Qt (简体中文)

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Qt 是一个跨平台应用和用户界面框架,面向使用 C++ 或者类似于的 CSS 和 JavaScript 的 QML 语言的开发者。本文涵盖了 Qt 的安装和使用,以及配置主题、字体和其它选项的工具。
相关
KDE (简体中文)
Uniform Look for QT and GTK Applications (简体中文)
GTK+ (简体中文)

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Qt 是一个跨平台的应用程序,组件工具使用标准 C++,但也大量使用了特殊的代码生成器(称为 Meta Object Compiler,或者 moc)以及数个宏来充实语言。它有一些更重要的特性:

  • 运行于主流桌面平台和部分手机平台。
  • 广泛的国际化支持。
  • 提供 SQL 数据访问、XML 解析、线程管理、网络支持和统一的文件处理跨平台应用编程接口(API)的完整类库。

Qt 框架正在成为主要的开发平台,同时是 KDE 软件社区和重要的开源和闭源应用,如 VLCVirtualBoxOperaMathematicaSkypeMaya以及许多其它应用的基石。

安装

现在官方源中有三个版本的 Qt,能用以下软件包来安装

  • Qt 5.x 在软件包 qt5-base 内,文档在软件包 qt5-doc 内。
  • Qt 4.x 在软件包 qt4 内。
  • Qt 3.x 在软件包 qt3 内,文档在软件包 qt3-doc 内。
警告: Qt软件包不再提供通常的二进制文件/usr/bin/qmake,而是将它们改名为 qmake-qt5, qmake-qt4, qmake-qt3 软链接,这可能导致 Qt3/4 程序编译失败。

默认 Qt 库

安装qtchooser可以恢复 /usr/bin/qmake 并设置要使用的 Qt 版本,默认是使用 Qt5。

修改环境变量

要使用 Qt4,可以在~/.{bash,zsh}_profile.中设置QT_SELECT=4

使用配置文件

要使用 Qt4,将 /etc/xdg/qtchooser/4.conf 软链接到 ~/.config/qtchooser/default.conf

外观

配置

Qt 应用程序会尝试模仿所运行的桌面环境的行为,除非碰到了某些问题或者硬编码的配置。要修改 Qt 程序的外观,可以使用 Qt 配置工具(qtconfig-qt4qt3config).

尽管不是 Qt 的一部分,KDE 系统设置 提供了许多定制设置,Qt 程序也会使用这些设置。

主题

Qt 已经包含数种样式,例如 GTK+ 样式、Windows 样式、CDE 样式等,但其它的主题(大多数为 KDE 桌面编写)可以从官方源或者 AUR 中安装:

  • Oxygen — A desktop theme that comes with the KDE desktop.
http://www.oxygen-icons.org/ || kdebase-runtime
  • QtCurve — A very configurable and popular desktop theme with support for GTK+ and Qt applications.
http://kde-look.org/content/show.php?content=40492 || qtcurve-kde3 qtcurve-kde4
  • Skulpture — A GUI style addon for KDE and Qt programs that features a classical three dimensional artwork with shadows and smooth gradients to enhance the visual experience.
http://kde-look.org/content/show.php/?content=59031 || skulptureAUR
  • Polymer — A port of the KDE Plastik Style to Qt3.
http://kde-look.org/content/show.php?content=21748 || polymerAUR
  • Bespin — A very configurable KDE theme.
http://cloudcity.sourceforge.net/frame.php || bespin-svnAUR

字体

Qt fonts can be configured from QtConfig under Fonts > Default Font.

图标

There is no way of setting the icon theme from QtConfig, but since Qt follows the Freedesktop.org Icon Specification, any theme set for X is picked up by Qt.

手动配置

Qt keeps all its configuration information in ~/.config/Trolltech.conf. The file is rather difficult to navigate because it contains a lot of information not related to appearance, but for any changes you can just add to the end of the file and overwrite any previous values (make sure to add your modification under the [Qt] header).

For example, to change the theme to QtCurve, add:

~/.config/Trolltech.conf
...
[Qt]
style=QtCurve

Qt 样式表

An interesting way of customizing the look and feel of a Qt application is using Style Sheets, which are just simple CSS files. Using Style Sheets, one can modify the appearance of every widget in the application.

To run an application with a different style just execute:

$ qt_application --stylesheet style.qss

For more information on Qt Style Sheets see the official documentation or other tutorials. As an example Style Sheet see this Dolphin modification.

