Qt (简体中文)

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Qt 是一个跨平台的应用程序和组件工具,它使用标准 C++,并大量地将特殊的代码生成器(称为 Meta Object Compiler,或者 moc)和数个宏并用来增强语言。它的一些重要特征包括:

  • Running on the major desktop platforms and some of the mobile platforms.
  • Extensive internationalization support.
  • A complete library that provides SQL database access, XML parsing, thread management, network support, and a unified cross-platform application programming interface (API) for file handling.

Qt 框架正在成为主要的开发平台,同时是 KDE 软件社区的基础, among other important open source and proprietary applications such as VLC, VirtualBox, Opera, Mathematica, Skype, Maya and many others.


官方源中现有三个版本的 Qt,能用以下软件包来安装

  • Qt 5.x is available in the qt5-base package, with documentation in the qt5-doc package.
  • Qt 4.x is available in the qt4 package.
  • Qt 3.x is availalbe in the qt3 package, with documentation in the qt3-doc package.
Note: Qt3 is no longer developed, but there are still applications in the official repositories that depend on it. The Trinity Project is maintaining a version of Qt3 in the form of the trinity-qt3 package, available in the AUR.
Warning: Installing Qt5 affects the Qt4 environment because its binaries are in /usr/bin/. This may cause compilation failures in Qt4 applications.
警告: 安装 Qt3 会影响 Qt4 环境,因为它改变了某些 Qt 环境变量。这可能导致 Qt4 应用程序编译失败。



Qt application will try to mimic the behavior of the desktop environment they are running on, unless they run into some problems or hard-coded settings. For those who still want to change the look and feel of Qt application, the Qt Configuration (qtconfig or qt3config) tool is available. QtConfig offers a very simple configuration for the appearance of Qt applications that gives the user easy access to the current Qt Style, colors, fonts and other more advanced options.

Although not part of Qt, the KDE System Settings offer many more customization options that are also picked up by Qt applications.


Several styles are already included with Qt, such as a GTK+ style, a Windows style, a CDE style, etc., but others can be installed from the official repositories or the AUR (most are written for the KDE desktop):

  • Oxygen — A desktop theme that comes with the KDE desktop.
http://www.oxygen-icons.org/ || kdebase-runtime
  • QtCurve — A very configurable and popular desktop theme with support for GTK+ and Qt applications.
http://kde-look.org/content/show.php?content=40492 || qtcurve-kde3 qtcurve-kde4
  • Skulpture — A GUI style addon for KDE and Qt programs that features a classical three dimensional artwork with shadows and smooth gradients to enhance the visual experience.
http://kde-look.org/content/show.php/?content=59031 || skulptureAUR
  • Polymer — A port of the KDE Plastik Style to Qt3.
http://kde-look.org/content/show.php?content=21748 || polymerAUR
  • Bespin — A very configurable KDE theme.
http://cloudcity.sourceforge.net/frame.php || bespin-svnAUR


Qt fonts can be configured from QtConfig under Fonts > Default Font.


There is no way of setting the icon theme from QtConfig, but since Qt follows the Freedesktop.org Icon Specification, any theme set for X is picked up by Qt.


Qt keeps all its configuration information in ~/.config/Trolltech.conf. The file is rather difficult to navigate because it contains a lot of information not related to appearance, but for any changes you can just add to the end of the file and overwrite any previous values (make sure to add your modification under the [Qt] header).

For example, to change the theme to QtCurve, add:


Qt 样式表

An interesting way of customizing the look and feel of a Qt application is using Style Sheets, which are just simple CSS files. Using Style Sheets, one can modify the appearance of every widget in the application.

To run an application with a different style just execute:

$ qt_application --stylesheet style.qss

For more information on Qt Style Sheets see the official documentation or other tutorials. As an example Style Sheet see this Dolphin modification.

