Difference between revisions of "Pantheon"

From ArchWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m (no more plus in gtk)
 
(258 intermediate revisions by 33 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[Category:Desktop environments]]
 
[[Category:Desktop environments]]
{{Article summary start}}
+
[[ja:Pantheon]]
{{Article summary text|This article covers basic installation procedures and configuration methods for Pantheon, the default desktop environment of elementary OS.}}
+
[[pl:Pantheon]]
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
+
[[zh-hans:Pantheon]]
{{Article summary wiki|GNOME}}: A DE which is also based on GTK3.
+
[https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=152930 Pantheon] is the desktop environment originally created for the [http://elementary.io/ elementary OS] distribution. It is written from scratch in [[Wikipedia:Vala (programming language)|Vala]], using [[GTK|GTK 3]] and [https://github.com/elementary/granite Granite]. With regards to usability and appearance, the desktop has some similarities with [[GNOME Shell]] and [[Wikipedia:MacOS|macOS]].
{{Article summary end}}
 
  
[http://elementaryos.org/ Pantheon] is the default desktop environment originally created for the elementary OS distribution. It is written from scratch using Vala and the GTK3 toolkit. With regards to usability and appearance, the desktop has some similarities with GNOME Shell and Mac OS X.
+
== Project Status ==
  
==Installation==
+
Although the [https://elementary.io/ elementary OS] release schedule and toolchain are bound to [[Arch_compared_to_other_distributions#Ubuntu|Ubuntu's]] LTS release cycle, [https://plus.google.com/communities/104613975513761463450 development] moves quickly and has recently moved to [https://github.com/elementary github].
  
Pantheon is split into several packages which are available in the [[AUR]]. To get a minimal desktop interface, you may start by installing {{AUR|pantheon-session-bzr}}. This will pull the following core components:
+
== Installation ==
+
 
* {{AUR|cerbere}}: Watchdog service to keep core Pantheon apps running
+
=== Packages ===
* {{AUR|gala-bzr}}: Window Manager
+
 
* {{AUR|wingpanel}}: Top panel
+
==== Unofficial repository ====
 +
 
 +
Alucryd's unofficial repository contains more and more [https://github.com/alucryd/aur-alucryd/tree/master/pantheon up-to-date] packages than the few available in the [[community repository]]. To use it add the following lines at the top of your sources in {{Ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
[extra-alucryd]
 +
Server = https://pkgbuild.com/~alucryd/$repo/$arch
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
Do note that some packages are missing from the repository due to [https://github.com/alucryd/aur-alucryd/issues/88#issuecomment-434606676 issues] with upstream. You will have to supplement the repo with locally compiled packages.
 +
 
 +
==== AUR ====
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, the [[PKGBUILD]]s for the pantheon packages are also available in the [[AUR]].
 +
 
 +
=== Desktop Environment ===
 +
 
 +
For the minimal Pantheon shell, install {{AUR|pantheon-session-git}}, which pulls--among other dependencies--the core components:
 +
* {{AUR|cerbere-git}}: Watchdog service; restarts core components if they crash.
 +
* {{AUR|gala-git}}: Window and composting manager
 +
* {{AUR|wingpanel-git}}: Top panel (holds the launcher, clock, and indicators)
 +
* {{AUR|pantheon-applications-menu-git}}: Application launcher formerly known as "Slingshot"
 +
* {{Pkg|plank}}: macOS-style Dock
 +
 
 +
=== Services and Configuration ===
 +
 
 +
These optional packages provide background services and default settings for Pantheon and elementary OS applications:
 +
* {{AUR|pantheon-default-settings-git}}: Default appearance, behavior, and configuration; pulls in theme packages {{Pkg|elementary-icon-theme}},  {{AUR|gtk-theme-elementary-git}}, and {{AUR|elementary-wallpapers-git}}
 +
* {{AUR|gnome-settings-daemon-elementary}}: A patched {{AUR|gnome-settings-daemon-ubuntu}} required by {{AUR|pantheon-dpms-helper-git}} and {{AUR|wingpanel-indicator-power-git}}
 +
* {{AUR|pantheon-print-git}}: Print settings dialog
 +
* {{AUR|pantheon-polkit-agent-git}}: Polkit authentication agent
  
