist file:

/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
Server = http://cache.domain.example:8080/$repo/os/$arch
...
Note: You will need to create a method to clear old packages, as the cache directory will continue to grow over time. paccache (which is provided by pacman-contrib) can be used to automate this using retention criteria of your choosing. For example, find /srv/http/pacman-cache/ -type d -exec paccache -v -r -k 2 -c {} \; will keep the last 2 versions of packages in your cache directory.

Synchronize pacman package cache using synchronization programs

Use Syncthing or Resilio Sync to synchronize the pacman cache folders (i.e. /var/cache/pacman/pkg).

Preventing unwanted cache purges

By default, pacman -Sc removes package tarballs from the cache that correspond to packages that are not installed on the machine the command was issued on. Because pacman cannot predict what packages are installed on all machines that share the cache, it will end up deleting files that should not be.

To clean up the cache so that only outdated tarballs are deleted, add this entry in the [options] section of /etc/pacman.conf:

CleanMethod = KeepCurrent

Recreate a package from the file system

To recreate a package from the file system, use fakepkgAUR. Files from the system are taken as they are, hence any modifications will be present in the assembled package. Distributing the recreated package is therefore discouraged; see ABS and Arch Linux Archive for alternatives.

List of installed packages

Keeping a list of all the explicitly installed packages can be useful, to backup a system for example or speed up installation on a new system:

$ pacman -Qqe > pkglist.txt
Note:
  • With option -t, the packages already required by other explicitly installed packages are not mentioned. If reinstalling from this list they will be installed but as dependencies only.
  • With option -n, foreign packages (e.g. from AUR) would be omitted from the list.
  • Use comm -13 <(pacman -Qqdt | sort) <(pacman -Qqdtt | sort) > optdeplist.txt to also create a list of the installed optional dependencies which can be reinstalled with --asdeps.
  • Use pacman -Qqem > foreignpkglist.txt to create the list of AUR and other foreign packages that have been explicitly installed.

To keep an up-to-date list of explicitly installed packages (e.g. in combination with a versioned /etc/), you can set up a hook. Example:

[Trigger]
Operation = Install
Operation = Remove
Type = Package
Target = *

[Action]
When = PostTransaction
Exec = /bin/sh -c '/usr/bin/pacman -Qqe > /etc/pkglist.txt'

Install packages from a list

To install packages from a previously saved list of packages, while not reinstalling previously installed packages that are already up-to-date, run:

# pacman -S --needed - < pkglist.txt

However, it is likely foreign packages such as from the AUR or installed locally are present in the list. To filter out from the list the foreign packages, the previous command line can be enriched as follows:

# pacman -S --needed $(comm -12 <(pacman -Slq | sort) <(sort pkglist.txt))

Eventually, to make sure the installed packages of your system match the list and remove all the packages that are not mentioned in it:

# pacman -Rsu $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(sort pkglist.txt))
Tip: These tasks can be automated. See bacpacAUR, packupAUR, pacmanityAUR, and pugAUR for examples.

Listing all changed files from packages

If you are suspecting file corruption (e.g. by software/hardware failure), but are unsure if files were corrupted, you might want to compare with the hash sums in the packages. This can be done with pacutils:

# paccheck --md5sum --quiet

For recovery of the database see #Restore pacman's local database. The mtree files can also be extracted as .MTREE from the respective package files.

Note: This should not be used as is when suspecting malicious changes! In this case security precautions such as using a live medium and an independent source for the hash sums are advised.

Reinstalling all packages

To reinstall all native packages, use:

# pacman -Qqn | pacman -S -

Foreign (AUR) packages must be reinstalled separately; you can list them with pacman -Qqm.

Pacman preserves the installation reason by default.

Restore pacman's local database

See Pacman/Restore local database.

Recovering a USB key from existing install

If you have Arch installed on a USB key and manage to mess it up (e.g. removing it while it is still being written to), then it is possible to re-install all the packages and hopefully get it back up and working again (assuming USB key is mounted in /newarch)

# pacman -S $(pacman -Qq --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman) --root /newarch --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman

Viewing a single file inside a .pkg file

For example, if you want to see the contents of /etc/systemd/logind.conf supplied within the systemd package:

$ bsdtar -xOf /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz etc/systemd/logind.conf

Or you can use vim to browse the archive:

$ vim /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz

Find applications that use libraries from older packages

Even if you installed a package the existing long-running programs (like daemons and servers) still keep using code from old package libraries. And it is a bad idea to let these programs running if the old library contains a security bug.

Here is a way how to find all the programs that use old packages code:

# lsof +c 0 | grep -w DEL | awk '1 { print $1 ": " $NF }' | sort -u

It will print running program name and old library that was removed or replaced with newer content.

Installing only content in required languages

Many packages attempt to install documentation and translations in several languages. Some programs are designed to remove such unnecessary files, such as localepurgeAUR, which runs after a package is installed to delete the unneeded locale files. A more direct approach is provided through the NoExtract directive in pacman.conf, which prevent these files from ever being installed. The example below installs English (US) files, or none at all:

/etc/pacman.conf
NoExtract = usr/share/help/* !usr/share/help/en*
NoExtract = usr/share/gtk-doc/html/*
NoExtract = usr/share/locale/* usr/share/X11/locale/* usr/share/i18n/* opt/google/chrome/locales/*
NoExtract = !*locale*/en*/* !usr/share/i18n/charmaps/UTF-8.gz !usr/share/*locale*/locale.*
NoExtract = !usr/share/*locales/en_?? !usr/share/*locales/i18n !usr/share/*locales/iso*
NoExtract = !usr/share/*locales/trans*
NoExtract = usr/share/qt4/translations/*
NoExtract = usr/share/man/* !usr/share/man/man*
NoExtract = usr/share/vim/vim*/lang/*
NoExtract = usr/lib/libreoffice/help/en-US/*

Some users noted that removing locales has resulted in unintended consequences.

