Difference between revisions of "Pacman/Tips and tricks"

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{{Lowercase title}}
 
{{Lowercase title}}
 
[[Category:Package management]]
 
[[Category:Package management]]
[[es:Pacman Tips]]
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[[es:Pacman (Español)/Tips and tricks]]
[[fr:Astuces Pacman]]
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[[fa:Pacman tips]]
[[it:Pacman Tips]]
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[[fr:Pacman/Trucs et Astuces]]
[[ja:Pacman Tips]]
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[[it:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
[[ru:Pacman Tips]]
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[[ja:Pacman ヒント]]
[[tr:Pacman_ipuçları]]
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[[pt:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
[[zh-CN:Pacman tips]]
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[[ru:Pacman (Русский)/Tips and tricks]]
 +
[[zh-hans:Pacman/Tips and tricks]]
 
{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related articles start}}
{{Related|pacman}}
 
{{Related|Improve pacman performance}}
 
 
{{Related|Mirrors}}
 
{{Related|Mirrors}}
 
{{Related|Creating packages}}
 
{{Related|Creating packages}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
This is a collection of common tips for new [[pacman]] users.
+
For general methods to improve the flexibility of the provided tips or ''pacman'' itself, see [[Core utilities]] and [[Bash]].
  
== Cosmetic and Convienence ==
+
== Maintenance ==
  
=== Color output ===
+
{{Expansion|{{ic|1=Usage=}} introduced with pacman 4.2, see [http://allanmcrae.com/2014/12/pacman-4-2-released/]}}
  
As of version 4.1, Pacman has a color option. Uncomment the "Color" line in {{ic|pacman.conf}}.
+
{{Note|Instead of using ''comm'' (which requires sorted input with ''sort'') in the sections below, you may also use {{ic|grep -Fxf}} or {{ic|grep -Fxvf}}.}}
  
=== Shortcuts ===
+
See also [[System maintenance]].
  
The following instructions allow users to run some of the more common pacman commands without the need to type them fully via a script alias.
+
=== Listing packages ===
  
==== Configure the shell ====
+
You may want to get the list of installed packages with their version, which is useful when reporting bugs or discussing installed packages.
  
Add the following examples, which work in both [[Bash]] and [[Zsh]]:
+
* List all explicitly installed packages: {{ic|pacman -Qe}}.
{{bc|<nowiki># Pacman alias examples
+
* List all packages in the group named {{ic|group}}: {{ic|pacman -Sg group}}
alias pacupg='sudo pacman -Syu' # Synchronize with repositories and then upgrade packages that are out of date on the local system.
+
* List all explicitly installed native packages (i.e. present in the sync database) that are not direct or optional dependencies: {{ic|pacman -Qent}}.
alias pacdl='pacman -Sw' # Download specified package(s) as .tar.xz ball
+
* List all foreign packages (typically manually downloaded and installed or packages removed from the repositories): {{ic|pacman -Qm}}.
alias pacin='sudo pacman -S' # Install specific package(s) from the repositories
+
* List all native packages (installed from the sync database(s)): {{ic|pacman -Qn}}.
alias pacins='sudo pacman -U' # Install specific package not from the repositories but from a file
+
* List packages by regex: {{ic|pacman -Qs ''regex''}}.
alias pacre='sudo pacman -R' # Remove the specified package(s), retaining its configuration(s) and required dependencies
+
* List packages by regex with custom output format: {{ic|expac -s "%-30n %v" ''regex''}} (needs {{Pkg|expac}}).
alias pacrem='sudo pacman -Rns' # Remove the specified package(s), its configuration(s) and unneeded dependencies
 
alias pacrep='pacman -Si' # Display information about a given package in the repositories
 
alias pacreps='pacman -Ss' # Search for package(s) in the repositories
 
alias pacloc='pacman -Qi' # Display information about a given package in the local database
 
alias paclocs='pacman -Qs' # Search for package(s) in the local database
 
alias paclo="pacman -Qdt" # List all packages which are orphaned
 
alias pacc="sudo pacman -Scc" # Clean cache - delete all not currently installed package files
 
alias paclf="pacman -Ql" # List all files installed by a given package
 
alias pacown="pacman -Qo" # Show package(s) owning the specified file(s)
 
alias pacexpl="pacman -D --asexp" # Mark one or more installed packages as explicitly installed
 
alias pacimpl="pacman -D --asdep" # Mark one or more installed packages as non explicitly installed
 
  
# Additional pacman alias examples
+
==== With size ====
alias pacupd='sudo pacman -Sy && sudo abs'        # Update and refresh the local package and ABS databases against repositories
 
alias pacinsd='sudo pacman -S --asdeps'            # Install given package(s) as dependencies
 
alias pacmir='sudo pacman -Syy'                    # Force refresh of all package lists after updating /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
The following commands could be useful, but also dangerous. Please, know perfectly what are you doing when you use them:
+
Figuring out which packages are largest can be useful when trying to free space on your hard drive. There are two options here: get the size of individual packages, or get the size of packages and their dependencies.
  
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
===== Individual packages =====
# dealing with the following message from pacman:
 
#
 
#    error: couldnt lock database: file exists
 
#    if you are sure a package manager is not already running, you can remove /var/lib/pacman/db.lck
 
  
alias pacunlock="sudo rm /var/lib/pacman/db.lck"  # Delete the lock file /var/lib/pacman/db.lck
+
The following command will list all installed packages and their individual sizes:
alias paclock="sudo touch /var/lib/pacman/db.lck"  # Create the lock file /var/lib/pacman/db.lck
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
==== Usage ====
+
$ LC_ALL=C pacman -Qi | awk '/^Name/{name=$3} /^Installed Size/{print $4$5, name}' | sort -h
  
Perform the respective commands by simply typing the alias name. For example, to synchronize with repositories and then upgrade packages that are out of date on the local system:
+
===== Packages and dependencies =====
$ pacupg
 
Install packages from repositories:
 
$ pacin <package1> <package2> <package3>
 
Install a custom built package:
 
$ pacins /path/to/<package>
 
Completely remove a locally installed  package:
 
$ pacrem <package>
 
Search for available packages in the repositories:
 
$ pacreps <keywords>
 
Display information about a package (e.g. size, dependencies) in the repositories:
 
$ pacrep <keywords>
 
  
==== Notes ====
+
To list package sizes with their dependencies,
  
The aliases used above are merely examples. By following the syntax samples above, rename the aliases as convenient. For example:
+
* Install {{Pkg|expac}} and run {{ic|<nowiki>expac -H M '%m\t%n' | sort -h</nowiki>}}.
 +
* Run {{Pkg|pacgraph}} with the {{ic|-c}} option.
  
alias pacrem='sudo pacman -Rns'
+
To list the download size of several packages (leave {{ic|''packages''}} blank to list all packages):
alias pacout='sudo pacman -Rns'
 
  
In the case above, the commands {{ic|pacrem}} and {{ic|pacout}} both call your shell to execute the same command.
+
$ expac -S -H M '%k\t%n' ''packages''
  
=== Operations and Bash syntax ===
+
{{Out of date|base is not a group anymore. [https://www.archlinux.org/news/base-group-replaced-by-mandatory-base-package-manual-intervention-required/]}}
  
In addition to pacman's standard set of features, there are ways to extend its usability through rudimentary [[Bash]] commands/syntax.
+
To list explicitly installed packages not in {{Pkg|base}} nor {{Grp|base-devel}} with size and description:
  
* To install a number of packages sharing similar patterns in their names -- not the entire group nor all matching packages; eg. {{Grp|kde}}:
+
$ expac -H M "%011m\t%-20n\t%10d" $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qqen | sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel | sort)) | sort -n
  
# pacman -S kde-{applets,theme,tools}
+
To list the packages marked for upgrade with their download size
  
* Of course, that is not limited and can be expanded to however many levels needed:
+
$ pacman -Quq|xargs expac -S -H M '%k\t%n' | sort -sh
  
# pacman -S kde-{ui-{kde,kdemod},kdeartwork}
+
==== By date ====
  
* Sometimes, {{Ic|-s}}'s builtin ERE can cause a lot of unwanted results, so it has to be limited to match the package name only; not the description nor any other field:
+
To list the 20 last installed packages with {{Pkg|expac}}, run:
  
  # pacman -Ss '^vim-'
+
  $ expac --timefmt='%Y-%m-%d %T' '%l\t%n' | sort | tail -n 20
  
* pacman has the {{ic|-q}} operand to hide the version column, so it is possible to query and reinstall packages with "compiz" as part of their name:
+
or, with seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01 UTC):
  
  # pacman -S $(pacman -Qq | grep compiz)
+
  $ expac --timefmt=%s '%l\t%n' | sort -n | tail -n 20
  
* Or install all packages available in a repository (kde-unstable for example):
+
==== Not in a specified group or repository ====
  
# pacman -S $(pacman -Slq kde-unstable)
+
{{Out of date|base is not a group anymore. [https://www.archlinux.org/news/base-group-replaced-by-mandatory-base-package-manual-intervention-required/]}}
  
== Maintenance ==
+
{{Note|To get a list of packages installed as dependencies but no longer required by any installed package, see [[#Removing unused packages (orphans)]].}}
  
House keeping, in the interest of keeping a clean system and following [[The Arch Way]].
+
List explicitly installed packages not in the {{Pkg|base}} or {{Grp|base-devel}} groups:
  
See also [[System maintenance]].
+
$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qeq | sort) <(pacman -Qgq base base-devel | sort)
  
=== Listing installed packages with size ===
+
List all installed packages unrequired by other packages, and which are not in the {{Pkg|base}} or {{Grp|base-devel}} groups:
  
You may want to get the list of installed packages sorted by size, which may be useful when freeing space on your hard drive.
+
$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt | sort) <(pacman -Sqg base base-devel | sort)
  
* Use {{ic|pacsysclean}} from {{Pkg|pacman}} package.
+
As above, but with descriptions:
* Install {{Pkg|expac}} and run {{ic| <nowiki>expac -s "%-30n %m" | sort -rhk 2</nowiki>}}
 
* Invoke pacgraph with the -c option to produce a list of all installed packages with their respective sizes on the system.  {{Pkg|pacgraph}} is available from [community].
 
* List explicitly installed packages not in base or base-devel with size and description: {{ic|<nowiki>expac -HM "%011m\t%-20n\t%10d" $( comm -23 <(pacman -Qqen|sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel|sort) ) | sort -n</nowiki>}}
 
* DEPRECATED: {{ic|<nowiki>pacman -Qi | egrep "^(Name|Installed Size)" | sed -e 'N;s/\n/ /' | awk '{ print $7, $3}' | sort -n</nowiki>}} (Note that this will not work with recent versions of pacman that use human readable sizes in {{ic|pacman -Qi}})
 
  
=== Listing installed packages with version ===
+
$ expac -HM '%-20n\t%10d' $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt | sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel | sort))
  
You may want to get the list of installed packages with their version, which is useful when reporting bugs or discussing installed packages.
+
List all installed packages that are ''not'' in the specified repository ''repo_name''
  
* List all explicitly installed packages: {{ic| pacman -Qe }}.
+
$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(pacman -Slq ''repo_name'' | sort)
* List all foreign packages (typically manually downloaded and installed): {{ic| pacman -Qm }}.
 
* List all native packages (installed from the sync database(s)): {{ic| pacman -Qn }}.
 