{{Note|You will need to install at least one indicator, otherwise wingpanel will not launch.}}
+
=== Theme ===
  
* {{AUR|slingshot-launcher}}: Application launcher
+
These optional packages contribute to the look and feel of the desktop:
* {{Pkg|plank}}: Dock
+
* {{Pkg|elementary-icon-theme}} or {{AUR|elementary-icon-theme-git}}: Icon theme designed to be smooth, sexy, clear, and efficient
 +
* {{AUR|lightdm-pantheon-greeter}} or {{AUR|lightdm-pantheon-greeter-git}}: LightDM greeter
 +
It is also recommended to install the following fonts:
 +
* {{Pkg|ttf-opensans}}: Open Sans Fonts
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-raleway}}: Raleway Font
 +
* {{Pkg|ttf-dejavu}}: Font family based on the Bitstream Vera Fonts
 +
* {{Pkg|ttf-droid}}: General-purpose fonts released by Google as part of Android
 +
* {{Pkg|gnu-free-fonts}}: Set of free outline fonts covering the Unicode character set
 +
* {{Pkg|ttf-liberation}}: Red Hats Liberation fonts
  
Additionally, you may install the following packages:
+
=== Applications ===
  
* {{AUR|audience-bzr}}: Video player
+
These are some of the original, patched, and selected packages that comprise the optional elementary OS software suite:
* {{AUR|contractor-bzr}}: Service for sharing data between apps
+
* {{Pkg|pantheon-files}} or {{AUR|pantheon-files-git}}: File explorer developed from Marlin
* {{AUR|dexter-contacts-bzr}}: Contacts manager (does not build)
+
* {{Pkg|pantheon-terminal}} or {{AUR|pantheon-terminal-git}}: Terminal emulator
 +
* {{Pkg|pantheon-code}} or {{AUR|pantheon-code-git}}: Text editor formerly known as "Scratch"
 +
* {{Pkg|pantheon-calculator}} or {{AUR|pantheon-calculator-git}}: Calculator
 +
* {{Pkg|pantheon-music}} or {{AUR|pantheon-music-git}}: Audio player formerly known as "Noise"
 +
* {{Pkg|pantheon-videos}} or {{AUR|pantheon-videos-git}}: Video player formerly known as "Audience"
 +
* {{AUR|pantheon-calendar-git}}: Calendar application formerly known as "Maya", integrates with {{AUR|wingpanel-indicator-datetime-git}}
 +
* {{AUR|epiphany-pantheon}}: Web browser replacing {{AUR|midori-granite}}
 +
* {{AUR|pantheon-mail-git}}: Email client developed from {{Pkg|geary}}
 +
* {{Pkg|pantheon-screenshot}} or {{AUR|pantheon-screenshot-git}}: Screenshot tool
 
* {{AUR|eidete-bzr}}: Simple screencaster
 
* {{AUR|eidete-bzr}}: Simple screencaster
* {{Pkg|elementary-icon-theme}}: elementary icons
+
* {{Pkg|pantheon-photos}} or {{AUR|pantheon-photos-git}}: Photo manager developed from {{Pkg|shotwell}}
* {{AUR|elementary-scan-bzr}}: Simple scan utility
+
* {{AUR|pantheon-camera-git}}: Webcam app developed from {{AUR|snap-photobooth}}{{Broken package link|package not found}}
* {{AUR|gtk-theme-elementary}}: elementary GTK theme
+
* {{AUR|elementary-scan-bzr}}{{Broken package link|package not found}}: Simple scan utility (does not build)
* {{AUR|feedler-bzr}}: RSS feeds reader (does not build)
+
* {{Pkg|switchboard}} or {{AUR|switchboard-git}}: Pluggable settings manager similar to {{Pkg|gnome-control-center}}
* {{AUR|footnote-bzr}}: Note taking app
 
