Difference between revisions of "Qt (简体中文)"

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{{注意|Qt3 已经停止开发,不过官方源中仍然有许多应用依赖于它。[[Trinity]] 项目维护着 Qt3 的一个版本,[[AUR]] 中有软件包 {{Pkg|trinity-qt3}}。}}
{{注意|Qt3 已经停止开发,不过官方源中仍然有许多应用依赖于它。[[Trinity]] 项目维护着 Qt3 的一个版本,[[AUR]] 中有软件包 {{Pkg|trinity-qt3}}。}}
{{警告|安装 Qt5 会影响 Qt4 环境,因为它们的二进制文件位于 /usr/bin/。这可能会导致 Qt4 应用程序编译失败。}}
{{警告|Qt3 或 Qt4 不再提供通常的二进制文件(/usr/bin/qmake),而是将它们改名为 qmake-qt4, qmake-qt3 软链接,这可能导致 Qt3/4 程序编译失败。}}
{{警告|安装 Qt3 会影响 Qt4 环境,因为它[https://projects.archlinux.org/svntogit/packages.git/tree/trunk/qt.profile?h=packages/qt3 改变了某些 Qt 环境变量]。这可能会导致 Qt4 应用程序编译失败。}}
== 外观 ==
== 外观 ==

Revision as of 03:30, 16 April 2013

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翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Qt翻译,最后翻译时间:2013-03-23,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

Qt 是一个跨平台的应用程序,组件工具使用标准 C++,但也大量使用了特殊的代码生成器(称为 Meta Object Compiler,或者 moc)以及数个宏来充实语言。它有一些更重要的特性:

  • 运行于主流桌面平台和部分手机平台。
  • 广泛的国际化支持。
  • 提供 SQL 数据访问、XML 解析、线程管理、网络支持和统一的文件处理跨平台应用编程接口(API)的完整类库。

Qt 框架正在成为主要的开发平台,同时是 KDE 软件社区和重要的开源和闭源应用,如 VLCVirtualBoxOperaMathematicaSkypeMaya以及许多其它应用的基石。


现在官方源中有三个版本的 Qt,能用以下软件包来安装

  • Qt 5.x 在软件包 qt5-base 内,文档在软件包 qt5-doc 内。
  • Qt 4.x 在软件包 qt4 内。
  • Qt 3.x 在软件包 qt3 内,文档在软件包 qt3-doc 内。
注意: Qt3 已经停止开发,不过官方源中仍然有许多应用依赖于它。Trinity 项目维护着 Qt3 的一个版本,AUR 中有软件包 trinity-qt3
警告: Qt3 或 Qt4 不再提供通常的二进制文件(/usr/bin/qmake),而是将它们改名为 qmake-qt4, qmake-qt3 软链接,这可能导致 Qt3/4 程序编译失败。



Qt 应用程序会尝试模仿所运行的桌面环境的行为,除非碰到了某些问题或者硬编码的配置。 For those who still want to change the look and feel of Qt application, the Qt Configuration (qtconfig or qt3config) tool is available. QtConfig offers a very simple configuration for the appearance of Qt applications that gives the user easy access to the current Qt Style, colors, fonts and other more advanced options.

Although not part of Qt, the KDE System Settings offer many more customization options that are also picked up by Qt applications.


Qt 已经包含数种样式,例如 GTK+ 样式、Windows 样式、CDE 样式等,但其它的主题(大多数为 KDE 桌面编写)可以从官方源或者 AUR 中安装:

  • Oxygen — A desktop theme that comes with the KDE desktop.
http://www.oxygen-icons.org/ || kdebase-runtime
  • QtCurve — A very configurable and popular desktop theme with support for GTK+ and Qt applications.
http://kde-look.org/content/show.php?content=40492 || qtcurve-kde3 qtcurve-kde4
  • Skulpture — A GUI style addon for KDE and Qt programs that features a classical three dimensional artwork with shadows and smooth gradients to enhance the visual experience.
http://kde-look.org/content/show.php/?content=59031 || skulptureAUR
  • Polymer — A port of the KDE Plastik Style to Qt3.
http://kde-look.org/content/show.php?content=21748 || polymerAUR
  • Bespin — A very configurable KDE theme.
http://cloudcity.sourceforge.net/frame.php || bespin-svnAUR


Qt fonts can be configured from QtConfig under Fonts > Default Font.


There is no way of setting the icon theme from QtConfig, but since Qt follows the Freedesktop.org Icon Specification, any theme set for X is picked up by Qt.