* List packages by regex: {{ic| <nowiki>pacman -Qs <regex> | awk 'BEGIN { RS="\n" ; FS="/" } { print $2 }' | awk '{ if(NF > 0) print $1, $2 }'</nowiki>}}
 
* Install {{Pkg|expac}} and run {{ic| expac -s "%-30n %v"}}
 
* List all packages with version and repo: Install {{AUR| yaourt}} and run {{ic| yaourt -Q}}
 
  
=== Identify files not owned by any package ===
+
List all installed packages that are in the ''repo_name'' repository:
  
{{Tip|One can also use the package {{AUR|lostfiles}}.}}
+
$ comm -12 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(pacman -Slq ''repo_name'' | sort)
  
Periodic checks for files outside of pacman database are recommended. These files are often some 3rd party applications installed using the usual procedure (e.g. {{ic|./configure && make && make install}}). Search the file-system for these files (or symlinks) using this simple script:
+
List all packages on the Arch Linux ISO that are not in the base group:
  
{{hc|pacman-disowned|<nowiki>
+
<nowiki>$ comm -23 <(curl https://git.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.x86_64) <(pacman -Qqg base | sort)</nowiki>
#!/bin/sh
 
  
tmp=${TMPDIR-/tmp}/pacman-disowned-$UID-$$
+
==== Development packages ====
db=$tmp/db
 
fs=$tmp/fs
 
  
mkdir "$tmp"
+
To list all development/unstable packages, run:
trap 'rm -rf "$tmp"' EXIT
 
  
pacman -Qlq | sort -u > "$db"
+
$ pacman -Qq | grep -Ee '-(bzr|cvs|darcs|git|hg|svn)$'
  
find /etc /opt /usr ! -name lost+found \( -type d -printf '%p/\n' -o -print \) | sort > "$fs"
+
=== Browsing packages ===
  
comm -23 "$fs" "$db"
+
To browse all installed packages with an instant preview of each package:
</nowiki>}}
 
  
To generate the list:
+
  $ pacman -Qq | fzf --preview 'pacman -Qil {}' --layout=reverse --bind 'enter:execute(pacman -Qil {} | less)'
  
$ pacman-disowned > non-db.txt
+
This uses [[fzf]] to present a two-pane view listing all packages with package info shown on the right.
  
Note that one should '''not''' delete all files listed in {{ic|non-db.txt}} without confirming each entry. There could be various configuration files, logs, etc., so use this list responsibly and only proceed after extensively searching for cross-references using {{Ic|grep}}.
+
Enter letters to filter the list of packages; use arrow keys (or {{ic|Ctrl-j}}/{{ic|Ctrl-k}}) to navigate; press {{ic|Enter}} to see package info under ''less''.
  
Here are some one-liner scripts that will be helpful.
+
=== Listing files owned by a package with size ===
  
Show dirs that do not belong to any package:
+
This one might come in handy if you have found that a specific package uses a huge amount of space and you want to find out which files make up the most of that.
  
  alias pacman-disowned-dirs="comm -23 <(sudo find / \( -path '/dev' -o -path '/sys' -o -path '/run' -o -path '/tmp' -o -path '/mnt' -o -path '/srv' -o -path '/proc' -o -path '/boot' -o -path '/home' -o -path '/root' -o -path '/media' -o -path '/var/lib/pacman' -o -path '/var/cache/pacman' \) -prune -o -type d -print | sed 's/\([^/]\)$/\1\//' | sort -u) <(pacman -Qlq | sort -u)"
+
  $ pacman -Qlq ''package'' | grep -v '/$' | xargs du -h | sort -h
  
Show files that do not belong to any package:
+
=== Identify files not owned by any package ===
  
alias pacman-disowned-files="comm -23 <(sudo find / \( -path '/dev' -o -path '/sys' -o -path '/run' -o -path '/tmp' -o -path '/mnt' -o -path '/srv' -o -path '/proc' -o -path '/boot' -o -path '/home' -o -path '/root' -o -path '/media' -o -path '/var/lib/pacman' -o -path '/var/cache/pacman' \) -prune -o -type f -print | sort -u) <(pacman -Qlq | sort -u)"
+
If your system has stray files not owned by any package (a common case if you do not [[Enhance system stability#Use the package manager to install software|use the package manager to install software]]), you may want to find such files in order to clean them up.
  
=== Removing orphaned packages ===
+
One method is to use {{ic|# pacreport --unowned-files}} from {{Pkg|pacutils}} which will list unowned files among other details.
  
For ''recursively'' removing orphans and their configuration files:
+
Another is to list all files of interest and check them against pacman:
  
{{bc|# pacman -Rns $(pacman -Qtdq)}}
+
# find /etc /usr /opt /var | LC_ALL=C pacman -Qqo - 2>&1 > /dev/null | cut -d ' ' -f 5-
  
If no orphans were found, pacman errors with {{ic|error: no targets specified}}. This is expected as no arguments were passed to {{ic|pacman -Rns}}.
+
{{Tip|The {{Pkg|lostfiles}} script performs similar steps, but also includes an extensive blacklist to remove common false positives from the output.}}
  
The following '''alias''' is easily inserted into {{ic|~/.bashrc}} and removes orphans if found:
+
=== Tracking unowned files created by packages ===
  
{{hc|~/.bashrc|<nowiki># '[r]emove [o]rphans' - recursively remove ALL orphaned packages
+
Most systems will slowly collect several [http://ftp.rpm.org/max-rpm/s1-rpm-inside-files-list-directives.html#S3-RPM-INSIDE-FLIST-GHOST-DIRECTIVE ghost] files such as state files, logs, indexes, etc. through the course of usual operation.
alias pacro="/usr/bin/pacman -Qtdq &gt; /dev/null &amp;&amp; sudo /usr/bin/pacman -Rns \$(/usr/bin/pacman -Qtdq | sed -e ':a;N;\$!ba;s/\n/ /g')"</nowiki>}}
 
  
The following '''function''' is easily inserted into {{ic|~/.bashrc}} and removes orphans if found:
+
{{ic|pacreport}} from {{Pkg|pacutils}} can be used to track these files and their associations via {{ic|/etc/pacreport.conf}} (see {{man|1|pacreport|FILES}}).
  
{{hc|~/.bashrc|<nowiki>
+
An example may look something like this (abridged):
orphans() {
 
  if [[ ! -n $(pacman -Qdt) ]]; then
 
    echo "No orphans to remove."
 
  else
 
    sudo pacman -Rns $(pacman -Qdtq)
 
  fi
 
}</nowiki>}}
 
  
Alternatively on may use [http://xyne.archlinux.ca/projects/pkg_scripts/#help-message-pkg-list_true_orphans pkg-list_true_orphans] from the package {{AUR|pkg_scripts}}.
+
{{hc|/etc/pacreport.conf|<nowiki>
 +
[Options]
 +
IgnoreUnowned = usr/share/applications/mimeinfo.cache
  
{{Note|Since pacman version 4.2.0 only true orphans are listed. To make pacman also list packages which are only optionally required by another package, pass the t-flag twice:
+
[PkgIgnoreUnowned]
{{bc|# pacman -Qdttq}}
+
alsa-utils = var/lib/alsa/asound.state
Use this carefully as it is not taken into account whether the package is an optional dependency and therefore bears the risk to remove packages which actually are not real orphans.}}
+
bluez = var/lib/bluetooth
 +
ca-certificates = etc/ca-certificates/trust-source/*
 +
dbus = var/lib/dbus/machine-id
 +
glibc = etc/ld.so.cache
 +
grub = boot/grub/*
 +
linux = boot/initramfs-linux.img
 +
pacman = var/lib/pacman/local
 +
update-mime-database = usr/share/mime/magic
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
=== Removing unused packages ===
+
Then, when using {{ic|# pacreport --unowned-files}}, any unowned files will be listed if the associated package is no longer installed (or if any new files have been created).
  
Because a lighter system is easier to maintain, occasionally looking through explicitly installed packages and ''manually'' selecting unused packages to be removed can be helpful.
+
Additionally, [https://github.com/CyberShadow/aconfmgr aconfmgr] ({{AUR|aconfmgr-git}}) allows tracking modified and orphaned files using a configuration script.
  
To list explicitly installed packages available in the official repositories:
+
=== Removing unused packages (orphans) ===
  
$ pacman -Qen
+
For recursively removing orphans and their configuration files:
  
To list explicitly installed packages not available in official repositories:
+
# pacman -Rns $(pacman -Qtdq)
  
$ pacman -Qem
+
If no orphans were found ''pacman'' outputs {{ic|error: no targets specified}}. This is expected as no arguments were passed to {{ic|pacman -Rns}}.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|The arguments {{ic|-Qt}} list only true orphans. To include packages which are ''optionally'' required by another package, pass the {{ic|-t}} flag twice (''i.e.'', {{ic|-Qtt}}).}}
  
 
=== Removing everything but base group ===
 
=== Removing everything but base group ===
  
If it is ever necessary to remove all packages except the base group, try this one liner:
+
{{Out of date|base is not a group anymore. [https://www.archlinux.org/news/base-group-replaced-by-mandatory-base-package-manual-intervention-required/]}}
  
  # pacman -R $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq|sort) <((for i in $(pacman -Qqg base); do pactree -ul $i; done)|sort -u|cut -d ' ' -f 1))
+
If it is ever necessary to remove all packages except the base group, try this one-liner (requires {{Pkg|pacman-contrib}}):
 +
 
 +
  # pacman -R $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <((for i in $(pacman -Qqg base); do pactree -ul "$i"; done) | sort -u))
  
 
The one-liner was originally devised in [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=130176 this discussion], and later improved in this article.
 
The one-liner was originally devised in [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=130176 this discussion], and later improved in this article.
 
Notes:
 
 
# {{ic|comm}} requires sorted input otherwise you get e.g. {{ic|comm: file 1 is not in sorted order}}.
 
# {{ic|pactree}} prints the package name followed by what it provides. For example:
 
 
{{hc|$ pactree -lu logrotate|
 
logrotate
 
popt
 
glibc
 
linux-api-headers
 
tzdata
 
dcron cron
 
bash
 
readline
 
ncurses
 
gzip}}
 
 
The {{ic|dcron cron}} line seems to cause problems, that is why {{ic|cut -d ' ' -f 1}} is needed - to keep just the package name.
 
 
=== Listing official installed packages only ===
 
 
$ pacman -Qqn
 
 
This list packages that are found in the sync database(s). If the user has unofficial repositories configured, it will list packages from such repositories too.
 
  
 
=== Getting the dependencies list of several packages ===
 
=== Getting the dependencies list of several packages ===
  
 
Dependencies are alphabetically sorted and doubles are removed.
 
Dependencies are alphabetically sorted and doubles are removed.
Note that you can use {{ic|pacman -Qi}} to improve response time a little. But
 
you will not be able to query as many packages. Unfound packages are simply skipped
 
(hence the {{ic|2>/dev/null}}).
 
You can get dependencies of AUR packages as well if you use {{ic|yaourt -Si}},
 
but it will slow down the queries.
 
 
$ pacman -Si $@ 2>/dev/null | awk -F ": " -v filter="^Depends" \ '$0 ~ filter {gsub(/[>=<][^ ]*/,"",$2) ; gsub(/ +/,"\n",$2) ; print $2}' | sort -u
 
 
Alternatively, you can use {{ic|expac}}: {{ic|expac -l '\n' %E -S $@ &#124; sort -u}}.
 
