This document describes how to set up PostgreSQL and integrate it with PHP and Apache. It also describes how to configure PostgreSQL to be accessible from a remote client. PHP and Apache are assumed to be already be set up, although the instructions work nicely with nginx as well. If you need help setting up either of those two, see the LAMP page and follow all of the sections except the one related to MySQL.
- 1 Installing PostgreSQL
- 2 Creating Your First Database/User
- 3 Familiarizing Yourself with PostgreSQL
- 4 Configure PostgreSQL to be accessible from remote
- 5 Configure PostgreSQL to Work With PHP
- 6 Change Default Data Dir (Optional)
- 7 Change Default Encoding of New Databases To UTF-8 (Optional)
- 8 Installing phpPgAdmin (optional)
- 9 Upgrading Postgresql
- 10 More Resources
- Install postgresql
$ sudo pacman -S postgresql
- Start the PostgreSQL server (The first time that this is run it will create the data directory and users needed to run the server. As such you will see a lot of output.)
$ sudo /etc/rc.d/postgresql start
- Check to make sure the postgres user is created and is in the postgres group.
$ groups postgres
- (Optional) Add postgresql to the list of daemons that start on system startup in the /etc/rc.conf file
Creating Your First Database/User
- Become the postgres user (This user was created when "/etc/rc.d/postgres start" was run)
su root su - postgres
- Add a new database user
createuser -D -R -S -P <username>
-D User cannot create databases
-R User cannot create roles
-S User will not be a superuser
-P Prompt for password will be issued
Alternatively, you can use the createuser without parameter. Questions will be asked:
# createuser <username> Shall the new role be a superuser? (y/n) n Shall the new role be allowed to create databases? (y/n) y Shall the new role be allowed to create more new roles? (y/n) y
The password can be changed from the psql command promt (su - postgres, then psql):
ALTER USER <username> WITH PASSWORD 'mypassword';
If you create a user as per your login user ($USER) it allows you to access the postgresql database shell without having to specify a user to login as (which makes it quite convenient).
- Create a new database over which that user has read/write privileges
createdb -O username databasename [-E database_encoding -T template]
The enclosed text is optional, where database_encoding for instance can be UTF8 and template can be template0 (this is necessary if used UTF8 as encoding).
- That's It! Your database has been created.
Familiarizing Yourself with PostgreSQL
Access the database shell
- Become the postgres user the first time, so we can assign permissions to you (your primary user)
$ sudo su postgres
- Start the primary db shell, where you can do all your creation of databases/tables, deletion, set permissions, and run raw SQL commands.
- --You can optionally use `psql <database_name>` to administer an individual database.
- Connect to a particular database
=> \c <database>
- List all users and their permission levels
- Shows summary information about all tables in the current database
- exit/quit the psql shell
=> \q or CTRL+d
There are of course many more meta-commands, but these should help you get started.
Configure PostgreSQL to be accessible from remote
The PostgreSQL database server configuration file is
postgresql.conf. This file is located in the data directory of the server, typically
/var/lib/postgres/data. This folder also houses the other main config files, including the
- As root user edit the file
$ sudo vim /var/lib/postgres/data/postgresql.conf
- In the connections and authentications section uncomment or edit the
listen_addressesline to your needs
listen_addresses = '*'and take a careful look at the other lines.
- Hereafter insert the following line in the host-based authentication file
/var/lib/postgres/data/pg_hba.conf. This file controls which hosts are allowed to connect, so be careful.
# IPv4 local connections: <br>host all all your_desired_ip_address/32 trustwhereas
your_desired_ip_addressis the ip address of the client.
- After this you should restart the daemon process for the changes to take effect with
$ sudo /etc/rc.d/postgresql restart
For troubleshooting take a look in the server log file
Configure PostgreSQL to Work With PHP
- Install the PHP-PostgreSQL modules
$ pacman -S php-pgsql
- Open the file
/etc/php/php.iniwith your editor of choice, e.g.,
# vim /etc/php/php.ini
- Find the line that starts with, ";extension=pgsql.so" and change it to, "extension=pgsql.so". (Just remove the preceding ";"). If you need PDO, do the same thing with ";extension=pdo.so" and ";extension=pdo_pgsql.so". If these lines are not present, add them. Thes lines may be in the "Dynamic Extensions" section of the file, or toward the very end of the file.
- Restart the Apache web server
# /etc/rc.d/httpd restart
Change Default Data Dir (Optional)
By default, when installing PostgreSQL the directory were all your newly created databases will be stored is
/var/lib/postgresql/data. If you want to change this behaviour, you have to follow these steps:
1. Create the new directory and assign it to user
postgres (you eventually have to become root) :
# mkdir /mypath/mydatadir # chown postgres:postgres /mypath/mydatadir
2. Become the postgres user, and initialize the new cluster:
$ initdb -D /mypath/mydatadir;
3. Now, as root user, stop the daemon (if it's currently running ) and restart specifying the new data dir:
# /etc/rc.d/postgresql stop # /etc/rc.d/postgresql start -D /mypath/mydatadir
Note that, unless you change the default behaviour by editing the file
/etc/rc.d/postgresql, you have to specify the data dir, with the
-D option, each time you start PostgreSQL daemon.