* {{Pkg|geary}}: Email client
 
* {{AUR|indicator-pantheon-session-bzr}}: Session indicator
 
* {{AUR|lightdm-pantheon-greeter-bzr}}: LightDM greeter
 
* {{AUR|maya-calendar-bzr}}: Calendar
 
* {{AUR|midori-granite}}: Web browser
 
* {{Pkg|noise}}: Audio player
 
* {{AUR|pantheon-calculator-bzr}}: Calculator
 
* {{AUR|pantheon-files}}: File explorer
 
* {{AUR|pantheon-notify-bzr}}: Notification daemon
 
* {{AUR|pantheon-print-bzr}}: Print settings
 
* {{AUR|pantheon-terminal}}: Terminal emulator
 
* {{AUR|plank-theme-pantheon-bzr}}: Pantheon theme for plank
 
* {{AUR|scratch-text-editor}}: Text editor
 
* {{AUR|snap-photobooth-bzr}}: Webcam app
 
* {{AUR|switchboard}}: Settings manager
 
  
{{Note|You will also need to install plugs, look for "switchboard-plug-*" in the [[AUR]].}}
+
== Launching Pantheon ==
  
* {{AUR|webcontracts-bzr}}: Web services contracts for use with contractor-bzr
+
=== Via [[Display manager]] ===
  
===Additional Info===
+
{{AUR|pantheon-session-git}} provides a {{Pkg|gnome-session}} entry for display managers such as {{Pkg|gdm}} or {{Pkg|lightdm}}.
  
====Unofficial repository====
+
==== Autostart applications with a display manager ====
  
I have set up an unofficial repository for pantheon packages: http://pkgbuild.com/~alucryd/pantheon/. Add the following lines at the top of your sources in {{Ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}:
+
As a gnome-session, Pantheon implements [[GNOME#Autostart|XDG Autostart]].
  
[pantheon]
+
=== Via [[xinit]] ===
SigLevel = Optional
 
Server = http://pkgbuild.com/~alucryd/$repo/$arch
 
  
====Github repository====
+
Alternatively, you can use {{Ic|~/.xinitrc}} to launch the Pantheon shell, by adding {{ic|exec cerbere}} to the end of the file.
  
All Pantheon related PKGBUILDs can be found on my GitHub repository: https://github.com/alucryd/aur-alucryd/tree/master/pantheon
+
==== Autostart applications with ''xinit'' ====
  
====Packages based on older evolution-data-server====
+
For applications which do not provide a [[Systemd#Using_units|systemd unit]], consider these options:
  
{{AUR|dexter-contacts-bzr}} and {{AUR|feedler-bzr}} do not build because they are based on evolution-data-server 3.2. Arch Linux provides version 3.10 which uses a different Vala API.
+
* Run once when X starts:
 +
:Add it to your [[#Via_xinit|{{Ic|~/.xinitrc}}]] [[Shell]] script, before the {{ic|exec cerbere}} line.
  
==Launching Pantheon==
+
* Keep running in the background:
 +
:Add it to the [[#Configuration|dconf key]] {{Ic|org.pantheon.desktop.cerbere.monitored-processes}}.
 +
:Should the process stop, {{Pkg|cerbere}} will respawn it.
  
===Via a Display Manager===
+
* Launch from a [[.desktop]] file:
 +
:Use a program like {{AUR|dapper}}, {{AUR|dex-git}}, or {{AUR|fbautostart}} to implement [[XDG Autostart]].
  
{{AUR|pantheon-session-bzr}} provides a session entry for display managers such as {{Pkg|gdm}} or {{Pkg|lightdm}}.
+
==Configuration==
  
{{Note|Either use the bzr version of ''cerbere'' or add 'gala' to the monitored processes for this to work.}}
+
Configure Pantheon via {{Pkg|switchboard}} or {{AUR|switchboard-git}} and its plugs (''switchboard-plug-*''), which must be installed separately. Not all of {{Pkg|gnome-control-center}}'s settings panels have been ported. In addition, except [[plank]], all the Pantheon components store their configuration in the {{Ic|org.pantheon}} or {{Ic|io.elementary}} [[GNOME#Configuration|gsettings keys]], which can be edited with {{Pkg|dconf-editor}}.
  