 
=== Getting the size of several packages ===
 
  
You can use (and tweak) this little shell function:
+
{{Note|To only show the tree of local installed packages, use {{ic|pacman -Qi}}.}}
  
{{hc|~/.bashrc|<nowiki>
+
$ LC_ALL=C pacman -Si ''packages'' | awk -F'[:<=>]' '/^Depends/ {print $2}' | xargs -n1 | sort -u
pacman-size()
 
{
 
CMD="pacman -Si"
 
SEP=": "
 
TOTAL_SIZE=0
 
 
RESULT=$(eval "${CMD} $@ 2>/dev/null" | awk -F "$SEP" -v filter="Size" -v pkg="^Name" \
 
  '$0 ~ pkg {pkgname=$2} $0 ~ filter {gsub(/\..*/,"") ; printf("%6s KiB %s\n", $2, pkgname)}' | sort -u -k3)
 
 
echo "$RESULT"
 
 
## Print total size.
 
echo "$RESULT" | awk '{TOTAL=$1+TOTAL} END {printf("Total : %d KiB\n",TOTAL)}'
 
}</nowiki>}}
 
  
As told for the dependencies list, you can use {{ic|pacman -Qi}} instead, but
+
Alternatively, with {{Pkg|expac}}:
not [[yaourt]] since AUR's PKGBUILD do not have size information.
 
  
A nice one-liner:
+
$ expac -l '\n' %E -S ''packages'' | sort -u
  
$ pacman -Si "$@" 2>/dev/null | awk -F ": " -v filter="Size" -v pkg="Name" '$0 ~ pkg {pkgname=$2} $0 ~ filter {gsub(/\..*/,"") ; printf("%6s KiB %s\n", $2, pkgname)}' | sort -u -k3 | tee >(awk '{TOTAL=$1+TOTAL} END {printf("Total : %d KiB\n",TOTAL)}')
+
=== Listing changed backup files ===
  
You should replace "$@" with packages, or put this line in a shell function.
+
If you want to backup your system configuration files you could copy all files in {{ic|/etc/}}, but usually you are only interested in the files that you have changed. Modified [[Pacnew_and_Pacsave_files#Package_backup_files|backup files]] can be viewed with the following command:
  
=== Listing changed configuration files ===
 
If you want to backup your system configuration files you could copy all files in {{ic|/etc/}}, but usually you are only interested in the files that you have changed. In this case you want to list those changed configuration files, we can do this with the following command:
 
 
  # pacman -Qii | awk '/^MODIFIED/ {print $2}'
 
  # pacman -Qii | awk '/^MODIFIED/ {print $2}'
The following script does the same. You need to run it as root or with sudo.
 
{{hc|changed-files.sh|<nowiki>
 
#!/bin/bash
 
for package in /var/lib/pacman/local/*; do
 
sed '/^%BACKUP%$/,/^%/!d' $package/files | tail -n+2 | grep -v '^$' | while read file hash; do
 
[ "$(md5sum /$file | (read hash file; echo $hash))" != "$hash" ] && echo $(basename $package) /$file
 
done
 
done
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
=== Listing all packages that nothing else depends on ===
+
Running this command with root permissions will ensure that files readable only by root (such as {{ic|/etc/sudoers}}) are included in the output.
If you want to generate a list of all installed packages that nothing else depends on, you can use the following script. This is very helpful if you are trying to free hard drive space and have installed a lot of packages that you may not remember. You can browse through the output to find packages which you no longer need.
 
  
{{Note|This script will show all packages that nothing else depends on, including those explicitly installed. To get a list of packages installed as dependencies but no longer required by any installed package, see [[#Removing orphaned packages]].}}  
+
{{Tip|See [[#Listing all changed files from packages]] to list all changed files ''pacman'' knows about, not only backup files.}}
  
{{hc|clean|<nowiki>
+
=== Backup the pacman database ===
#!/bin/bash
 
  
# This script is designed to help you clean your computer from unneeded
+
The following command can be used to backup the local ''pacman'' database:
# packages. The script will find all packages that no other installed package
 
# depends on. It will output this list of packages excluding any you have
 
# placed in the ignore list. You may browse through the script's output and
 
# remove any packages you do not need.
 
  
# Enter groups and packages here which you know you wish to keep. They will
+
$ tar -cjf pacman_database.tar.bz2 /var/lib/pacman/local
# not be included in the list of unrequired packages later.
 
ignoregrp="base base-devel"
 
ignorepkg=""
 
  
comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt | sort) <(echo $ignorepkg | tr ' ' '\n' | cat <(pacman -Sqg $ignoregrp) - | sort -u)
+
Store the backup ''pacman'' database file on one or more offline media, such as a USB stick, external hard drive, or CD-R.
</nowiki>}}
 
  
For list with descriptions for packages:
+
The database can be restored by moving the {{ic|pacman_database.tar.bz2}} file into the {{ic|/}} directory and executing the following command:
  
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
# tar -xjvf pacman_database.tar.bz2
expac -HM "%-20n\t%10d" $( comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt|sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel|sort) )
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
=== Backing up Local database with systemd ===
+
{{Note|If the ''pacman'' database files are corrupted, and there is no backup file available, there exists some hope of rebuilding the ''pacman'' database. Consult [[#Restore pacman's local database]].}}
  
[[systemd]] can take snapshots of the pacman local database everytime it is modified.
+
{{Tip|The {{AUR|pakbak-git}} package provides a script and a [[systemd]] service to automate the task. Configuration is possible in {{ic|/etc/pakbak.conf}}.}}
  
{{Note| There is a more configurable version in the AUR: {{AUR|pakbak-git}}}}
+
=== Check changelogs easily ===
{{Tip| Save the following script as {{ic|/usr/lib/systemd/scripts/pakbak_script}}.}}
 
{{Note| Change the value of {{ic|$pakbak}} to modify where the backed up database is stored.}}
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
#!/bin/bash
 
  
declare -r pakbak="/pakbak.tar.xz";  ## set backup location
+
When maintainers update packages, commits are often commented in a useful fashion. Users can quickly check these from the command line by installing {{AUR|pacolog}}. This utility lists recent commit messages for packages from the official repositories or the AUR, by using {{ic|pacolog <package>}}.
tar -cJf "$pakbak" "/var/lib/pacman/local";  ## compress & store pacman local database in $pakbak
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
{{Tip|Save the following [[Systemd#Writing_custom_.service_files|service file]] as {{ic|/usr/lib/systemd/system/pakbak.service}}.}}
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
[Unit]
 
Description=Back up pacman database
 
 
 
[Service]
 
Type=oneshot
 
ExecStart=/bin/bash /usr/lib/systemd/scripts/pakbak_script
 
RemainAfterExit=no
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
{{Tip|Save the following [[Systemd#Writing_custom_.service_files|path]] file as {{ic|/usr/lib/systemd/system/pakbak.path}}.}}
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
[Unit]
 
Description=Back up pacman database
 
 
 
[Path]
 
PathChanged=/var/lib/pacman/local
 
Unit=pakbak.service
 
 
 
[Install]
 
WantedBy=multi-user.target
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
{{Tip|To start the backup service :
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
# systemctl start pakbak.path
 
</nowiki>}}
 
To enable the backup service automatically on reboot :
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
# systemctl enable pakbak.path
 
</nowiki>}}
 
}}
 
  
 
== Installation and recovery ==
 
== Installation and recovery ==
  
''Alternative ways of getting and restoring packages.''
+
Alternative ways of getting and restoring packages.
  
 
=== Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick ===
 
=== Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick ===
 +
 +
{{Merge|#Custom local repository|Use as an example and avoid duplication}}
  
 
To download packages, or groups of packages:
 
To download packages, or groups of packages:
Line 414: Line 261:
 
Server = file:///mnt/repo/Packages}}
 
Server = file:///mnt/repo/Packages}}
  
'''3.''' Finally, synchronize the pacman database to be able to use the new repository:
+
'''3.''' Finally, synchronize the ''pacman'' database to be able to use the new repository:
  
  # pacman -Sy
+
  # pacman -Syu
  
 
=== Custom local repository ===
 
=== Custom local repository ===
  
{{Merge|Local repository|There is a main article, this should be described in one place (either here or on the separate page, depending on the actual amount of content).}}
+
Use the ''repo-add'' script included with ''pacman'' to generate a database for a personal repository. Use {{ic|repo-add --help}} for more details on its usage.
 +
A package database is a tar file, optionally compressed. Valid extensions are ''.db'' or ''.files'' followed by an archive extension of ''.tar'', ''.tar.gz'', ''.tar.bz2'', ''.tar.xz'', or ''.tar.Z''. The file does not need to exist, but all parent directories must exist.
 +
 
 +
To add a new package to the database, or to replace the old version of an existing package in the database, run:
 +
 
 +
$ repo-add ''/path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/package-1.0-1-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz''
 +
 
 +
The database and the packages do not need to be in the same directory when using ''repo-add'', but keep in mind that when using ''pacman'' with that database, they should be together. Storing all the built packages to be included in the repository in one directory also allows to use shell glob expansion to add or update multiple packages at once:
 +
 
 +
$ repo-add ''/path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/*.pkg.tar.xz''
  
pacman 3 introduced a new script named {{ic|repo-add}} which makes generating a database for a personal repository much easier. Use {{ic|repo-add --help}} for more details on its usage.
+
{{Warning|''repo-add'' adds the entries into the database in the same order as passed on the command line. If multiple versions of the same package are involved, care must be taken to ensure that the correct version is added last. In particular, note that lexical order used by the shell depends on the locale and differs from the [https://www.archlinux.org/pacman/vercmp.8.html vercmp] ordering used by ''pacman''.}}
  
Simply store all of the built packages to be included in the repository in one directory, and execute the following command (where ''repo'' is the name of the custom repository):
+
If you are looking to support multiple architectures then precautions should be taken to prevent errors from occurring. Each architecture should have its own directory tree:
  
$ repo-add /path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/*.pkg.tar.xz
+
{{hc|$ tree ~/customrepo/ {{!}} sed "s/$(uname -m)/<arch>/g"|
 +
/home/archie/customrepo/
 +
└── <arch>
 +
    ├── customrepo.db -> customrepo.db.tar.xz
 +
    ├── customrepo.db.tar.xz
 +
    ├── customrepo.files -> customrepo.files.tar.xz
 +
    ├── customrepo.files.tar.xz
 +
    └── personal-website-git-b99cce0-1-<arch>.pkg.tar.xz
 +
 
 +
1 directory, 5 files
 +
}}
  
Note that when using {{ic|repo-add}}, the database and the packages do not need to be in the same directory. But when using pacman with that database, they should be together.
+
The ''repo-add'' executable checks if the package is appropriate. If this is not the case you will be running into error messages similar to this:
  
To add a new package (and remove the old if it exists), run:
+
==> ERROR: '/home/archie/customrepo/<arch>/foo-<arch>.pkg.tar.xz' does not have a valid database archive extension.
  
$ repo-add /path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/packagetoadd-1.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
+
''repo-remove'' is used to remove packages from the package database, except that only package names are specified on the command line.
  
{{Note|If there is a package that needs to be removed from the repository, read up on {{Ic|repo-remove}}.}}
+
$ repo-remove ''/path/to/repo.db.tar.gz pkgname''
  
Once the local repository has been made, add the repository to {{ic|pacman.conf}}. The name of the {{ic|db.tar.gz}} file is the repository name. Reference it directly using a {{ic|file://}} url, or access it via FTP using ftp://localhost/path/to/directory.
+
Once the local repository database has been created, add the repository to {{ic|pacman.conf}} for each system that is to use the repository. An example of a custom repository is in {{ic|pacman.conf}}. The repository's name is the database filename with the file extension omitted. In the case of the example above the repository's name would simply be ''repo''. Reference the repository's location using a {{ic|file://}} url, or via FTP using ftp://localhost/path/to/directory.
  
