Difference between revisions of "Partitioning"

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Revision as of 03:24, 24 February 2012

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Summary help replacing me
An overview of disk partitioning tools, best practices, and additional considerations.
Related
fstab
LVM
Swap

Disk partitioning is the act of dividing a hard disk drive into multiple virtual hard disk drives, referred to as partitions, to treat one physical disk drive as if it were multiple disks.

Wikipedia:Disk partitioning

Beginners' Guide#Prepare hard drive gives a detailed instruction on how to set hard disk partition at installation. Also you can get a lot info about file system types.

Note: This article is currently under construction.

Overview

Partitioning a hard drive allows one to logically divide the available space into sections that can be accessed independently of one another. Partition information is stored within a hard drive's Master Boot Record.

An entire hard drive may be allocated to a single partition, or one may divide the available storage space amongst multiple partitions. A number of scenarios require creation multiple partitions: dual- or multi-booting, for example, or maintaining a swap partition. In other cases, partitioning is used as a means of logically separating data, such as creating separate partitions for audio and video files. Common partitioning schemes are discussed in detail below.

Users may create up to four primary partitions per hard drive. If additional partitions are required, a single extended partition can be created instead (that is, up to three primary partitions and one extended partition). An extended partition can be further divided into an unlimited number of logical partitions.

Partitioning schemes

All-in-one

Separate /boot

  • Only needed during boot and kernel upgrades (when regenerating the initial ramdisk)
  • Not required for normal system operation
  • Journaled filesystem not required
  • Needed if installing a software RAID0(stripe) system.

Separate /home

  • Facilitates backups and multi-booting
  • /home often requires the most disk space (for desktop users) and may need to be expanded at a later date

Separate /var

  • Frequently read/written (logs, cache)
  • Avoid running out of disk space due to flunky logs, etc.

Separate /usr

Note: Requires a mkinitcpio hook, as /usr is expected to be available at boot.
  • Can be shared between multiple systems

Considerations

  • Partition sizes
  • File systems
  • LVM

Creating new partitions

Resizing partitions

Partitioning tools

  • fdisk & cfdisk
  • GNU Parted
  • QtParted & GParted