Difference between revisions of "Qtile"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Startup)
 
(33 intermediate revisions by 13 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[Category:Tiling WMs]]
 
[[Category:Tiling WMs]]
 +
[[fr:Qtile]]
 +
[[ja:Qtile]]
 +
[[zh-CN:Qtile]]
 +
{{Related articles start}}
 +
{{Related|Comparison of tiling window managers}}
 +
{{Related|Window manager}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
 +
 
From [http://qtile.org/ Qtile web site]:
 
From [http://qtile.org/ Qtile web site]:
:''Qtile is a full-featured, hackable tiling window manager written in Python. Qtile is simple, small, and extensible. It's easy to write your own layouts, widgets, and built-in commands.It is written and configured entirely in Python, which means you can leverage the full power and flexibility of the language to make it fit your needs.''
+
:Qtile is a full-featured, hackable tiling window manager written in Python. Qtile is simple, small, and extensible. It's easy to write your own layouts, widgets, and built-in commands.It is written and configured entirely in Python, which means you can leverage the full power and flexibility of the language to make it fit your needs.
  
==Installing==
+
== Installing ==
Qtile (git version) is available in the AUR: {{AUR|qtile-git}}.
+
  
A default configuration file is provided on [https://github.com/qtile/qtile/blob/master/libqtile/resources/default_config.py the git repository]. Copy it in {{ic|~/.config/qtile/config.py}}.
+
[[Install]] one of the following packages:
  
An easy way to do this is:
+
* {{AUR|qtile}} for the latest official release, running on Python 3.
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/qtile/
+
* {{AUR|qtile-python2}} for the latest official release, running on Python 2.
$ wget https://raw.github.com/qtile/qtile/master/libqtile/resources/default_config.py -O - > ~/.config/qtile/config.py
+
* {{AUR|qtile-python3-git}} for the latest git commit, running on Python 3.
 +
* {{AUR|qtile-git}} for the latest git commit, running on Python 2.
 +
 
 +
== Starting ==
 +
 
 +
To start Qtile add {{ic|exec qtile}} to your [[~/.xinitrc]] and launch [[Xorg]]. The [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/config/default.html#key-bindings default configuration] includes the shortcut {{ic|Super+Enter}} to open a new ''xterm'' terminal, and {{ic|Super+Ctrl+q}} to quit Qtile.
  
==Starting Qtile==
+
== Configuration ==
To start Qtile add {{ic|exec qtile}} to your {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} and launch Xorg.
+
The default configuration includes the shortcut {{Keypress|Alt+Enter}} to open a new xterm terminal.
+
  
==Configuration==
 
 
{{Note|This chapter only explains the basics of the configuration of Qtile. For more complete information, look at the [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/ official documentation].}}
 
{{Note|This chapter only explains the basics of the configuration of Qtile. For more complete information, look at the [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/ official documentation].}}
  
The configuration is fully done in python in the file {{ic|~/.config/qtile/config.py}}. The indentation is very important in python, therefore respect it.
+
As described in [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/config/default.html#configuration-lookup Configuration Lookup], Qtile provides a default configuration file that will be used in absence of user-defined ones. In order to start customizing Qtile, copy it to {{ic|~/.config/qtile/config.py}}:
  
Before restarting Qtile you can test your config file for syntax error with the command:
+
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/qtile/
  $ python2 ~/.config/qtile/config.py
+
$ cp /usr/share/doc/''qtile_dir''/default_config.py ~/.config/qtile/config.py
 +
 
 +
Where {{ic|''qtile_dir''}} is the name of the AUR package you [[#Installing|installed]].
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, the most recent default configuration file can be downloaded from the git repository at [https://github.com/qtile/qtile/blob/develop/libqtile/resources/default_config.py libqtile/resources/default_config.py].
 +
 
 +
Several more complete configuration file examples can be found in the [https://github.com/qtile/qtile-examples qtile-examples] repository.
 +
 
 +
The configuration is fully done in Python: for a ''very'' quick introduction to the language you can read [https://developers.google.com/edu/python/introduction this tutorial].
 +
 
 +
Before restarting Qtile you can test your configuration file for syntax errors using the command:
 +
 
 +
  $ python2 -m py_compile ~/.config/qtile/config.py
 +
 
 +
If the command gives no output, your script is correct.
 +
 
 +
=== Groups ===
 +
 
 +
In Qtile, the workspaces (or views) are called '''Groups'''. They can be defined as following:
  
===Groups===
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
In Qtile the workspaces (or views) are called Groups. They can be defined as following for instance:
+
from libqtile.config import Group, Match
<pre>
+
...
from libqtile.manager import Group
+
 
groups = [
 
groups = [
 
     Group("term"),
 
     Group("term"),
    Group("web"),
 
 
     Group("irc"),
 
     Group("irc"),
]
+
    Group("web", match=Match(title=["Firefox"])),
</pre>
+
  ]
 +
...</nowiki>
 +
}}
  