===Via .xinitrc===
+
{{Note|{{AUR|switchboard-plug-elementary-tweaks-git}} provides easy access to [https://raw.githubusercontent.com/elementary-tweaks/elementary-tweaks/master/docs/screenshot.png customizations for various aspects of the Pantheon desktop and applications], similar to {{Pkg|gnome-tweaks}}.}}
  
You can also use {{Ic|~/.xinitrc}} with {{Pkg|slim}} to launch the Pantheon shell. The following code will successfully launch a Pantheon session:
+
=== Wingpanel ===
  
#!/bin/sh
+
Wingpanel does not come with any indicators; they must be installed separately.
 
+
 
if [ -d /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.d ]; then
+
At the minimum, you'll probably want to install:
  for f in /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.d/*; do
+
* {{AUR|pantheon-applications-menu}} or {{AUR|pantheon-applications-menu-git}}: Applications menu and "Run" dialog
    [ -x "$f" ] && . "$f"
+
* {{AUR|wingpanel-indicator-datetime}} or {{AUR|wingpanel-indicator-datetime-git}}: Clock and calendar widget
  done
+
* {{AUR|wingpanel-indicator-session}} or {{AUR|wingpanel-indicator-session-git}}: User and session menu (Switch user, Logout, Shutdown, etc.)
  unset f
+
 
fi
+
{{Note|{{AUR|wingpanel}} supports [[Unity|Ayatana indicators]], while {{AUR|wingpanel-git}} has native indicators (''wingpanel-indicator-*-git'').}}
+
 
gsettings-data-convert &
+
==== Third-party indicators ====
xdg-user-dirs-gtk-update &
+
 
/usr/lib/polkit-gnome/polkit-gnome-authentication-agent-1 &
+
* If launched by a [[#Via Display manager|display manager]], append {{Ic|Pantheon;}} to {{ic|1=OnlyShowIn=}} in third-party indicators' [[XDG_Autostart|*.desktop files]]
/usr/lib/gnome-settings-daemon/gnome-settings-daemon &
 
/usr/lib/gnome-user-share/gnome-user-share &
 
eval $(gnome-keyring-daemon --start --components=pkcs11,secrets,ssh,gpg)
 
export GNOME_KEYRING_CONTROL GNOME_KEYRING_PID GPG_AGENT_INFO SSH_AUTH_SOCK
 
exec cerbere
 
  
{{Note|Either use the bzr version of ''cerbere'' or add 'gala' to the monitored processes for this to work.}}
+
* If launched by [[#Via xinit|~/.xinitrc]], add third-party indicators to one of the start-up methods described [[#Launching Pantheon|above]].
  
===Autostart applications===
+
* [[Unity|Ayatana Indicators]] require {{AUR|wingpanel-indicator-ayatana}} or {{AUR|wingpanel-indicator-ayatana-git}} to appear in {{AUR|wingpanel-git}}.
  
Pantheon, when launched via {{Ic|~/.xinitrc}}, does not support XDG autostart. However, there are 3 other ways to achieve this for applications which do not provide a systemd unit:
+
==== Indicator-session menus unresponsive ====
  
* You may add any program to your {{Ic|~/.xinitrc}}, preferably right before the ''exec cerbere'' line. This is the better choice for one-shot programs.
+
* {{AUR|indicator-session}} relies on dbus methods provided by [[Unity]] for most of its functions and fails to fallback to gnome or systemd methods in its absence.
* Or you may edit the {{Ic|org.pantheon.cerbere.monitored-processes}} key using ''dconf-editor'' and add the programs of your choice. This method is best for applications which keep running in the background.
 
* Or you may use a program like {{aur|dapper}}, {{aur|dex-git}}, or {{aur|fb-autostart}} to add support for XDG autostart in your {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}.
 
  
{{Note|Keep in mind that applications started via ''cerbere'' cannot be terminated, they will keep respawning.}}
+
* {{AUR|wingpanel-indicator-session-git}} needs [[light-locker]] or {{AUR|xscreensaver-dbus-screenlock}} installed for the {{Ic|Lock}} menu item.
  
