Persistent block device naming (简体中文)

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翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Persistent_block_device_naming翻译,最后翻译时间:2015-05-09,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。


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本文讲述如何为你的块设备提供持久化命名。udev的导入使之成为可能,也使之优于基于总线的命名法。如果你的机器上有不止一个 SATA, SCSI 或 IDE 磁盘控制器,那么它们所对应的设备节点将会依随机次序添加。这样就可能导致每次引导时设备的名字如 /dev/sda/dev/sdb 互换了,最终导致系统不可引导、kernel panic、或者设备不可见。持久化命名法可以解决这些问题。

注意: 如果你使用 LVM2,本文将不适用。因为 LVM 自动处理这一问题。


有四种持久化命名方案:by-labelby-uuidby-id 和 by-path。对于那些使用GUID 分区表(GPT)的磁盘,还有额外的两种方案,by-partlabelby-partuuid。你也可以使用使用 Udev 静态设备名方案。

The following sections describes what the different persistent naming methods are and how they are used.

The lsblk -f command can be used for viewing graphically the first persistent schemes:

$ lsblk -f
NAME   FSTYPE LABEL  UUID                                 MOUNTPOINT
├─sda1 vfat          CBB6-24F2                            /boot
├─sda2 ext4   SYSTEM 0a3407de-014b-458b-b5c1-848e92a327a3 /
├─sda3 ext4   DATA   b411dc99-f0a0-4c87-9e05-184977be8539 /home
└─sda4 swap          f9fe0b69-a280-415d-a03a-a32752370dee [SWAP]

For those using GPT, use the blkid command instead. The latter is more convenient for scripts, but more difficult to read.

$ blkid
/dev/sda1: UUID="CBB6-24F2" TYPE="vfat" PARTLABEL="EFI SYSTEM PARTITION" PARTUUID="d0d0d110-0a71-4ed6-936a-304969ea36af" 
/dev/sda2: LABEL="SYSTEM" UUID="0a3407de-014b-458b-b5c1-848e92a327a3" TYPE="ext4" PARTLABEL="GNU/LINUX" PARTUUID="98a81274-10f7-40db-872a-03df048df366" 
/dev/sda3: LABEL="DATA" UUID="b411dc99-f0a0-4c87-9e05-184977be8539" TYPE="ext4" PARTLABEL="HOME" PARTUUID="7280201c-fc5d-40f2-a9b2-466611d3d49e" 
/dev/sda4: UUID="f9fe0b69-a280-415d-a03a-a32752370dee" TYPE="swap" PARTLABEL="SWAP" PARTUUID="039b6c1c-7553-4455-9537-1befbc9fbc5b"


Almost every filesystem type can have a label. All your partitions that have one are listed in the /dev/disk/by-label directory. This directory is created and destroyed dynamically, depending on whether you have partitions with labels attached.

$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-label
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 DATA -> ../../sda3
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 SYSTEM -> ../../sda2

The labels of your filesystems can be changed. Following are some methods for changing labels on common filesystems:

swaplabel -L <label> /dev/XXX using util-linux
e2label /dev/XXX <label> using e2fsprogs
btrfs filesystem label /dev/XXX <label> using btrfs-progs
reiserfstune -l <label> /dev/XXX using reiserfsprogs
jfs_tune -L <label> /dev/XXX using jfsutils
xfs_admin -L <label> /dev/XXX using xfsprogs
dosfslabel /dev/XXX <label> using dosfstools
mlabel -i /dev/XXX ::<label> using mtools
ntfslabel /dev/XXX <label> using ntfs-3g
  • Changing the filesystem label of the root partition has to be done from a "live" GNU/Linux distribution because the partition needs to be unmounted first.
  • Labels have to be unambiguous to prevent any possible conflicts;
  • Labels can be up to 16 characters long.