 
If willing, add the custom repository to the [[Unofficial user repositories|list of unofficial user repositories]], so that the community can benefit from it.
 
If willing, add the custom repository to the [[Unofficial user repositories|list of unofficial user repositories]], so that the community can benefit from it.
  
 
=== Network shared pacman cache ===
 
=== Network shared pacman cache ===
 +
{{Merge|Package_Proxy_Cache|Same topic}}
 +
If you happen to run several Arch boxes on your LAN, you can share packages so that you can greatly decrease your download times. Keep in mind you should not share between different architectures (i.e. i686 and x86_64) or you will run into problems.
  
 
==== Read-only cache ====
 
==== Read-only cache ====
  
If you are looking for a quick and dirty solution, you can simply run a standalone webserver which other computers can use as a first mirror: {{ic|darkhttpd /var/cache/pacman/pkg}}. Just add this server at the top of your mirror list. Be aware that you might get a lot of 404 errors, due to cache misses, depending on what you do, but pacman will try the next (real) mirrors when that happens.
+
If you are looking for a quick solution, you can simply run a standalone webserver which other computers can use as a first mirror:
 +
# ln -s /var/lib/pacman/sync/*.db /var/cache/pacman/pkg
 +
$ sudo -u http darkhttpd /var/cache/pacman/pkg --no-server-id
 +
You could also run darkhttpd as a systemd service for convenience. Just add this server at the top of your {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} in client machines with {{ic|1=Server = http&#58;//mymirror:8080}}. Make sure to keep your mirror updated.
 +
 
 +
If you are already running a web server for some other purpose, you might wish to reuse that as your local repo server instead of darkhttpd. For example, if you already serve a site with [[nginx]], you can add an nginx server block listening on port 8080:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/nginx/nginx.conf|
 +
server {
 +
    listen 8080;
 +
    root /var/cache/pacman/pkg;
 +
    server_name myarchrepo.localdomain;
 +
    try_files $uri $uri/;
 +
}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Remember to restart nginx after making this change.
 +
 
 +
Whichever web server you use, remember to open port 8080 to local traffic (and you probably want to deny anything not local), so add a rule like the following to [[iptables]]:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/iptables/iptables.rules|
 +
-A TCP -s 192.168.0.0/16 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 8080 -j ACCEPT
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Remember to restart iptables after making this change.
 +
 
 +
==== Distributed read-only cache ====
 +
 
 +
There are Arch-specific tools for automatically discovering other computers on your network offering a package cache. Try {{Pkg|pacredir}}, [[pacserve]], {{AUR|pkgdistcache}}, or {{AUR|paclan}}. pkgdistcache uses Avahi instead of plain UDP which may work better in certain home networks that route instead of bridge between WiFi and Ethernet.
 +
 
 +
Historically, there was [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=64391 PkgD] and [https://github.com/toofishes/multipkg multipkg], but they are no longer maintained.
  
 
==== Read-write cache ====
 
==== Read-write cache ====
  
{{Tip|See [[pacserve]] for an alternative (and probably simpler) solution than what follows.}}
+
In order to share packages between multiple computers, simply share {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/}} using any network-based mount protocol. This section shows how to use [[shfs]] or [[SSHFS]] to share a package cache plus the related library-directories between multiple computers on the same local network. Keep in mind that a network shared cache can be slow depending on the file-system choice, among other factors.
  
In order to share packages between multiple computers, simply share {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/}} using any network-based mount protocol. This section shows how to use shfs or sshfs to share a package cache plus the related library-directories between multiple computers on the same local network. Keep in mind that a network shared cache can be slow depending on the file-system choice, among other factors.
+
First, install any network-supporting filesystem packages: {{pkg|shfs-utils}}, {{pkg|sshfs}}, {{pkg|curlftpfs}}, {{pkg|samba}} or {{pkg|nfs-utils}}.
  
First, install any network-supporting filesystem; for example [[sshfs]], [[shfs]], ftpfs, [[smbfs]] or [[nfs]].
+
{{Tip|
 +
* To use ''sshfs'' or ''shfs'', consider reading [[Using SSH Keys]].
 +
* By default, ''smbfs'' does not serve filenames that contain colons, which results in the client downloading the offending package afresh. To prevent this, use the {{ic|mapchars}} mount option on the client.
 +
}}
  
{{Tip|To use sshfs or shfs, consider reading [[Using SSH Keys]].}}
+
Then, to share the actual packages, mount {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}} from the server to {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}} on every client machine.
  
Then, to share the actual packages, mount {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}} from the server to {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}} on every client machine.
+
{{Warning|Do not make {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}} or any of its ancestors (e.g., {{ic|/var}}) a symlink. ''Pacman'' expects these to be directories. When ''pacman'' re-installs or upgrades itself, it will remove the symlinks and create empty directories instead. However during the transaction ''pacman'' relies on some files residing there, hence breaking the update process. Refer to {{bug|50298}} for further details.}}
  
==== Synchronize pacman package cache using BitTorrent Sync ====
+
==== two-way with rsync ====
  
[[BitTorrent Sync]] is a new way of synchronizing folder via network (it works in LAN and over the internet). It is peer-to-peer so you do not need to set up a server: follow the link for more information.
+
Another approach in a local environment is [[rsync]]. Choose a server for caching and enable the [[Rsync#rsync daemon]]. On clients synchronize two-way with this share via rsync protocol. Filenames that contain colons are no problem for the rsync protocol.
How to share a pacman cache using BitTorrent Sync:
 
* First install the {{AUR|btsync}} package from the AUR on the machines you want to sync
 
* Follow the installation instructions of the AUR package or on the [[BitTorrent Sync]] wiki page
 
** set up BitTorrent Sync to work for the root account. This process requires read/write to the pacman package cache.  
 
** make sure to set a good password on btsync's web UI 
 
** start the systemd daemon for btsync.
 
** in the btsync Web GUI add a new synchronized folder on the first machine and generate a new Secret. Point the folder to {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}}
 
** Add the folder on all the other machines using the same Secret to share the cached packages between all systems. Or, to set the first system as a master and the others as slaves, use the Read Only Secret. Be sure to point it to {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}}
 
  
Now the machines should connect and start synchronizing their cache. Pacman works as expected even during synchronization. The process of syncing is entirely automatic.
+
Draft example for a client, using {{ic|uname -m}} within the share name ensures an architecture dependant sync:
 +
  # rsync rsync://server/share_$(uname -m)/ /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ ...
 +
  # pacman ...
 +
  # paccache ...
 +
  # rsync /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ rsync://server/share_$(uname -m)/  ...
  
==== Preventing unwanted cache purges ====
+
==== Dynamic reverse proxy cache using nginx ====
  
By default, {{Ic|pacman -Sc}} removes package tarballs from the cache that correspond to packages that are not installed on the machine the command was issued on. Because pacman cannot predict what packages are installed on all machines that share the cache, it will end up deleting files that should not be.
+
[[nginx]] can be used to proxy package requests to official upstream mirrors and cache the results to the local disk. All subsequent requests for that package will be served directly from the local cache, minimizing the amount of internet traffic needed to update a large number of computers.  
  
To clean up the cache so that only ''outdated'' tarballs are deleted, add this entry in the {{ic|[options]}} section of {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
+
In this example, the cache server will run at {{ic|<nowiki>http://cache.domain.example:8080/</nowiki>}} and store the packages in {{ic|/srv/http/pacman-cache/}}.
  
CleanMethod = KeepCurrent
+
Install [[nginx]] on the computer that is going to host the cache. Create the directory for the cache and adjust the permissions so nginx can write files to it:
  
=== Backing up and retrieving a list of installed packages ===
+
# mkdir /srv/http/pacman-cache
 +
# chown http:http /srv/http/pacman-cache
  
It is good practice to keep periodic backups of all pacman-installed packages. In the event of a system crash which is unrecoverable by other    means, pacman can then easily reinstall the very same packages onto a new installation.
+
Use the [https://github.com/nastasie-octavian/nginx_pacman_cache_config/blob/87d4897b8fa37e70da4238d7074c639c041daf39/nginx.conf nginx pacman cache config] as a starting point for {{ic|/etc/nginx/nginx.conf}}. Check that the {{ic|resolver}} directive works for your needs. In the upstream server blocks, configure the {{ic|proxy_pass}} directives with addresses of official mirrors, see examples in the config file about the expected format. Once you are satisfied with the configuration file [[Nginx#Running|start and enable nginx]].
  
* First, backup the current list of non-local packages: {{ic|$ pacman -Qqen > pkglist.txt}}
+
In order to use the cache each Arch Linux computer (including the one hosting the cache) must have the following line at the top of the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file:
  
* Store the {{ic|pkglist.txt}} on a USB key or other convenient medium or gist.github.com or Evernote, Dropbox, etc.
+
{{hc|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist|<nowiki>
 +
Server = http://cache.domain.example:8080/$repo/os/$arch
 +
...
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
* Copy the {{ic|pkglist.txt}} file to the new installation, and navigate to the directory containing it.
+
{{Note| You will need to create a method to clear old packages, as the cache directory will continue to grow over time. {{ic|paccache}} (which is provided by {{pkg|pacman-contrib}}) can be used to automate this using retention criteria of your choosing. For example, {{ic|find /srv/http/pacman-cache/ -type d -exec paccache -v -r -k 2 -c {} \;}} will keep the last 2 versions of packages in your cache directory.}}
  
* Issue the following command to install from the backup list: {{ic|# pacman -S $(< pkglist.txt)}}
+
==== Synchronize pacman package cache using synchronization programs ====
  
In the case you have a list which was not generated like mentioned above, there may be foreign packages in it (i.e. packages not belonging to any repos you have configured, or packages from the AUR).
+
Use [[Syncthing]] or [[Resilio Sync]] to synchronize the ''pacman'' cache folders (i.e. {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}}).
  
In such a case, you may still want to install all available packages from that list:
+
==== Preventing unwanted cache purges ====
  
# pacman -S --needed $(comm -12 <(pacman -Slq|sort) <(sort badpkdlist) )
+
By default, {{Ic|pacman -Sc}} removes package tarballs from the cache that correspond to packages that are not installed on the machine the command was issued on. Because ''pacman'' cannot predict what packages are installed on all machines that share the cache, it will end up deleting files that should not be.
  
Explanation:
+
To clean up the cache so that only ''outdated'' tarballs are deleted, add this entry in the {{ic|[options]}} section of {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
  
* {{ic|pacman -Slq}} lists all available softwares, but the list is sorted by repository first, hence the {{ic|sort}} command.
+
CleanMethod = KeepCurrent
* Sorted files are required in order to make the {{ic|comm}} command work.
 
* The {{ic|-12}} parameter display lines common to both entries.
 
* The {{ic|--needed}} switch is used to skip already installed packages.
 
  
You may also try to install all unavailable packages (those not in the repos) from the AUR using [[yaourt]] (not recommended unless you know exactly what you are doing):
+
=== Recreate a package from the file system ===
  
$ yaourt -S --needed $(comm -13 <(pacman -Slq|sort) <(sort badpkdlist) )
+
To recreate a package from the file system, use {{AUR|fakepkg}}. Files from the system are taken as they are, hence any modifications will be present in the assembled package. Distributing the recreated package is therefore discouraged; see [[ABS]] and [[Arch Linux Archive]] for alternatives.
  