===Keys===
+
=== Keys ===
You can configure your shortcuts with the function Key.
+
 
Here is an example of the shortcut {{Keypress|Alt+Shift+q}} to quit the Windows Manager.
+
You can configure your shortcuts with the '''Key''' class.
<pre>
+
Here is an example of the shortcut {{ic|Alt+Shift+q}} to quit the window manager.
from libqtile.manager import Key
+
 
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
from libqtile.config import Key
 
from libqtile.command import lazy
 
from libqtile.command import lazy
 +
...
 
keys = [
 
keys = [
 
     Key(
 
     Key(
         ["shift","mod1"], "q",
+
         ["mod1", "shift"], "q",
         lazy.shutdown()
+
         lazy.shutdown())
    ),
+
  ]
]
+
...</nowiki>
</pre>
+
}}
You can find out which modX corresponds to which key with the command '''xmodmap'''.
+
  
===Screens and Bars===
+
You can find out which {{ic|modX}} corresponds to which key with the command [[Xmodmap]].
Create one Screen function for every monitor you have. The bars of Qtile are configured in the Screen function as in the following example:
+
 
<pre>
+
==== Sound ====
from libqtile.manager import Screen
+
 
 +
You can add shortcuts to easily control the sound volume and state by [[Users and groups#Group_management|adding a user]] to the '''audio''' group and using the {{ic|alsamixer}} command-line interface.
 +
 
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
keys= [
 +
    ...
 +
    # Sound
 +
    Key([], "XF86AudioMute", lazy.spawn("amixer -q set Master toggle")),
 +
    Key([], "XF86AudioLowerVolume", lazy.spawn("amixer -c 0 sset Master 1- unmute")),
 +
    Key([], "XF86AudioRaiseVolume", lazy.spawn("amixer -c 0 sset Master 1+ unmute"))
 +
  ]</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== Screens ===
 +
 
 +
Create one '''Screen''' class for every monitor you have. The bars of Qtile are configured in the '''Screen''' class as in the following example:
 +
 
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
from libqtile.config import Screen
 
from libqtile import bar, widget
 
from libqtile import bar, widget
 +
...
 
screens = [
 
screens = [
 
     Screen(
 
     Screen(
         bottom=bar.Bar([
+
         bottom=bar.Bar([         # add a bar to the bottom of the screen
             widget.GroupBox(),
+
             widget.GroupBox(),   # display the current Group
             widget.WindowName()
+
             widget.WindowName()   # display the name of the window that currently has focus
 
             ], 30))
 
             ], 30))
]
+
  ]
</pre>
+
...</nowiki>
 +
}}
  
===Widgets===
+
==== Bars and widgets ====
You can find information on the widgets in [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/ref/widgets.html the documentation].
+
  
Some of the widgets (such as BatteryIcon and Notify) are not included in the default git repository, but you can download them [https://github.com/paradoxxxzero/qtile/tree/master/libqtile/widget/ here] and copy them in {{ic|/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/libqtile/widget/}}.
+
You can find a list of all the built-in widgets in [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/ref/widgets.html the official documentation].
  
Then modify {{ic|/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/libqtile/widget/__init__.py}} to import the new widgets. Here is an example for BatteryIcon and Notify widgets:
+
If you want to add a widget to your bar, just add it like in the example above (for the {{ic|WindowName}} widget). For example, if we want
 +
to add a battery notification, we can use the {{ic|Battery}} widget:
  
{{hc
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
|/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/libqtile/widget/__init__.py
+
from libqtile.config import Screen
|<nowiki>
+
from libqtile import bar, widget
[...]
+
...
from battery import Battery,BatteryIcon
+
screens = [
from notify import Notify
+
    Screen(top=bar.Bar([
[...]
+
        widget.GroupBox(),    # display the current Group
</nowiki>}}
+
        widget.Battery()      # display the battery state
 +
      ], 30))
 +
  ]
 +
...</nowiki>
 +
}}
  
===Startup===
+
=== Startup ===
You can start up applications using the corresponding hook.
+
 
 +
You can start up applications using '''hooks''', specifically the {{ic|startup}} hook. For a list of available hooks see [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/ref/hooks.html the documentation].
  
 
Here is an example where an application starts only once:
 
Here is an example where an application starts only once:
<pre>
 
import subprocess,re
 
  
def is_running(process):
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
     s = subprocess.Popen(["ps", "axw"], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
+
import os
     for x in s.stdout:
+
import subprocess
        if re.search(process, x):
+
 
            return True
+
@hook.subscribe.startup_once
    return False
+
def autostart():
 +
     home = os.path.expanduser('~')
 +
     subprocess.call([home + '/.config/qtile/autostart.sh'])</nowiki>
 +
}}
  
 +
== Debugging ==
  
def execute_once(process):
+
If you want to locate the source of a problem, you can execute the following line in your terminal:
    if not is_running(process):
+
        return subprocess.Popen(process.split())
+
  