Performance

Download speeds

Note: If your download speeds have been reduced to a crawl, ensure you are using one of the many mirrors and not ftp.archlinux.org, which is throttled since March 2007.

When downloading packages pacman uses the mirrors in the order they are in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. The mirror which is at the top of the list by default however may not be the fastest for you. To select a faster mirror, see Mirrors.

Pacman's speed in downloading packages can also be improved by using a different application to download packages, instead of pacman's built-in file downloader.

In all cases, make sure you have the latest pacman before doing any modifications.

# pacman -Syu

Powerpill

Powerpill is a pacman wrapper that uses parallel and segmented downloading to try to speed up downloads for pacman.

wget

This is also very handy if you need more powerful proxy settings than pacman's built-in capabilities.

To use wget, first install the wget package then modify /etc/pacman.conf by uncommenting the following line in the [options] section:

XferCommand = /usr/bin/wget --passive-ftp -c -O %o %u

Instead of uncommenting the wget parameters in /etc/pacman.conf, you can also modify the wget configuration file directly (the system-wide file is /etc/wgetrc, per user files are $HOME/.wgetrc.

aria2

aria2 is a lightweight download utility with support for resumable and segmented HTTP/HTTPS and FTP downloads. aria2 allows for multiple and simultaneous HTTP/HTTPS and FTP connections to an Arch mirror, which should result in an increase in download speeds for both file and package retrieval.

Note: Using aria2c in pacman's XferCommand will not result in parallel downloads of multiple packages. Pacman invokes the XferCommand with a single package at a time and waits for it to complete before invoking the next. To download multiple packages in parallel, see Powerpill.

Install aria2, then edit /etc/pacman.conf by adding the following line to the [options] section:

XferCommand = /usr/bin/aria2c --allow-overwrite=true --continue=true --file-allocation=none --log-level=error --max-tries=2 --max-connection-per-server=2 --max-file-not-found=5 --min-split-size=5M --no-conf --remote-time=true --summary-interval=60 --timeout=5 --dir=/ --out %o %u
Tip: This alternative configuration for using pacman with aria2 tries to simplify configuration and adds more configuration options.

See OPTIONS in aria2c(1) for used aria2c options.

  • -d, --dir: The directory to store the downloaded file(s) as specified by pacman.
  • -o, --out: The output file name(s) of the downloaded file(s).
  • %o: Variable which represents the local filename(s) as specified by pacman.
  • %u: Variable which represents the download URL as specified by pacman.

Other applications

There are other downloading applications that you can use with pacman. Here they are, and their associated XferCommand settings:

  • snarf: XferCommand = /usr/bin/snarf -N %u
  • lftp: XferCommand = /usr/bin/lftp -c pget %u
  • axel: XferCommand = /usr/bin/axel -n 2 -v -a -o %o %u
  • hget: XferCommand = /usr/bin/hget %u -n 2 -skip-tls false (please read the documentation on the Github project page for more info)

Utilities

  • Lostfiles — Script that identifies files not owned by any package.
https://github.com/graysky2/lostfiles || lostfiles
  • PacmaticPacman wrapper to check Arch News before upgrading, avoid partial upgrades, and warn about configuration file changes.
http://kmkeen.com/pacmatic || pacmatic
  • pacutils — Helper library for libalpm based programs.
https://github.com/andrewgregory/pacutils || pacutils
  • pkgfile — Tool that finds what package owns a file.
http://github.com/falconindy/pkgfile || pkgfile
  • pkgtools — Collection of scripts for Arch Linux packages.
https://github.com/Daenyth/pkgtools || pkgtoolsAUR
  • Powerpill — Uses parallel and segmented downloading through aria2 and Reflector to try to speed up downloads for pacman.
https://xyne.archlinux.ca/projects/powerpill/ || powerpillAUR
  • repoctl — Tool to help manage local repositories.
https://github.com/cassava/repoctl || repoctlAUR
  • repose — An Arch Linux repository building tool.
https://github.com/vodik/repose || repose
  • snap-pac — Make pacman automatically use snapper to create pre/post snapshots like openSUSE's YaST.
https://github.com/wesbarnett/snap-pac || snap-pac
  • vrms-arch — A virtual Richard M. Stallman to tell you which non-free packages are installed.
https://github.com/orospakr/vrms-arch || vrms-archAUR

Graphical

Warning: PackageKit opens up system permissions by default, and is otherwise not recommended for general usage. See FS#50459 and FS#57943.
  • Apper — Qt 5 application and package manager using PackageKit written in C++. Supports AppStream metadata.
https://userbase.kde.org/Apper || apper
https://userbase.kde.org/Discover || discover
  • GNOME PackageKit — GTK 3 package manager using PackageKit written in C.
https://freedesktop.org/software/PackageKit/ || gnome-packagekit
https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Software || gnome-software
  • pcurses — Curses TUI pacman wrapper written in C++.
https://github.com/schuay/pcurses || pcurses
  • tkPacman — Tk pacman wrapper written in Tcl.
https://sourceforge.net/projects/tkpacman || tkpacmanAUR