Finally, you may want to remove all the packages on your system that are not mentioned in the list.
+
=== List of installed packages ===
  
{{Warning|Use this command wisely, and always check the result prompted by pacman.}}
+
Keeping a list of all the explicitly installed packages can be useful, to backup a system for example or speed up installation on a new system:
  
  # pacman -Rsu $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq|sort) <(sort pkglist))
+
  $ pacman -Qqe > pkglist.txt
  
=== List installed packages that are not in a specified group or repository ===
+
{{Note|
 +
* With option {{ic|-t}}, the packages already required by other explicitly installed packages are not mentioned. If reinstalling from this list they will be installed but as dependencies only.
 +
* With option {{ic|-n}}, foreign packages (e.g. from [[AUR]]) would be omitted from the list.
 +
* Use {{ic|comm -13 <(pacman -Qqdt {{!}} sort) <(pacman -Qqdtt {{!}} sort) > optdeplist.txt}} to also create a list of the installed optional dependencies which can be reinstalled with {{ic|--asdeps}}.
 +
* Use {{ic|pacman -Qqem > foreignpkglist.txt}} to create the list of AUR and other foreign packages that have been explicitly installed.}}
  
The following command will list any installed packages that are not in either {{Grp|base}} or {{Grp|base-devel}}, and as such were likely installed manually by the user:
+
To keep an up-to-date list of explicitly installed packages (e.g. in combination with a versioned {{ic|/etc/}}), you can set up a [[Pacman#Hooks|hook]]. Example:
  
  $ comm -23 <(pacman -Qeq | sort) <(pacman -Qgq base base-devel | sort)
+
  [Trigger]
 +
Operation = Install
 +
Operation = Remove
 +
Type = Package
 +
Target = *
 +
 +
[Action]
 +
When = PostTransaction
 +
Exec = /bin/sh -c '/usr/bin/pacman -Qqe > /etc/pkglist.txt'
  
List all installed packages that are not in specified repository ({{ic|''repo_name''}} in example):
+
=== Install packages from a list ===
  
$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qtq | sort) <(pacman -Slq ''repo_name'' | sort)
+
To install packages from a previously saved list of packages, while not reinstalling previously installed packages that are already up-to-date, run:
  
List all installed packages that are in the {{ic|''repo_name''}} repository:
+
# pacman -S --needed - < pkglist.txt
  
$ comm -12 <(pacman -Qtq | sort) <(pacman -Slq ''repo_name'' | sort)
+
However, it is likely foreign packages such as from the AUR or installed locally are present in the list. To filter out from the list the foreign packages, the previous command line can be enriched as follows:
  
=== Reinstalling all packages ===
+
# pacman -S --needed $(comm -12 <(pacman -Slq | sort) <(sort pkglist.txt))
To reinstall all native packages, use:
 
  
# pacman -Qenq | pacman -S -
+
Eventually, to make sure the installed packages of your system match the list and remove all the packages that are not mentioned in it:
  
Foreign (AUR) packages must be reinstalled separately; you can list them with {{ic|pacman -Qemq}}.
+
# pacman -Rsu $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(sort pkglist.txt))
  
Pacman preserves the installation reason by default.
+
{{Tip|These tasks can be automated. See {{AUR|bacpac}}, {{AUR|packup}}, {{AUR|pacmanity}}, and {{AUR|pug}} for examples.}}
  
=== Restore pacman's local database ===
+
=== Listing all changed files from packages ===
  
Signs that pacman needs a local database restoration:
+
If you are suspecting file corruption (e.g. by software/hardware failure), but are unsure if files were corrupted, you might want to compare with the hash sums in the packages. This can be done with {{Pkg|pacutils}}:
  
* {{ic|pacman -Q}} gives absolutely no output, and {{Ic|pacman -Syu}} erroneously reports that the system is up to date.
+
# paccheck --md5sum --quiet
* When trying to install a package using {{ic|pacman -S package}}, and it outputs a list of already satisfied dependencies.
 
* When {{ic|testdb}} (part of {{Pkg|pacman}}) reports database inconsistency.
 
  
Most likely, pacman's database of installed software, {{ic|/var/lib/pacman/local}}, has been corrupted or deleted. While this is a serious problem, it can be restored by following the instructions below.
+
For recovery of the database see [[#Restore pacman's local database]]. The {{ic|mtree}} files can also be [[#Viewing a single file inside a .pkg file|extracted as {{ic|.MTREE}} from the respective package files]].
  
Firstly, make sure pacman's log file is present:
+
{{Note|This should '''not''' be used as is when suspecting malicious changes! In this case security precautions such as using a live medium and an independent source for the hash sums are advised.}}
  
$ ls /var/log/pacman.log
+
=== Reinstalling all packages ===
 +
To reinstall all native packages, use:
  
If it does not exist, it is ''not'' possible to continue with this method. You may be able to use [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=670876 Xyne's package detection script] to recreate the database. If not, then the likely solution is to re-install the entire system.
+
# pacman -Qqn | pacman -S -
  
==== Log filter script ====
+
Foreign (AUR) packages must be reinstalled separately; you can list them with {{ic|pacman -Qqm}}.
{{hc|pacrecover|<nowiki>
 
#!/bin/bash -e
 
  
. /etc/makepkg.conf
+
''Pacman'' preserves the [[installation reason]] by default.
  
PKGCACHE=$((grep -m 1 '^CacheDir' /etc/pacman.conf || echo 'CacheDir = /var/cache/pacman/pkg') | sed 's/CacheDir = //')
+
=== Restore pacman's local database ===
  
pkgdirs=("$@" "$PKGDEST" "$PKGCACHE")
+
See [[Pacman/Restore local database]].
  
while read -r -a parampart; do
+
=== Recovering a USB key from existing install ===
  pkgname="${parampart[0]}-${parampart[1]}-*.pkg.tar.xz"
+
 
  for pkgdir in ${pkgdirs[@]}; do
+
If you have Arch installed on a USB key and manage to mess it up (e.g. removing it while it is still being written to), then it is possible to re-install all the packages and hopefully get it back up and working again (assuming USB key is mounted in {{ic|/newarch}})
    pkgpath="$pkgdir"/$pkgname
 
    [ -f $pkgpath ] && { echo $pkgpath; break; };
 
  done || echo ${parampart[0]} 1>&2
 
done
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
Make the script executable:
 
  
  $ chmod +x pacrecover
+
  # pacman -S $(pacman -Qq --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman) --root /newarch --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman
  
==== Generating the package recovery list ====
+
=== Viewing a single file inside a .pkg file ===
  
{{Warning|If for some reason your [[pacman]] cache or [[makepkg]] package destination contain packages for other architectures, remove them before continuation.}}
+
For example, if you want to see the contents of {{ic|/etc/systemd/logind.conf}} supplied within the {{Pkg|systemd}} package:
  
Run the script (optionally passing additional directories with packages as parameters):
+
$ bsdtar -xOf /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz etc/systemd/logind.conf
  
$ paclog-pkglist /var/log/pacman.log | ./pacrecover >files.list 2>pkglist.orig
+
Or you can use {{pkg|vim}} to browse the archive:
  
This way two files will be created: {{Ic|files.list}} with package files, still present on machine and {{Ic|pkglist.orig}}, packages from which should be downloaded. Later operation may result in mismatch between files of older versions of package, still present on machine, and files, found in new version. Such mismatches will have to be fixed manually.
+
$ vim /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz
  
Here is a way to automatically restrict second list to packages available in a repository:
+
=== Find applications that use libraries from older packages ===
  
$ { cat pkglist.orig; pacman -Slq; } | sort | uniq -d > pkglist
+
Even if you installed a package the existing long-running programs (like daemons and servers) still keep using code from old package libraries. And it is a bad idea to let these programs running if the old library contains a security bug.
  
Check if some important ''base'' package are missing, and add them to the list:
+
Here is a way how to find all the programs that use old packages code:
  
  $ comm -23 <(pacman -Sgq base) pkglist.orig >> pkglist
+
  # lsof +c 0 | grep -w DEL | awk '1 { print $1 ": " $NF }' | sort -u
 +
It will print running program name and old library that was removed or replaced with newer content.
  
Proceed once the contents of both lists are satisfactory, since they will be used to restore pacman's installed package database; {{ic|/var/lib/pacman/local/}}.
+
=== Installing only content in required languages  ===
  
==== Performing the recovery ====
+
Many packages attempt to install documentation and translations in several languages. Some programs are designed to remove such unnecessary files, such as {{AUR|localepurge}}, which runs after a package is installed to delete the unneeded locale files. A more direct approach is provided through the {{ic|NoExtract}} directive in {{ic|pacman.conf}}, which prevent these files from ever being installed. The example below installs English (US) files, or none at all:
  
Define bash alias for recovery purposes:
+
{{hc|/etc/pacman.conf|2=
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/help/* !usr/share/help/en*
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/gtk-doc/html/*
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/locale/* usr/share/X11/locale/* usr/share/i18n/* opt/google/chrome/locales/*
 +
NoExtract = !*locale*/en*/* !usr/share/i18n/charmaps/UTF-8.gz !usr/share/*locale*/locale.*
 +
NoExtract = !usr/share/*locales/en_?? !usr/share/*locales/i18n !usr/share/*locales/iso*
 +
NoExtract = !usr/share/*locales/trans*
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/qt4/translations/*
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/man/* !usr/share/man/man*
 +
NoExtract = usr/share/vim/vim*/lang/*
 +
NoExtract = usr/lib/libreoffice/help/en-US/*
 +
}}
  
# recovery-pacman() {
+
Some users noted that removing locales has resulted in [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php?title=Talk:Pacman&oldid=460285#Dangerous_NoExtract_example unintended consequences].
    pacman "$@"      \
 
    --log /dev/null  \
 
    --noscriptlet    \
 
    --dbonly          \
 
    --force          \
 
    --nodeps          \
 
    --needed          \
 
    #
 
}
 
  
{{ic|--log /dev/null}} allows to avoid needless pollution of pacman log, {{Ic|--needed}} will save some time by skipping packages, already present in database, {{Ic|--nodeps}} will allow installation of cached packages, even if packages being installed depend on newer versions. Rest of options will allow '''pacman''' to operate without reading/writing filesystem.
+
== Performance ==
  
Populate the sync database:
+
=== Download speeds ===
  
  # pacman -Sy
+
{{Note|If your download speeds have been reduced to a crawl, ensure you are using one of the many [[mirrors]] and not ftp.archlinux.org, which is [https://www.archlinux.org/news/302/ throttled since March 2007].}}
  
Start database generation by installing locally available package files from {{ic|files.list}}:
+
When downloading packages ''pacman'' uses the mirrors in the order they are in {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}. The mirror which is at the top of the list by default however may not be the fastest for you. To select a faster mirror, see [[Mirrors]].
  
# recovery-pacman -U $(< files.list)
+
''Pacman''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s speed in downloading packages can also be improved by using a different application to download packages, instead of ''pacman''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s built-in file downloader.
  
Install the rest from {{ic|pkglist}}:
+
In all cases, make sure you have the latest ''pacman'' before doing any modifications.
  
  # recovery-pacman -S $(< pkglist)
+
  # pacman -Syu
  
Update the local database so that packages that are not required by any other package are marked as explicitly installed and the other as dependences. You will need be extra careful in the future when removing packages, but with the original database lost is the best we can do.
+
==== Powerpill ====
  
# pacman -D --asdeps $(pacman -Qq)
+
[[Powerpill]] is a ''pacman'' wrapper that uses parallel and segmented downloading to try to speed up downloads for ''pacman''.
# pacman -D --asexplicit $(pacman -Qtq)
 
  
Optionally check all installed packages for corruption:
+
==== wget ====
  
# pacman -Qk
+
This is also very handy if you need more powerful proxy settings than ''pacman''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s built-in capabilities.
  