GTK+ 和 Qt

如果你有 GTK+ 和 Qt 应用程序,它们的外观可能无法融合到一起。如果你希望使 GTK+ 风格与 Qt 风格匹配,请阅读 统一 GTK+ 和 Qt 应用程序外观.



Qt supports most platforms that are available today, even some of the more obscure ones, with more ports appearing every once in a while. For a more complete list see the Qt Wikipedia article.


以下是官方 Qt 工具:

  • Qt Creator — A cross-platform IDE tailored for Qt that supports all of its features.
http://qt.digia.com/Product/Developer-Tools/ || qtcreator
  • Qt Linguist — A set of tools that speed the translation and internationalization of Qt applications.
http://qt.digia.com/Product/Developer-Tools/ || qt
  • Qt Assistant — A configurable and redistributable documentation reader for Qt qch files.
http://qt.digia.com/Product/Developer-Tools/ || qt
  • Qt Designer — A powerful cross-platform GUI layout and forms builder for Qt widgets.
http://qt.digia.com/Product/Developer-Tools/ || qt
  • Qt Quick Designer — A visual editor for QML files which supports WYSIWYG. It allows you to rapidly design and build Qt Quick applications and components from scratch.
http://qt.digia.com/Product/Developer-Tools/ || qtcreator
  • QML Viewer — A tool for loading QML documents that makes it easy to quickly develop and debug QML applications.
http://doc.qt.digia.com/4.7-snapshot/qmlviewer.html || qt
  • qmake — A tool that helps simplify the build process for development project across different platforms, similar to cmake, but with fewer options and tailored for Qt applications.
https://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/qmake-manual.html || qt
  • uic — A tool that reads *.ui XML files and generates the corresponding C++ files.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/uic.html || qt
  • rcc — A tool that is used to embed resources (such as pictures) into a Qt application during the build process. It works by generating a C++ source file containing data specified in a Qt resource (.qrc) file.
http://qt-project.org/doc/qt-4.8/rcc.html || qt
  • moc — A tool that handles Qt's C++ extensions (the signals and slots mechanism, the run-time type information, and the dynamic property system, etc.).
http://doc.qt.digia.com/4.7-snapshot/moc.html || qt


Qt has bindings for all of the more popular languages, for a full list see this list.

The following examples display a small 'Hello world!' message in a window.


  • Package: qt4
  • Website: http://qt-project.org/
  • Build with: g++ `pkg-config --cflags --libs QtCore QtGui` -o hello hello.cpp
  • Run with: ./hello
#include <QApplication>
#include <QLabel>

int main(int argc, char **argv)
    QApplication app(argc, argv);
    QLabel hello("Hello world!");
    return app.exec();


import QtQuick 1.0

Rectangle {
    id: page
    width: 400; height: 100
    color: "lightgray"

    Text {
        id: helloText
        text: "Hello world!"
        anchors.horizontalCenter: page.horizontalCenter
        anchors.verticalCenter: page.verticalCenter
        font.pointSize: 24; font.bold: true


import sys
from PyQt4 import QtGui

app = QtGui.QApplication(sys.argv)
label = QtGui.QLabel("Hello world!")

import sys
from PySide.QtCore import *
from PySide.QtGui import *
app = QApplication(sys.argv)
label = QLabel("Hello world!")



using System;
using Qyoto;

public class Hello {
    public static int Main(String[] args) {
        new QApplication(args);
        new QLabel("Hello world!").Show();

        return QApplication.Exec();


require 'Qt4'
app = Qt::Application.new(ARGV)
hello = Qt::Label.new('Hello World!')



import com.trolltech.qt.gui.*;

public class Hello
    public static void main(String args[])
        QLabel hello = new QLabel("Hello World!");



use QtGui4;

my $a = Qt::Application(\@ARGV);
my $hello = Qt::Label("Hello World!", undef);

exit $a->exec;


label = qt.new_widget("QLabel")

label:setText("Hello World!")
Note: QtLua is not designed to develop an application in pure Lua but rather to extend a Qt C++ application using Lua as scripting language.