UUID is a mechanism to give each filesystem a unique identifier. These identifiers are generated by filesystem utilities (e.g. mkfs.*) when the partition gets formatted and are designed so that collisions are unlikely. All GNU/Linux filesystems (including swap and LUKS headers of raw encrypted devices) support UUID. FAT and NTFS filesystems (fat and windows labels above) do not support UUID, but are still listed in /dev/disk/by-uuid with a shorter UID (unique identifier):

$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 0a3407de-014b-458b-b5c1-848e92a327a3 -> ../../sda2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 b411dc99-f0a0-4c87-9e05-184977be8539 -> ../../sda3
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 CBB6-24F2 -> ../../sda1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 f9fe0b69-a280-415d-a03a-a32752370dee -> ../../sda4

The advantage of using the UUID method is that it is much less likely that name collisions occur than with labels. Further, it is generated automatically on creation of the filesystem. It will, for example, stay unique even if the device is plugged into another system (which may perhaps have a device with the same label).

The disadvantage is that UUIDs make long code lines hard to read and break formatting in many configuration files (e.g. fstab or crypttab). Also every time a partition is resized or reformatted a new UUID is generated and configs have to get adjusted (manually).

Tip: In case your swap partition does not have an UUID assigned, you will need to reset the swap partition using mkswap utility.

by-id and by-path

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: Elements provided in the Talk page (since 2011) seems to clearly indicate that by-id and by-path are valid ways to state persistent device names. Were they not, this section should be marked for deletion so as to not bring up confusion in this page dedicated to persistent device naming. (Discuss in Talk:Persistent block device naming (简体中文)#by-path and by-id unsuitable?)

by-id creates a unique name depending on the hardware serial number, by-path depending on the shortest physical path (according to sysfs). Both contain strings to indicate which subsystem they belong to (i.e. -ide- for by-path, and -ata- for by-id) and thus are not suitable for solving the problems mentioned in the beginning of this article. They will not be discussed any further here.


Note: This method only concerns disks with GUID Partition Table (GPT).

Partition labels can be defined in the header of the partition entry on GPT disks.

See also Wikipedia:GUID_Partition_Table#Partition_entries.

This method is very similar to the filesystem labels, excepted that the dynamic directory is /dev/disk/by-partlabel.

ls -l /dev/disk/by-partlabel/
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 EFI\x20SYSTEM\x20PARTITION -> ../../sda1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 GNU\x2fLINUX -> ../../sda2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 HOME -> ../../sda3
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 SWAP -> ../../sda4
  • GPT partition labels have also to be different to avoid conflicts. To change your partition label, you can use gdisk or the ncurse-based version cgdisk. Both are available from the gptfdisk package. See Partitioning#Partitioning_tools.
  • According to the specification, GPT partition labels can be up to 72 characters long.


Note: This method only concerns disks with GUID Partition Table (GPT).

Like GPT partition labels, GPT partition UUID are defined in the partition entry on GPT disks.

See also Wikipedia:GUID_Partition_Table#Partition_entries.

The dynamic directory is similar to other methods and, like UUID filesystems, using UUIDs is prefered over labels.

ls -l /dev/disk/by-partuuid/
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 039b6c1c-7553-4455-9537-1befbc9fbc5b -> ../../sda4
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 7280201c-fc5d-40f2-a9b2-466611d3d49e -> ../../sda3
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 98a81274-10f7-40db-872a-03df048df366 -> ../../sda2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 May 27 23:31 d0d0d110-0a71-4ed6-936a-304969ea36af -> ../../sda1

使用 Udev 静态设备名

See Udev#Setting static device names.


There are various applications that can be configured using persistent naming. Following are some examples of how to configure them.


See the main article: fstab#UUIDs


To use persistent names in your boot manager, the following prerequisites must be met:

  • You are using a mkinitcpio initial RAM disk image
  • You have udev enabled in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf

In the above example, /dev/sda1 is the root partition. In the GRUB grub.cfg file, the linux line looks like this:

linux /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda1 rw quiet

Depending on which naming scheme you would prefer, change it to one of the following:

linux /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/disk/by-label/root_myhost rw quiet


linux /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=UUID=2d781b26-0285-421a-b9d0-d4a0d3b55680 rw quiet

If you are using LILO, then do not try this with the root=... configuration option; it will not work. Use append="root=..." or addappend="root=..." instead. Read the LILO man page for more information on append and addappend.

There is an alternative way to use the label embedded in the filesystem. For example if (as above) the filesystem in /dev/sda1 is labeled root_myhost, you would give this line to GRUB:

linux /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=LABEL=root_myhost rw quiet