Optionally [[#Identify files not owned by any package]].
+
To use {{ic|wget}}, first [[install]] the {{Pkg|wget}} package then modify {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} by uncommenting the following line in the {{ic|[options]}} section:
  
Update all packages:
+
XferCommand = /usr/bin/wget --passive-ftp -c -O %o %u
  
# pacman -Su
+
Instead of uncommenting the {{ic|wget}} parameters in {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}, you can also modify the {{ic|wget}} configuration file directly (the system-wide file is {{ic|/etc/wgetrc}}, per user files are {{ic|$HOME/.wgetrc}}.
  
=== Recovering a USB key from existing install ===
+
==== aria2 ====
  
If you have Arch installed on a USB key and manage to mess it up (e.g. removing it while it is still being written to), then it is possible to re-install all the packages and hopefully get it back up and working again (assuming USB key is mounted in /newarch)
+
[[aria2]] is a lightweight download utility with support for resumable and segmented HTTP/HTTPS and FTP downloads. aria2 allows for multiple and simultaneous HTTP/HTTPS and FTP connections to an Arch mirror, which should result in an increase in download speeds for both file and package retrieval.
  
# pacman -S $(pacman -Qq --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman) --root /newarch --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman
+
{{Note|Using aria2c in ''pacman''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s XferCommand will '''not''' result in parallel downloads of multiple packages. ''Pacman'' invokes the XferCommand with a single package at a time and waits for it to complete before invoking the next. To download multiple packages in parallel, see [[Powerpill]].}}
  
=== Extracting contents of a .pkg file ===
+
Install {{Pkg|aria2}}, then edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} by adding the following line to the {{ic|[options]}} section:
  
The {{ic|.pkg}} files ending in {{ic|.xz}} are simply tar'ed archives that can be decompressed with:
+
XferCommand = /usr/bin/aria2c --allow-overwrite=true --continue=true --file-allocation=none --log-level=error --max-tries=2 --max-connection-per-server=2 --max-file-not-found=5 --min-split-size=5M --no-conf --remote-time=true --summary-interval=60 --timeout=5 --dir=/ --out %o %u
  
$ tar xvf package.tar.xz
+
{{Tip|1=[https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1491879#p1491879 This alternative configuration for using ''pacman'' with aria2] tries to simplify configuration and adds more configuration options.}}
  
If you want to extract a couple of files out of a {{ic|.pkg}} file, this would be a way to do it.
+
See [http://aria2.sourceforge.net/manual/en/html/aria2c.html#options OPTIONS] in {{man|1|aria2c}} for used aria2c options.
  
=== Viewing a single file inside a .pkg file ===
+
* {{ic|-d, --dir}}: The directory to store the downloaded file(s) as specified by ''pacman''.
 +
* {{ic|-o, --out}}: The output file name(s) of the downloaded file(s).
 +
* {{ic|%o}}: Variable which represents the local filename(s) as specified by ''pacman''.
 +
* {{ic|%u}}: Variable which represents the download URL as specified by ''pacman''.
  
For example, if you want to see the contents of {{ic|/etc/systemd/logind.conf}} supplied within the {{Pkg|systemd}} package:
+
==== Other applications ====
  
$ tar -xOf /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz etc/systemd/logind.conf
+
There are other downloading applications that you can use with ''pacman''. Here they are, and their associated XferCommand settings:
  
Or you can use {{pkg|vim}}, then browse the archive:
+
* {{ic|snarf}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/snarf -N %u}}
 +
* {{ic|lftp}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/lftp -c pget %u}}
 +
* {{ic|axel}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/axel -n 2 -v -a -o %o %u}}
 +
* {{ic|hget}}: {{ic|1=XferCommand = /usr/bin/hget %u -n 2 -skip-tls false}} (please read the [https://github.com/huydx/hget documentation on the Github project page] for more info)
  
$ vim /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz
+
== Utilities ==
  
=== Find applications that use libraries from older packages ===
+
* {{App|Lostfiles|Script that identifies files not owned by any package.|https://github.com/graysky2/lostfiles|{{Pkg|lostfiles}}}}
 +
* {{App|Pacmatic|''Pacman'' wrapper to check Arch News before upgrading, avoid partial upgrades, and warn about configuration file changes.|http://kmkeen.com/pacmatic|{{Pkg|pacmatic}}}}
 +
* {{App|pacutils|Helper library for libalpm based programs.|https://github.com/andrewgregory/pacutils|{{Pkg|pacutils}}}}
 +
* {{App|[[pkgfile]]|Tool that finds what package owns a file.|http://github.com/falconindy/pkgfile|{{Pkg|pkgfile}}}}
 +
* {{App|pkgtools|Collection of scripts for Arch Linux packages.|https://github.com/Daenyth/pkgtools|{{AUR|pkgtools}}}}
 +
* {{App|pkgtop|Interactive package manager and resource monitor designed for the GNU/Linux.|https://github.com/orhun/pkgtop|{{AUR|pkgtop-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|[[Powerpill]]|Uses parallel and segmented downloading through [[aria2]] and [[Reflector]] to try to speed up downloads for ''pacman''.|https://xyne.archlinux.ca/projects/powerpill/|{{AUR|powerpill}}}}
 +
* {{App|repoctl|Tool to help manage local repositories.|https://github.com/cassava/repoctl|{{AUR|repoctl}}}}
 +
* {{App|repose|An Arch Linux repository building tool.|https://github.com/vodik/repose|{{Pkg|repose}}}}
 +
* {{App|[[Snapper#Wrapping_pacman_transactions_in_snapshots|snap-pac]]|Make ''pacman'' automatically use snapper to create pre/post snapshots like openSUSE's YaST.|https://github.com/wesbarnett/snap-pac|{{pkg|snap-pac}}}}
 +
* {{App|vrms-arch|A virtual Richard M. Stallman to tell you which non-free packages are installed.|https://github.com/orospakr/vrms-arch|{{AUR|vrms-arch}}}}
  
Even if you installed a package the existing long-running programs (like daemons and servers) still keep using code from old package libraries. And it is a bad idea to let these programs running if the old library contains a security bug.
+
=== Graphical ===
  
Here is a way how to find all the programs that use old packages code:
+
{{Warning|PackageKit opens up system permissions by default, and is otherwise not recommended for general usage. See {{Bug|50459}} and {{Bug|57943}}.}}
  
# lsof +c 0 | grep -w DEL | awk '1 { print $1 ": " $NF }' | sort -u
+
* {{App|Apper|Qt 5 application and package manager using PackageKit written in C++. Supports [https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Distributions/AppStream/ AppStream metadata].|https://userbase.kde.org/Apper|{{Pkg|apper}}}}
It will print running program name and old library that was removed or replaced with newer content.
+
* {{App|Discover|Qt 5 application manager using PackageKit written in C++/QML. Supports [https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Distributions/AppStream/ AppStream metadata], [[Flatpak]] and [[fwupd|firmware updates]]. |https://userbase.kde.org/Discover|{{Pkg|discover}}}}
 +
* {{App|GNOME PackageKit|GTK 3 package manager using PackageKit written in C.|https://freedesktop.org/software/PackageKit/|{{Pkg|gnome-packagekit}}}}
 +
* {{App|GNOME Software|GTK 3 application manager using PackageKit written in C. Supports [https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Distributions/AppStream/ AppStream metadata], [[Flatpak]] and [[fwupd|firmware updates]]. |https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Software|{{pkg|gnome-software}}}}
 +
* {{App|pcurses|Curses TUI pacman wrapper written in C++.|https://github.com/schuay/pcurses|{{Pkg|pcurses}}}}
 +
* {{App|tkPacman|Tk pacman wrapper written in Tcl.|https://sourceforge.net/projects/tkpacman|{{AUR|tkpacman}}}}

Latest revision as of 14:25, 12 October 2019

For general methods to improve the flexibility of the provided tips or pacman itself, see Core utilities and Bash.

Contents

Maintenance

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Usage= introduced with pacman 4.2, see [1] (Discuss in Talk:Pacman/Tips and tricks#)
Note: Instead of using comm (which requires sorted input with sort) in the sections below, you may also use grep -Fxf or grep -Fxvf.

See also System maintenance.

Listing packages

You may want to get the list of installed packages with their version, which is useful when reporting bugs or discussing installed packages.

  • List all explicitly installed packages: pacman -Qe.
  • List all packages in the group named group: pacman -Sg group
  • List all explicitly installed native packages (i.e. present in the sync database) that are not direct or optional dependencies: pacman -Qent.
  • List all foreign packages (typically manually downloaded and installed or packages removed from the repositories): pacman -Qm.
  • List all native packages (installed from the sync database(s)): pacman -Qn.
  • List packages by regex: pacman -Qs regex.
  • List packages by regex with custom output format: expac -s "%-30n %v" regex (needs expac).

With size

Figuring out which packages are largest can be useful when trying to free space on your hard drive. There are two options here: get the size of individual packages, or get the size of packages and their dependencies.

Individual packages

The following command will list all installed packages and their individual sizes:

$ LC_ALL=C pacman -Qi | awk '/^Name/{name=$3} /^Installed Size/{print $4$5, name}' | sort -h
Packages and dependencies

To list package sizes with their dependencies,

  • Install expac and run expac -H M '%m\t%n' | sort -h.
  • Run pacgraph with the -c option.

To list the download size of several packages (leave packages blank to list all packages):

$ expac -S -H M '%k\t%n' packages

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: base is not a group anymore. [2] (Discuss in Talk:Pacman/Tips and tricks#)

To list explicitly installed packages not in base nor base-devel with size and description:

$ expac -H M "%011m\t%-20n\t%10d" $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qqen | sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel | sort)) | sort -n

To list the packages marked for upgrade with their download size

$ pacman -Quq|xargs expac -S -H M '%k\t%n' | sort -sh

By date

To list the 20 last installed packages with expac, run:

$ expac --timefmt='%Y-%m-%d %T' '%l\t%n' | sort | tail -n 20

or, with seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01 UTC):

$ expac --timefmt=%s '%l\t%n' | sort -n | tail -n 20

Not in a specified group or repository

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: base is not a group anymore. [3] (Discuss in Talk:Pacman/Tips and tricks#)
Note: To get a list of packages installed as dependencies but no longer required by any installed package, see #Removing unused packages (orphans).

List explicitly installed packages not in the base or base-devel groups:

$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qeq | sort) <(pacman -Qgq base base-devel | sort)

List all installed packages unrequired by other packages, and which are not in the base or base-devel groups:

$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt | sort) <(pacman -Sqg base base-devel | sort)

As above, but with descriptions:

$ expac -HM '%-20n\t%10d' $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qqt | sort) <(pacman -Qqg base base-devel | sort))

List all installed packages that are not in the specified repository repo_name

$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(pacman -Slq repo_name | sort)

List all installed packages that are in the repo_name repository:

$ comm -12 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(pacman -Slq repo_name | sort)

List all packages on the Arch Linux ISO that are not in the base group:

$ comm -23 <(curl https://git.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.x86_64) <(pacman -Qqg base | sort)

Development packages

To list all development/unstable packages, run:

$ pacman -Qq | grep -Ee '-(bzr|cvs|darcs|git|hg|svn)$'

Browsing packages

To browse all installed packages with an instant preview of each package:

 $ pacman -Qq | fzf --preview 'pacman -Qil {}' --layout=reverse --bind 'enter:execute(pacman -Qil {} | less)'

This uses fzf to present a two-pane view listing all packages with package info shown on the right.