==Configuration==
+
=== Plank ===
  
Configuring Pantheon is done via {{AUR|switchboard-bzr}} and its plugs, some of which are available in the AUR, but close to none work as intended for the moment. Instead, most pantheon settings can be altered via ''dconf'', they are located in the {{Ic|org.pantheon}} key. Use ''dconf-editor'' for easy editing.
+
==== Adding new application icons ====
  
Also, part of the configuration is handled by {{Pkg|gnome-control-center}} via a dedicated plug, which unfortunately does not support GNOME 3.8. Use {{Pkg|gnome-control-center}} itself and {{Pkg|gnome-tweak-tool}} instead.
+
Either drag and drop a desktop file on to the dock, or right click on a running application and select "Keep in dock". You can then reorder icons by drag and drop.
 +
{{Note|Plank stores .dockitem launchers in {{ic|~/.config/plank/}} and configuration in the gsettings key {{ic|net.launchpad.plank}}}}
  
 
=== Pantheon Files ===
 
=== Pantheon Files ===
Line 122: Line 145:
 
==== Enable context menu entries ====
 
==== Enable context menu entries ====
  
If you want to enable context menu entries such as for {{Pkg|file-roller}} to extract/compress archives, then you have to additionally install {{AUR|contractor-bzr}}.
+
If you want to enable context menu entries such as for {{Pkg|file-roller}} to extract/compress archives, then you have to additionally install {{Pkg|contractor}} or {{AUR|contractor-git}}.
  
==== Dark location path icons ====
+
=== Terminal ===
  
Currently there seems to be a bug which displays the view icons in the top location in a white colour instead of black. This can be fixed by adding the following line to {{ic|gtk-widgets.css}} or {{ic|gtk-widgets.css}} of your {{AUR|gtk-theme-elementary}} theme:
+
====Opacity====
  
GtkToolItem { color: @text_color; }
+
To make {{Pkg|pantheon-terminal}} (semi-)transparent, [[#Configuration|set the dconf key]] {{ic|org.pantheon.terminal.settings.opacity}} to your desired opacity; for {{AUR|pantheon-terminal-git}}, the background color and transparency are set by {{ic|io.elementary.terminal.settings.background}}.
  
==Troubleshooting==
+
== Known Issues ==
===Gala crashes on start===
+
 
It appears that unconfigured gala tries to use default gnome wallpaper as a background. However, the corresponding file is absent unless you have {{Pkg|gnome-themes-standard}} installed. Thus, install {{Pkg|gnome-themes-standard}} to workaround the crash. It is safe to remove this package after you configure pantheon in a way you want.
+
=== Appearance ===
 +
 
 +
==== Pantheon-terminal transparency ====
 +
 
 +
Transparency in pantheon-terminal is not yet fully functional with GTK themes other than the elmentary OS theme. Either use {{AUR|gtk-theme-elementary}}, {{AUR|gtk-theme-elementary-git}} or add the following code to your theme's css or the override file in {{ic|~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css}}:
 +
/************
 +
  * Terminal *
 +
  ***********/
 +
 +
PantheonTerminalPantheonTerminalWindow.background {
 +
    background-color: transparent;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
==== Wingpanel transparency ====
 +
 
 +
Wingpanel is transparent by design when using {{AUR|gtk-theme-elementary}} or {{AUR|gtk-theme-elementary-git}}, and becomes opaque when a maximized window occupies your screen. However, using other GTK themes will produce a solid panel most of the time.
 +
 
 +
To achieve the former behavior within another theme, add the following code to its css or the override file in {{ic|~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css}}:
 +
 
 +
/*********************
 +
  * wingpanel support *
 +
  ********************/
 +
 +
.panel {
 +
    background-color: transparent;
 +
    transition: all 1s ease-in-out;
 +
}
 +
 +
.panel.maximized {
 +
    background-color: #000;
 +
}

Latest revision as of 20:26, 9 October 2019

Pantheon is the desktop environment originally created for the elementary OS distribution. It is written from scratch in Vala, using GTK 3 and Granite. With regards to usability and appearance, the desktop has some similarities with GNOME Shell and macOS.

Project Status

Although the elementary OS release schedule and toolchain are bound to Ubuntu's LTS release cycle, development moves quickly and has recently moved to github.