GTK+ 和 Qt

如果你有 GTK+ 和 Qt 应用程序,它们的外观可能无法融合到一起。如果你希望使 GTK+ 风格与 Qt 风格匹配,请阅读 统一 GTK+ 和 Qt 应用程序外观.

开发

支持的平台

Qt supports most platforms that are available today, even some of the more obscure ones, with more ports appearing every once in a while. For a more complete list see the Qt Wikipedia article.

工具

以下是官方 Qt 工具:

  • Qt Creator — A cross-platform IDE tailored for Qt that supports all of its features.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qtcreator/ || qtcreator
  • Qt Linguist — A set of tools that speed the translation and internationalization of Qt applications.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/linguist-manual.html || qt
  • Qt Assistant — A configurable and redistributable documentation reader for Qt qch files.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/assistant-manual.html || qt
  • Qt Designer — A powerful cross-platform GUI layout and forms builder for Qt widgets.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/designer-manual.html || qt
  • Qt Quick Designer — A visual editor for QML files which supports WYSIWYG. It allows you to rapidly design and build Qt Quick applications and components from scratch.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qtcreator-2.8/creator-using-qt-quick-designer.html || qtcreator
  • QML Viewer — A tool for loading QML documents that makes it easy to quickly develop and debug QML applications.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/qmlviewer.html || qt
  • qmake — A tool that helps simplify the build process for development project across different platforms, similar to cmake, but with fewer options and tailored for Qt applications.
https://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/qmake-manual.html || qt
  • uic — A tool that reads *.ui XML files and generates the corresponding C++ files.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/uic.html || qt
  • rcc — A tool that is used to embed resources (such as pictures) into a Qt application during the build process. It works by generating a C++ source file containing data specified in a Qt resource (.qrc) file.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/rcc.html || qt
  • moc — A tool that handles Qt's C++ extensions (the signals and slots mechanism, the run-time type information, and the dynamic property system, etc.).
http://doc.qt.digia.com/4.7-snapshot/moc.html || qt

绑定

Qt has bindings for all of the more popular languages, for a full list see this list.

以下示例会在一个窗口中显示一句 'Hello world!' 消息。

C++

  • Package: qt4
  • Website: http://qt-project.org/
  • Build with: g++ `pkg-config --cflags --libs QtCore QtGui` -o hello hello.cpp
  • Run with: ./hello
hello.cpp
#include <QApplication>
#include <QLabel>

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    QApplication app(argc, argv);
    QLabel hello("Hello world!");
    
    hello.show();
    return app.exec();
}

QML

hello.qml
import QtQuick 1.0

Rectangle {
    id: page
    width: 400; height: 100
    color: "lightgray"

    Text {
        id: helloText
        text: "Hello world!"
        anchors.horizontalCenter: page.horizontalCenter
        anchors.verticalCenter: page.verticalCenter
        font.pointSize: 24; font.bold: true
    }
}

Python

hello-pyqt.py
import sys
from PyQt4 import QtGui

app = QtGui.QApplication(sys.argv)
label = QtGui.QLabel("Hello world!")

label.show()
sys.exit(app.exec_())
hello-pyside.py
import sys
from PySide.QtCore import *
from PySide.QtGui import *
 
app = QApplication(sys.argv)
label = QLabel("Hello world!")

label.show()
sys.exit(app.exec_())

C#

hello.cs
using System;
using Qyoto;

public class Hello {
    public static int Main(String[] args) {
        new QApplication(args);
        new QLabel("Hello world!").Show();

        return QApplication.Exec();
    }
}

Ruby

hello.rb
require 'Qt4'
 
app = Qt::Application.new(ARGV)
hello = Qt::Label.new('Hello World!')

hello.show 
app.exec

Java

Hello.java
import com.trolltech.qt.gui.*;

public class Hello
{
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        QApplication.initialize(args);
        QLabel hello = new QLabel("Hello World!");

        hello.show();
        QApplication.exec();
    }
}

Perl

hello.pl
use QtGui4;

my $a = Qt::Application(\@ARGV);
my $hello = Qt::Label("Hello World!", undef);

$hello->show;
exit $a->exec;

Lua

hello.lua
label = qt.new_widget("QLabel")

label:setText("Hello World!")
label:show()
Note: QtLua is not designed to develop an application in pure Lua but rather to extend a Qt C++ application using Lua as scripting language.

资源