Enter letters to filter the list of packages; use arrow keys (or Ctrl-j/Ctrl-k) to navigate; press Enter to see package info under less.

Listing files owned by a package with size

This one might come in handy if you have found that a specific package uses a huge amount of space and you want to find out which files make up the most of that.

$ pacman -Qlq package | grep -v '/$' | xargs du -h | sort -h

Identify files not owned by any package

If your system has stray files not owned by any package (a common case if you do not use the package manager to install software), you may want to find such files in order to clean them up.

One method is to use # pacreport --unowned-files from pacutils which will list unowned files among other details.

Another is to list all files of interest and check them against pacman:

# find /etc /usr /opt /var | LC_ALL=C pacman -Qqo - 2>&1 > /dev/null | cut -d ' ' -f 5-
Tip: The lostfiles script performs similar steps, but also includes an extensive blacklist to remove common false positives from the output.

Tracking unowned files created by packages

Most systems will slowly collect several ghost files such as state files, logs, indexes, etc. through the course of usual operation.

pacreport from pacutils can be used to track these files and their associations via /etc/pacreport.conf (see pacreport(1)).

An example may look something like this (abridged):

/etc/pacreport.conf
[Options]
IgnoreUnowned = usr/share/applications/mimeinfo.cache

[PkgIgnoreUnowned]
alsa-utils = var/lib/alsa/asound.state
bluez = var/lib/bluetooth
ca-certificates = etc/ca-certificates/trust-source/*
dbus = var/lib/dbus/machine-id
glibc = etc/ld.so.cache
grub = boot/grub/*
linux = boot/initramfs-linux.img
pacman = var/lib/pacman/local
update-mime-database = usr/share/mime/magic

Then, when using # pacreport --unowned-files, any unowned files will be listed if the associated package is no longer installed (or if any new files have been created).

Additionally, aconfmgr (aconfmgr-gitAUR) allows tracking modified and orphaned files using a configuration script.

Removing unused packages (orphans)

For recursively removing orphans and their configuration files:

# pacman -Rns $(pacman -Qtdq)

If no orphans were found pacman outputs error: no targets specified. This is expected as no arguments were passed to pacman -Rns.

Note: The arguments -Qt list only true orphans. To include packages which are optionally required by another package, pass the -t flag twice (i.e., -Qtt).

Removing everything but base group

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: base is not a group anymore. [4] (Discuss in Talk:Pacman/Tips and tricks#)

If it is ever necessary to remove all packages except the base group, try this one-liner (requires pacman-contrib):

# pacman -R $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <((for i in $(pacman -Qqg base); do pactree -ul "$i"; done) | sort -u))

The one-liner was originally devised in this discussion, and later improved in this article.

Getting the dependencies list of several packages

Dependencies are alphabetically sorted and doubles are removed.

Note: To only show the tree of local installed packages, use pacman -Qi.
$ LC_ALL=C pacman -Si packages | awk -F'[:<=>]' '/^Depends/ {print $2}' | xargs -n1 | sort -u

Alternatively, with expac:

$ expac -l '\n' %E -S packages | sort -u

Listing changed backup files

If you want to backup your system configuration files you could copy all files in /etc/, but usually you are only interested in the files that you have changed. Modified backup files can be viewed with the following command:

# pacman -Qii | awk '/^MODIFIED/ {print $2}'

Running this command with root permissions will ensure that files readable only by root (such as /etc/sudoers) are included in the output.

Tip: See #Listing all changed files from packages to list all changed files pacman knows about, not only backup files.

Backup the pacman database

The following command can be used to backup the local pacman database:

$ tar -cjf pacman_database.tar.bz2 /var/lib/pacman/local

Store the backup pacman database file on one or more offline media, such as a USB stick, external hard drive, or CD-R.

The database can be restored by moving the pacman_database.tar.bz2 file into the / directory and executing the following command:

# tar -xjvf pacman_database.tar.bz2
Note: If the pacman database files are corrupted, and there is no backup file available, there exists some hope of rebuilding the pacman database. Consult #Restore pacman's local database.
Tip: The pakbak-gitAUR package provides a script and a systemd service to automate the task. Configuration is possible in /etc/pakbak.conf.

Check changelogs easily

When maintainers update packages, commits are often commented in a useful fashion. Users can quickly check these from the command line by installing pacologAUR. This utility lists recent commit messages for packages from the official repositories or the AUR, by using pacolog <package>.

Installation and recovery

Alternative ways of getting and restoring packages.

Installing packages from a CD/DVD or USB stick

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with #Custom local repository.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: Use as an example and avoid duplication (Discuss in Talk:Pacman/Tips and tricks#)

To download packages, or groups of packages:

# cd ~/Packages
# pacman -Syw base base-devel grub-bios xorg gimp --cachedir .
# repo-add ./custom.db.tar.gz ./*

Then you can burn the "Packages" folder to a CD/DVD or transfer it to a USB stick, external HDD, etc.

To install:

1. Mount the media:

# mkdir /mnt/repo
# mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/repo    #For a CD/DVD.
# mount /dev/sdxY /mnt/repo   #For a USB stick.

2. Edit pacman.conf and add this repository before the other ones (e.g. extra, core, etc.). This is important. Do not just uncomment the one on the bottom. This way it ensures that the files from the CD/DVD/USB take precedence over those in the standard repositories:

/etc/pacman.conf
[custom]
SigLevel = PackageRequired
Server = file:///mnt/repo/Packages

3. Finally, synchronize the pacman database to be able to use the new repository:

# pacman -Syu

Custom local repository

Use the repo-add script included with pacman to generate a database for a personal repository. Use repo-add --help for more details on its usage. A package database is a tar file, optionally compressed. Valid extensions are .db or .files followed by an archive extension of .tar, .tar.gz, .tar.bz2, .tar.xz, or .tar.Z. The file does not need to exist, but all parent directories must exist.

To add a new package to the database, or to replace the old version of an existing package in the database, run:

$ repo-add /path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/package-1.0-1-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz

The database and the packages do not need to be in the same directory when using repo-add, but keep in mind that when using pacman with that database, they should be together. Storing all the built packages to be included in the repository in one directory also allows to use shell glob expansion to add or update multiple packages at once:

$ repo-add /path/to/repo.db.tar.gz /path/to/*.pkg.tar.xz
Warning: repo-add adds the entries into the database in the same order as passed on the command line. If multiple versions of the same package are involved, care must be taken to ensure that the correct version is added last. In particular, note that lexical order used by the shell depends on the locale and differs from the vercmp ordering used by pacman.

If you are looking to support multiple architectures then precautions should be taken to prevent errors from occurring. Each architecture should have its own directory tree:

$ tree ~/customrepo/ | sed "s/$(uname -m)/<arch>/g"
/home/archie/customrepo/
└── <arch>
    ├── customrepo.db -> customrepo.db.tar.xz
    ├── customrepo.db.tar.xz
    ├── customrepo.files -> customrepo.files.tar.xz
    ├── customrepo.files.tar.xz
    └── personal-website-git-b99cce0-1-<arch>.pkg.tar.xz

1 directory, 5 files

The repo-add executable checks if the package is appropriate. If this is not the case you will be running into error messages similar to this:

==> ERROR: '/home/archie/customrepo/<arch>/foo-<arch>.pkg.tar.xz' does not have a valid database archive extension.

repo-remove is used to remove packages from the package database, except that only package names are specified on the command line.

$ repo-remove /path/to/repo.db.tar.gz pkgname

Once the local repository database has been created, add the repository to pacman.conf for each system that is to use the repository. An example of a custom repository is in pacman.conf. The repository's name is the database filename with the file extension omitted. In the case of the example above the repository's name would simply be repo. Reference the repository's location using a file:// url, or via FTP using ftp://localhost/path/to/directory.

If willing, add the custom repository to the list of unofficial user repositories, so that the community can benefit from it.

Network shared pacman cache

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with Package_Proxy_Cache.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: Same topic (Discuss in Talk:Pacman/Tips and tricks#)

If you happen to run several Arch boxes on your LAN, you can share packages so that you can greatly decrease your download times. Keep in mind you should not share between different architectures (i.e. i686 and x86_64) or you will run into problems.

Read-only cache

If you are looking for a quick solution, you can simply run a standalone webserver which other computers can use as a first mirror:

# ln -s /var/lib/pacman/sync/*.db /var/cache/pacman/pkg
$ sudo -u http darkhttpd /var/cache/pacman/pkg --no-server-id

You could also run darkhttpd as a systemd service for convenience. Just add this server at the top of your /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist in client machines with Server = http://mymirror:8080. Make sure to keep your mirror updated.

If you are already running a web server for some other purpose, you might wish to reuse that as your local repo server instead of darkhttpd. For example, if you already serve a site with nginx, you can add an nginx server block listening on port 8080:

/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
server {
    listen 8080;
    root /var/cache/pacman/pkg;
    server_name myarchrepo.localdomain;
    try_files $uri $uri/;
}

Remember to restart nginx after making this change.

Whichever web server you use, remember to open port 8080 to local traffic (and you probably want to deny anything not local), so add a rule like the following to iptables:

/etc/iptables/iptables.rules
-A TCP -s 192.168.0.0/16 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 8080 -j ACCEPT

Remember to restart iptables after making this change.

Distributed read-only cache

There are Arch-specific tools for automatically discovering other computers on your network offering a package cache. Try pacredir, pacserve, pkgdistcacheAUR, or paclanAUR. pkgdistcache uses Avahi instead of plain UDP which may work better in certain home networks that route instead of bridge between WiFi and Ethernet.

Historically, there was PkgD and multipkg, but they are no longer maintained.

Read-write cache

In order to share packages between multiple computers, simply share /var/cache/pacman/ using any network-based mount protocol. This section shows how to use shfs or SSHFS to share a package cache plus the related library-directories between multiple computers on the same local network. Keep in mind that a network shared cache can be slow depending on the file-system choice, among other factors.

First, install any network-supporting filesystem packages: shfs-utils, sshfs, curlftpfs, samba or nfs-utils.

Tip:
  • To use sshfs or shfs, consider reading Using SSH Keys.
  • By default, smbfs does not serve filenames that contain colons, which results in the client downloading the offending package afresh. To prevent this, use the mapchars mount option on the client.

Then, to share the actual packages, mount /var/cache/pacman/pkg from the server to /var/cache/pacman/pkg on every client machine.

Warning: Do not make /var/cache/pacman/pkg or any of its ancestors (e.g., /var) a symlink. Pacman expects these to be directories. When pacman re-installs or upgrades itself, it will remove the symlinks and create empty directories instead. However during the transaction pacman relies on some files residing there, hence breaking the update process. Refer to FS#50298 for further details.

two-way with rsync

Another approach in a local environment is rsync. Choose a server for caching and enable the Rsync#rsync daemon. On clients synchronize two-way with this share via rsync protocol. Filenames that contain colons are no problem for the rsync protocol.

Draft example for a client, using uname -m within the share name ensures an architecture dependant sync:

 # rsync rsync://server/share_$(uname -m)/ /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ ...
 # pacman ...
 # paccache ...
 # rsync /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ rsync://server/share_$(uname -m)/  ...

Dynamic reverse proxy cache using nginx

nginx can be used to proxy package requests to official upstream mirrors and cache the results to the local disk. All subsequent requests for that package will be served directly from the local cache, minimizing the amount of internet traffic needed to update a large number of computers.

In this example, the cache server will run at http://cache.domain.example:8080/ and store the packages in /srv/http/pacman-cache/.