Installation

Packages

Unofficial repository

Alucryd's unofficial repository contains more and more up-to-date packages than the few available in the community repository. To use it add the following lines at the top of your sources in /etc/pacman.conf:

[extra-alucryd]
Server = https://pkgbuild.com/~alucryd/$repo/$arch

Do note that some packages are missing from the repository due to issues with upstream. You will have to supplement the repo with locally compiled packages.

AUR

Alternatively, the PKGBUILDs for the pantheon packages are also available in the AUR.

Desktop Environment

For the minimal Pantheon shell, install pantheon-session-gitAUR, which pulls--among other dependencies--the core components:

Services and Configuration

These optional packages provide background services and default settings for Pantheon and elementary OS applications:

Theme

These optional packages contribute to the look and feel of the desktop:

It is also recommended to install the following fonts:

Applications

These are some of the original, patched, and selected packages that comprise the optional elementary OS software suite:

Launching Pantheon

Via Display manager

pantheon-session-gitAUR provides a gnome-session entry for display managers such as gdm or lightdm.

Autostart applications with a display manager

As a gnome-session, Pantheon implements XDG Autostart.

Via xinit

Alternatively, you can use ~/.xinitrc to launch the Pantheon shell, by adding exec cerbere to the end of the file.

Autostart applications with xinit

For applications which do not provide a systemd unit, consider these options:

  • Run once when X starts:
Add it to your ~/.xinitrc Shell script, before the exec cerbere line.
  • Keep running in the background:
Add it to the dconf key org.pantheon.desktop.cerbere.monitored-processes.
Should the process stop, cerbere will respawn it.
Use a program like dapperAUR, dex-gitAUR, or fbautostartAUR to implement XDG Autostart.

Configuration

Configure Pantheon via switchboard or switchboard-gitAUR and its plugs (switchboard-plug-*), which must be installed separately. Not all of gnome-control-center's settings panels have been ported. In addition, except plank, all the Pantheon components store their configuration in the org.pantheon or io.elementary gsettings keys, which can be edited with dconf-editor.

Wingpanel

Wingpanel does not come with any indicators; they must be installed separately.

At the minimum, you'll probably want to install:

Note: wingpanelAUR supports Ayatana indicators, while wingpanel-gitAUR has native indicators (wingpanel-indicator-*-git).

Third-party indicators

  • If launched by ~/.xinitrc, add third-party indicators to one of the start-up methods described above.

Indicator-session menus unresponsive

  • indicator-sessionAUR relies on dbus methods provided by Unity for most of its functions and fails to fallback to gnome or systemd methods in its absence.

Plank

Adding new application icons

Either drag and drop a desktop file on to the dock, or right click on a running application and select "Keep in dock". You can then reorder icons by drag and drop.

Note: Plank stores .dockitem launchers in ~/.config/plank/ and configuration in the gsettings key net.launchpad.plank

Pantheon Files

Enable context menu entries

If you want to enable context menu entries such as for file-roller to extract/compress archives, then you have to additionally install contractor or contractor-gitAUR.

Terminal

Opacity

To make pantheon-terminal (semi-)transparent, set the dconf key org.pantheon.terminal.settings.opacity to your desired opacity; for pantheon-terminal-gitAUR, the background color and transparency are set by io.elementary.terminal.settings.background.

Known Issues

Appearance

Pantheon-terminal transparency

Transparency in pantheon-terminal is not yet fully functional with GTK themes other than the elmentary OS theme. Either use gtk-theme-elementaryAUR, gtk-theme-elementary-gitAUR or add the following code to your theme's css or the override file in ~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css:

/************
 * Terminal *
 ***********/

PantheonTerminalPantheonTerminalWindow.background {
   background-color: transparent;
}

Wingpanel transparency

Wingpanel is transparent by design when using gtk-theme-elementaryAUR or gtk-theme-elementary-gitAUR, and becomes opaque when a maximized window occupies your screen. However, using other GTK themes will produce a solid panel most of the time.

To achieve the former behavior within another theme, add the following code to its css or the override file in ~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css:

/*********************
 * wingpanel support *
 ********************/

.panel {
    background-color: transparent;
    transition: all 1s ease-in-out;
}

.panel.maximized {
    background-color: #000;
}