Qt keeps all its configuration information in ~/.config/Trolltech.conf. The file is rather difficult to navigate because it contains a lot of information not related to appearance, but for any changes you can just add to the end of the file and overwrite any previous values (make sure to add your modification under the [Qt] header).

For example, to change the theme to QtCurve, add:


Qt 样式表

An interesting way of customizing the look and feel of a Qt application is using Style Sheets, which are just simple CSS files. Using Style Sheets, one can modify the appearance of every widget in the application.

To run an application with a different style just execute:

$ qt_application --stylesheet style.qss

For more information on Qt Style Sheets see the official documentation or other tutorials. As an example Style Sheet see this Dolphin modification.

GTK+ 和 Qt

如果你有 GTK+ 和 Qt 应用程序,它们的外观可能无法融合到一起。如果你希望使 GTK+ 风格与 Qt 风格匹配,请阅读 统一 GTK+ 和 Qt 应用程序外观.



Qt supports most platforms that are available today, even some of the more obscure ones, with more ports appearing every once in a while. For a more complete list see the Qt Wikipedia article.


以下是官方 Qt 工具:

  • Qt Creator — A cross-platform IDE tailored for Qt that supports all of its features.
http://qt.digia.com/Product/Developer-Tools/ || qtcreator
  • Qt Linguist — A set of tools that speed the translation and internationalization of Qt applications.
http://qt.digia.com/Product/Developer-Tools/ || qt
  • Qt Assistant — A configurable and redistributable documentation reader for Qt qch files.
http://qt.digia.com/Product/Developer-Tools/ || qt
  • Qt Designer — A powerful cross-platform GUI layout and forms builder for Qt widgets.
http://qt.digia.com/Product/Developer-Tools/ || qt
  • Qt Quick Designer — A visual editor for QML files which supports WYSIWYG. It allows you to rapidly design and build Qt Quick applications and components from scratch.
http://qt.digia.com/Product/Developer-Tools/ || qtcreator
  • QML Viewer — A tool for loading QML documents that makes it easy to quickly develop and debug QML applications.
http://doc.qt.digia.com/4.7-snapshot/qmlviewer.html || qt
  • qmake — A tool that helps simplify the build process for development project across different platforms, similar to cmake, but with fewer options and tailored for Qt applications.
https://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/qmake-manual.html || qt
  • uic — A tool that reads *.ui XML files and generates the corresponding C++ files.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/uic.html || qt
  • rcc — A tool that is used to embed resources (such as pictures) into a Qt application during the build process. It works by generating a C++ source file containing data specified in a Qt resource (.qrc) file.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/rcc.html || qt
  • moc — A tool that handles Qt's C++ extensions (the signals and slots mechanism, the run-time type information, and the dynamic property system, etc.).
http://doc.qt.digia.com/4.7-snapshot/moc.html || qt


Qt has bindings for all of the more popular languages, for a full list see this list.

以下示例会在一个窗口中显示一句 'Hello world!' 消息。


  • Package: qt4
  • Website: http://qt-project.org/
  • Build with: g++ `pkg-config --cflags --libs QtCore QtGui` -o hello hello.cpp
  • Run with: ./hello
#include <QApplication>
#include <QLabel>

int main(int argc, char **argv)
    QApplication app(argc, argv);
    QLabel hello("Hello world!");
    return app.exec();


import QtQuick 1.0

Rectangle {
    id: page
    width: 400; height: 100
    color: "lightgray"

    Text {
        id: helloText
        text: "Hello world!"
        anchors.horizontalCenter: page.horizontalCenter
        anchors.verticalCenter: page.verticalCenter
        font.pointSize: 24; font.bold: true


import sys
from PyQt4 import QtGui

app = QtGui.QApplication(sys.argv)
label = QtGui.QLabel("Hello world!")

import sys
from PySide.QtCore import *
from PySide.QtGui import *
app = QApplication(sys.argv)
label = QLabel("Hello world!")



using System;
using Qyoto;

public class Hello {
    public static int Main(String[] args) {
        new QApplication(args);
        new QLabel("Hello world!").Show();

        return QApplication.Exec();


require 'Qt4'
app = Qt::Application.new(ARGV)
hello = Qt::Label.new('Hello World!')



import com.trolltech.qt.gui.*;

public class Hello
    public static void main(String args[])
        QLabel hello = new QLabel("Hello World!");



use QtGui4;

my $a = Qt::Application(\@ARGV);
my $hello = Qt::Label("Hello World!", undef);

exit $a->exec;


label = qt.new_widget("QLabel")

label:setText("Hello World!")
Note: QtLua is not designed to develop an application in pure Lua but rather to extend a Qt C++ application using Lua as scripting language.