Install nginx on the computer that is going to host the cache. Create the directory for the cache and adjust the permissions so nginx can write files to it:

# mkdir /srv/http/pacman-cache
# chown http:http /srv/http/pacman-cache

Use the nginx pacman cache config as a starting point for /etc/nginx/nginx.conf. Check that the resolver directive works for your needs. In the upstream server blocks, configure the proxy_pass directives with addresses of official mirrors, see examples in the config file about the expected format. Once you are satisfied with the configuration file start and enable nginx.

In order to use the cache each Arch Linux computer (including the one hosting the cache) must have the following line at the top of the mirrorlist file:

/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
Server = http://cache.domain.example:8080/$repo/os/$arch
...
Note: You will need to create a method to clear old packages, as the cache directory will continue to grow over time. paccache (which is provided by pacman-contrib) can be used to automate this using retention criteria of your choosing. For example, find /srv/http/pacman-cache/ -type d -exec paccache -v -r -k 2 -c {} \; will keep the last 2 versions of packages in your cache directory.

Synchronize pacman package cache using synchronization programs

Use Syncthing or Resilio Sync to synchronize the pacman cache folders (i.e. /var/cache/pacman/pkg).

Preventing unwanted cache purges

By default, pacman -Sc removes package tarballs from the cache that correspond to packages that are not installed on the machine the command was issued on. Because pacman cannot predict what packages are installed on all machines that share the cache, it will end up deleting files that should not be.

To clean up the cache so that only outdated tarballs are deleted, add this entry in the [options] section of /etc/pacman.conf:

CleanMethod = KeepCurrent

Recreate a package from the file system

To recreate a package from the file system, use fakepkgAUR. Files from the system are taken as they are, hence any modifications will be present in the assembled package. Distributing the recreated package is therefore discouraged; see ABS and Arch Linux Archive for alternatives.

List of installed packages

Keeping a list of all the explicitly installed packages can be useful, to backup a system for example or speed up installation on a new system:

$ pacman -Qqe > pkglist.txt
Note:
  • With option -t, the packages already required by other explicitly installed packages are not mentioned. If reinstalling from this list they will be installed but as dependencies only.
  • With option -n, foreign packages (e.g. from AUR) would be omitted from the list.
  • Use comm -13 <(pacman -Qqdt | sort) <(pacman -Qqdtt | sort) > optdeplist.txt to also create a list of the installed optional dependencies which can be reinstalled with --asdeps.
  • Use pacman -Qqem > foreignpkglist.txt to create the list of AUR and other foreign packages that have been explicitly installed.

To keep an up-to-date list of explicitly installed packages (e.g. in combination with a versioned /etc/), you can set up a hook. Example:

[Trigger]
Operation = Install
Operation = Remove
Type = Package
Target = *

[Action]
When = PostTransaction
Exec = /bin/sh -c '/usr/bin/pacman -Qqe > /etc/pkglist.txt'

Install packages from a list

To install packages from a previously saved list of packages, while not reinstalling previously installed packages that are already up-to-date, run:

# pacman -S --needed - < pkglist.txt

However, it is likely foreign packages such as from the AUR or installed locally are present in the list. To filter out from the list the foreign packages, the previous command line can be enriched as follows:

# pacman -S --needed $(comm -12 <(pacman -Slq | sort) <(sort pkglist.txt))

Eventually, to make sure the installed packages of your system match the list and remove all the packages that are not mentioned in it:

# pacman -Rsu $(comm -23 <(pacman -Qq | sort) <(sort pkglist.txt))
Tip: These tasks can be automated. See bacpacAUR, packupAUR, pacmanityAUR, and pugAUR for examples.

Listing all changed files from packages

If you are suspecting file corruption (e.g. by software/hardware failure), but are unsure if files were corrupted, you might want to compare with the hash sums in the packages. This can be done with pacutils:

# paccheck --md5sum --quiet

For recovery of the database see #Restore pacman's local database. The mtree files can also be extracted as .MTREE from the respective package files.

Note: This should not be used as is when suspecting malicious changes! In this case security precautions such as using a live medium and an independent source for the hash sums are advised.

Reinstalling all packages

To reinstall all native packages, use:

# pacman -Qqn | pacman -S -

Foreign (AUR) packages must be reinstalled separately; you can list them with pacman -Qqm.

Pacman preserves the installation reason by default.

Restore pacman's local database

See Pacman/Restore local database.

Recovering a USB key from existing install

If you have Arch installed on a USB key and manage to mess it up (e.g. removing it while it is still being written to), then it is possible to re-install all the packages and hopefully get it back up and working again (assuming USB key is mounted in /newarch)

# pacman -S $(pacman -Qq --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman) --root /newarch --dbpath /newarch/var/lib/pacman

Viewing a single file inside a .pkg file

For example, if you want to see the contents of /etc/systemd/logind.conf supplied within the systemd package:

$ bsdtar -xOf /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz etc/systemd/logind.conf

Or you can use vim to browse the archive:

$ vim /var/cache/pacman/pkg/systemd-204-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz

Find applications that use libraries from older packages

Even if you installed a package the existing long-running programs (like daemons and servers) still keep using code from old package libraries. And it is a bad idea to let these programs running if the old library contains a security bug.

Here is a way how to find all the programs that use old packages code:

# lsof +c 0 | grep -w DEL | awk '1 { print $1 ": " $NF }' | sort -u

It will print running program name and old library that was removed or replaced with newer content.

Installing only content in required languages

Many packages attempt to install documentation and translations in several languages. Some programs are designed to remove such unnecessary files, such as localepurgeAUR, which runs after a package is installed to delete the unneeded locale files. A more direct approach is provided through the NoExtract directive in pacman.conf, which prevent these files from ever being installed. The example below installs English (US) files, or none at all:

/etc/pacman.conf
NoExtract = usr/share/help/* !usr/share/help/en*
NoExtract = usr/share/gtk-doc/html/*
NoExtract = usr/share/locale/* usr/share/X11/locale/* usr/share/i18n/* opt/google/chrome/locales/*
NoExtract = !*locale*/en*/* !usr/share/i18n/charmaps/UTF-8.gz !usr/share/*locale*/locale.*
NoExtract = !usr/share/*locales/en_?? !usr/share/*locales/i18n !usr/share/*locales/iso*
NoExtract = !usr/share/*locales/trans*
NoExtract = usr/share/qt4/translations/*
NoExtract = usr/share/man/* !usr/share/man/man*
NoExtract = usr/share/vim/vim*/lang/*
NoExtract = usr/lib/libreoffice/help/en-US/*

Some users noted that removing locales has resulted in unintended consequences.

Performance

Download speeds

Note: If your download speeds have been reduced to a crawl, ensure you are using one of the many mirrors and not ftp.archlinux.org, which is throttled since March 2007.

When downloading packages pacman uses the mirrors in the order they are in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. The mirror which is at the top of the list by default however may not be the fastest for you. To select a faster mirror, see Mirrors.

Pacman's speed in downloading packages can also be improved by using a different application to download packages, instead of pacman's built-in file downloader.

In all cases, make sure you have the latest pacman before doing any modifications.

# pacman -Syu

Powerpill

Powerpill is a pacman wrapper that uses parallel and segmented downloading to try to speed up downloads for pacman.

wget

This is also very handy if you need more powerful proxy settings than pacman's built-in capabilities.

To use wget, first install the wget package then modify /etc/pacman.conf by uncommenting the following line in the [options] section:

XferCommand = /usr/bin/wget --passive-ftp -c -O %o %u

Instead of uncommenting the wget parameters in /etc/pacman.conf, you can also modify the wget configuration file directly (the system-wide file is /etc/wgetrc, per user files are $HOME/.wgetrc.

aria2

aria2 is a lightweight download utility with support for resumable and segmented HTTP/HTTPS and FTP downloads. aria2 allows for multiple and simultaneous HTTP/HTTPS and FTP connections to an Arch mirror, which should result in an increase in download speeds for both file and package retrieval.

Note: Using aria2c in pacman's XferCommand will not result in parallel downloads of multiple packages. Pacman invokes the XferCommand with a single package at a time and waits for it to complete before invoking the next. To download multiple packages in parallel, see Powerpill.

Install aria2, then edit /etc/pacman.conf by adding the following line to the [options] section:

XferCommand = /usr/bin/aria2c --allow-overwrite=true --continue=true --file-allocation=none --log-level=error --max-tries=2 --max-connection-per-server=2 --max-file-not-found=5 --min-split-size=5M --no-conf --remote-time=true --summary-interval=60 --timeout=5 --dir=/ --out %o %u
Tip: This alternative configuration for using pacman with aria2 tries to simplify configuration and adds more configuration options.

See OPTIONS in aria2c(1) for used aria2c options.

  • -d, --dir: The directory to store the downloaded file(s) as specified by pacman.
  • -o, --out: The output file name(s) of the downloaded file(s).
  • %o: Variable which represents the local filename(s) as specified by pacman.
  • %u: Variable which represents the download URL as specified by pacman.

Other applications

There are other downloading applications that you can use with pacman. Here they are, and their associated XferCommand settings:

  • snarf: XferCommand = /usr/bin/snarf -N %u
  • lftp: XferCommand = /usr/bin/lftp -c pget %u
  • axel: XferCommand = /usr/bin/axel -n 2 -v -a -o %o %u
  • hget: XferCommand = /usr/bin/hget %u -n 2 -skip-tls false (please read the documentation on the Github project page for more info)

Utilities

  • Lostfiles — Script that identifies files not owned by any package.
https://github.com/graysky2/lostfiles || lostfiles
  • PacmaticPacman wrapper to check Arch News before upgrading, avoid partial upgrades, and warn about configuration file changes.
http://kmkeen.com/pacmatic || pacmatic
  • pacutils — Helper library for libalpm based programs.
https://github.com/andrewgregory/pacutils || pacutils
  • pkgfile — Tool that finds what package owns a file.
http://github.com/falconindy/pkgfile || pkgfile
  • pkgtools — Collection of scripts for Arch Linux packages.
https://github.com/Daenyth/pkgtools || pkgtoolsAUR
  • pkgtop — Interactive package manager and resource monitor designed for the GNU/Linux.
https://github.com/orhun/pkgtop || pkgtop-gitAUR
  • Powerpill — Uses parallel and segmented downloading through aria2 and Reflector to try to speed up downloads for pacman.
https://xyne.archlinux.ca/projects/powerpill/ || powerpillAUR
  • repoctl — Tool to help manage local repositories.
https://github.com/cassava/repoctl || repoctlAUR
  • repose — An Arch Linux repository building tool.
https://github.com/vodik/repose || repose
  • snap-pac — Make pacman automatically use snapper to create pre/post snapshots like openSUSE's YaST.
https://github.com/wesbarnett/snap-pac || snap-pac
  • vrms-arch — A virtual Richard M. Stallman to tell you which non-free packages are installed.
https://github.com/orospakr/vrms-arch || vrms-archAUR

Graphical

Warning: PackageKit opens up system permissions by default, and is otherwise not recommended for general usage. See FS#50459 and FS#57943.
  • Apper — Qt 5 application and package manager using PackageKit written in C++. Supports AppStream metadata.
https://userbase.kde.org/Apper || apper
https://userbase.kde.org/Discover || discover
  • GNOME PackageKit — GTK 3 package manager using PackageKit written in C.
https://freedesktop.org/software/PackageKit/ || gnome-packagekit
https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Software || gnome-software
  • pcurses — Curses TUI pacman wrapper written in C++.
https://github.com/schuay/pcurses || pcurses
  • tkPacman — Tk pacman wrapper written in Tcl.
https://sourceforge.net/projects/tkpacman || tkpacmanAUR