 +
echo "exec qtile" > /tmp/.start_qtile ; xinit /tmp/.start_qtile -- :2
  
@hook.subscribe.startup
+
== See also ==
def startup():
+
    execute_once("parcellite")
+
    execute_once("nm-applet")
+
    execute_once("dropboxd")
+
    execute_once("feh --bg-scale ~/Pictures/wallpapers.jpg")
+
</pre>
+
  
==See Also==
 
 
* [http://qtile.org/ Qtile website]
 
* [http://qtile.org/ Qtile website]
 
* [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/ The official documentation]
 
* [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/ The official documentation]
* [[Comparison of Tiling Window Managers]]
+
* [https://github.com/tailhook/tilenol tilenol] - A window manager inspired by Qtile.
* [[xinitrc]]
+

Latest revision as of 19:08, 6 August 2015

From Qtile web site:

Qtile is a full-featured, hackable tiling window manager written in Python. Qtile is simple, small, and extensible. It's easy to write your own layouts, widgets, and built-in commands.It is written and configured entirely in Python, which means you can leverage the full power and flexibility of the language to make it fit your needs.

Installing

Install one of the following packages:

  • qtileAUR for the latest official release, running on Python 3.
  • qtile-python2AUR for the latest official release, running on Python 2.
  • qtile-python3-gitAUR for the latest git commit, running on Python 3.
  • qtile-gitAUR for the latest git commit, running on Python 2.

Starting

To start Qtile add exec qtile to your ~/.xinitrc and launch Xorg. The default configuration includes the shortcut Super+Enter to open a new xterm terminal, and Super+Ctrl+q to quit Qtile.

Configuration

Note: This chapter only explains the basics of the configuration of Qtile. For more complete information, look at the official documentation.

As described in Configuration Lookup, Qtile provides a default configuration file that will be used in absence of user-defined ones. In order to start customizing Qtile, copy it to ~/.config/qtile/config.py:

$ mkdir -p ~/.config/qtile/
$ cp /usr/share/doc/qtile_dir/default_config.py ~/.config/qtile/config.py

Where qtile_dir is the name of the AUR package you installed.

Alternatively, the most recent default configuration file can be downloaded from the git repository at libqtile/resources/default_config.py.

Several more complete configuration file examples can be found in the qtile-examples repository.

The configuration is fully done in Python: for a very quick introduction to the language you can read this tutorial.

Before restarting Qtile you can test your configuration file for syntax errors using the command:

$ python2 -m py_compile ~/.config/qtile/config.py

If the command gives no output, your script is correct.

Groups

In Qtile, the workspaces (or views) are called Groups. They can be defined as following:

from libqtile.config import Group, Match
...
groups = [
    Group("term"),
    Group("irc"),
    Group("web", match=Match(title=["Firefox"])),
   ]
...

Keys

You can configure your shortcuts with the Key class. Here is an example of the shortcut Alt+Shift+q to quit the window manager.

from libqtile.config import Key
from libqtile.command import lazy
...
keys = [
    Key(
        ["mod1", "shift"], "q",
        lazy.shutdown())
   ]
...

You can find out which modX corresponds to which key with the command Xmodmap.

Sound

You can add shortcuts to easily control the sound volume and state by adding a user to the audio group and using the alsamixer command-line interface.

keys= [
    ...
    # Sound
    Key([], "XF86AudioMute", lazy.spawn("amixer -q set Master toggle")),
    Key([], "XF86AudioLowerVolume", lazy.spawn("amixer -c 0 sset Master 1- unmute")),
    Key([], "XF86AudioRaiseVolume", lazy.spawn("amixer -c 0 sset Master 1+ unmute"))
   ]

Screens

Create one Screen class for every monitor you have. The bars of Qtile are configured in the Screen class as in the following example:

from libqtile.config import Screen
from libqtile import bar, widget
...
screens = [
    Screen(
        bottom=bar.Bar([          # add a bar to the bottom of the screen
            widget.GroupBox(),    # display the current Group
            widget.WindowName()   # display the name of the window that currently has focus
            ], 30))
   ]
...

Bars and widgets

You can find a list of all the built-in widgets in the official documentation.

If you want to add a widget to your bar, just add it like in the example above (for the WindowName widget). For example, if we want to add a battery notification, we can use the Battery widget:

from libqtile.config import Screen
from libqtile import bar, widget
...
screens = [
    Screen(top=bar.Bar([
        widget.GroupBox(),    # display the current Group
        widget.Battery()      # display the battery state
       ], 30))
   ]
...

Startup

You can start up applications using hooks, specifically the startup hook. For a list of available hooks see the documentation.

Here is an example where an application starts only once:

import os
import subprocess

@hook.subscribe.startup_once
def autostart():
    home = os.path.expanduser('~')
    subprocess.call([home + '/.config/qtile/autostart.sh'])

Debugging

If you want to locate the source of a problem, you can execute the following line in your terminal:

echo "exec qtile" > /tmp/.start_qtile ; xinit /tmp/.start_qtile -- :2

See also