Change Default Encoding of New Databases To UTF-8 (Optional)
When creating a new database (e.g. with
createdb blog) PostgreSQL actually copies a template database. There are two predefined templates: template0 is vanilla, while template1 is meant as an on-site template changeable by the administrator and is used by default. In order to change the encoding of new database, one of the options is to change on-site template1. To do this, log into PostgresSQL shell (psql) and execute the following:
1. First, we need to drop template1. Templates can't be dropped, so we first modify it so it's an ordinary database:
UPDATE pg_database SET datistemplate = FALSE WHERE datname = 'template1';
2. Now we can drop it:
DROP DATABASE template1;
3. The next step is to create a new database from template0, with a new default encoding:
CREATE DATABASE template1 WITH TEMPLATE = template0 ENCODING = 'UNICODE';
4. Now modify template1 so it's actually a template:
UPDATE pg_database SET datistemplate = TRUE WHERE datname = 'template1';
5. (RECOMMENDED) PostgreSQL documentation advises to VACUUM FREEZE the template:
\c template1 VACUUM FREEZE;
6. (OPTIONAL) If you don't want anyone connecting to this template, set datallowconn to FALSE:
UPDATE pg_database SET datallowconn = FALSE WHERE datname = 'template1';
Now you can create a new database by running from regular shell:
su - su - postgres createdb blog;
If you log in back to psql and check the databases, you should see the proper encoding of your new database:
List of databases Name | Owner | Encoding | Collation | Ctype | Access privileges -----------+----------+-----------+-----------+-------+---------------------- blog | postgres | UTF8 | C | C | postgres | postgres | SQL_ASCII | C | C | template0 | postgres | SQL_ASCII | C | C | =c/postgres : postgres=CTc/postgres template1 | postgres | UTF8 | C | C |
Installing phpPgAdmin (optional)
phpPgAdmin is a web-based administration tool for PostgreSQL. It can be installed two ways.
Option A: install via Pacman (preferred)
- Make sure that the [community] repo is enabled.
- Install the package via Pacman
# pacman -S phppgadmin
Option B: install via a manual install (the old way)
- Download the latest .bz2 file from here into the root of your server directory
wget -P /home/httpd/html http://downloads.sourceforge.net/phppgadmin/phpPgAdmin-4.1.3.tar.bz2
- Extract the file into the new directory
tar -C /home/httpd/html/ -jxvf /home/httpd/html/phpPgAdmin-4.1.3.tar.bz2
- Remove the tar file
- Change the name of the directory created in the previous step to include the version number (this will help in the future when upgrading)
mv /home/httpd/html/phpPgAdmin /home/httpd/html/phpPgAdmin-4.1.3/
- Create a link to that directory (for ease of linking and upgrading)
ln -s /home/httpd/html/phpPgAdmin-4.1.3/ /home/httpd/html/phpPgAdmin
- Copy the included generic config file
cp /home/httpd/html/phpPgAdmin/conf/config.inc.php-dist /home/httpd/html/phpPgAdmin/conf/config.inc.php
The config file is located at /home/httpd/html/phpPgAdmin/conf/config.inc.php. No changes should be required. Check this page for any other setup questions that you might have.
First thing: these instructions could cause data loss. Use at your own risk. They work for me, but things change and nothing is guaranteed.
I would highly suggest adding the line
IgnorePkg = postgresql
to /etc/pacman.conf. This will make sure that you don't accidentally upgrade the database to an incompatible version. If you did an accidental upgrade you might not be able to access any of your data. Always check the Postgresql home page (http://www.postgresql.org/) to be sure of what steps are required for each upgrade. For a bit about why this is the case see this.
How to dump all of your data, upgrade PostgreSQL, and then restore all of your data (this may not be necessary for every upgrade, see #2 above)
Become the root user
Become the postgres user
Change the current directory to one that the postgres user can write to
eg. cd ~/data/
Dump the current contents of the database
pg_dumpall > pgs_db.out
Unless you have a .pgpass file setup, you will be required to enter your password a few times (the number of times is roughly equal to the number of databases that you have + 2). One problem occurs if you don't have a password defined for the postgres user but you require local users to authenticate. In this case you will be asked to give a password that doesn't exist. To work around this problem, add a line to your pg_hba.conf file to trust the postgres user. You can remove this line after the upgrade is complete. So, the first line of the 'local' section of pg_hba.conf would look something like this:
local all postgres trust
Log out of the postgres user and return to superuser
Stop the PostgreSQL server
Move Postgresql's data directory
mv /var/lib/postgres /var/lib/postgres_old
pacman -S postgresql
Start the PostgreSQL server (this will create all needed files and directories)
Become the postgres user
Change the current directory to the directory that you dumped the data out to (in step 4 above)
eg. cd /var/lib/postgres_old/data/
Restore the database
psql -e template1 -f pgs_db.out