Difference between revisions of "Qtile"

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(See Also: Mentioned "tilenol", another WM in Python, inspired by Qtile.)
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[[Category:Tiling WMs]]
 
[[Category:Tiling WMs]]
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[[fr:Qtile]]
 
[[ja:Qtile]]
 
[[ja:Qtile]]
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[[zh-CN:Qtile]]
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{{Related articles start}}
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{{Related|Comparison of tiling window managers}}
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{{Related|Window manager}}
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{{Related articles end}}
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From [http://qtile.org/ Qtile web site]:
 
From [http://qtile.org/ Qtile web site]:
:''Qtile is a full-featured, hackable tiling window manager written in Python. Qtile is simple, small, and extensible. It's easy to write your own layouts, widgets, and built-in commands.It is written and configured entirely in Python, which means you can leverage the full power and flexibility of the language to make it fit your needs.''
+
:Qtile is a full-featured, hackable tiling window manager written in Python. Qtile is simple, small, and extensible. It's easy to write your own layouts, widgets, and built-in commands.It is written and configured entirely in Python, which means you can leverage the full power and flexibility of the language to make it fit your needs.
  
 
== Installing ==
 
== Installing ==
Install {{AUR|qtile-git}} from the [[Arch User Repository]]
 
  
A default configuration file is provided in [https://github.com/qtile/qtile/blob/master/libqtile/resources/default_config.py the git repository]. Copy it to {{ic|~/.config/qtile/config.py}} by executing:
+
[[Install]] one of the following packages:
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/qtile/
+
$ wget https://raw.github.com/qtile/qtile/develop/libqtile/resources/default_config.py -O - > ~/.config/qtile/config.py
+
  
If this fails execute the commands:
+
* {{AUR|qtile}} for the latest official release, running on Python 3.
 +
* {{AUR|qtile-python2}} for the latest official release, running on Python 2.
 +
* {{AUR|qtile-python3-git}} for the latest git commit, running on Python 3.
 +
* {{AUR|qtile-git}} for the latest git commit, running on Python 2.
  
$ rm ~/.config/qtile/config.py
+
== Starting ==
$ cp  /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/libqtile/resources/default_config.py ~/.config/qtile/config.py
+
  
== Starting Qtile ==
+
To start Qtile add {{ic|exec qtile}} to your [[~/.xinitrc]] and launch [[Xorg]]. The [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/config/default.html#key-bindings default configuration] includes the shortcut {{ic|Super+Enter}} to open a new ''xterm'' terminal, and {{ic|Super+Ctrl+q}} to quit Qtile.
To start Qtile add {{ic|exec qtile}} to your {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} and launch [[Xorg]]. The default configuration includes the shortcut {{Keypress|Alt+Enter}} to open a new {{ic|xterm}} terminal.
+
  
 
== Configuration ==
 
== Configuration ==
 +
 
{{Note|This chapter only explains the basics of the configuration of Qtile. For more complete information, look at the [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/ official documentation].}}
 
{{Note|This chapter only explains the basics of the configuration of Qtile. For more complete information, look at the [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/ official documentation].}}
  
The configuration is fully done in Python in the file {{ic|~/.config/qtile/config.py}}. For a ''very'' quick introduction to Python, you can read [https://developers.google.com/edu/python/introduction this tutorial]. It will explain Python variables, functions, modules and other things you need to know to quickly get started on configuring Qtile.
+
As described in [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/config/default.html#configuration-lookup Configuration Lookup], Qtile provides a default configuration file that will be used in absence of user-defined ones. In order to start customizing Qtile, copy it to {{ic|~/.config/qtile/config.py}}:
 +
 
 +
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/qtile/
 +
$ cp /usr/share/doc/''qtile_dir''/default_config.py ~/.config/qtile/config.py
 +
 
 +
Where {{ic|''qtile_dir''}} is the name of the AUR package you [[#Installing|installed]].
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, the most recent default configuration file can be downloaded from the git repository at [https://github.com/qtile/qtile/blob/develop/libqtile/resources/default_config.py libqtile/resources/default_config.py].
 +
 
 +
Several more complete configuration file examples can be found in the [https://github.com/qtile/qtile-examples qtile-examples] repository.
 +
 
 +
The configuration is fully done in Python: for a ''very'' quick introduction to the language you can read [https://developers.google.com/edu/python/introduction this tutorial].
 +
 
 +
Before restarting Qtile you can test your configuration file for syntax errors using the command:
  
Before restarting Qtile you can test your config file for syntax errors using the command:
 
 
  $ python2 -m py_compile ~/.config/qtile/config.py
 
  $ python2 -m py_compile ~/.config/qtile/config.py
 +
 
If the command gives no output, your script is correct.
 
If the command gives no output, your script is correct.
  
 
=== Groups ===
 
=== Groups ===
 +
 
In Qtile, the workspaces (or views) are called '''Groups'''. They can be defined as following:
 
In Qtile, the workspaces (or views) are called '''Groups'''. They can be defined as following:
 +
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
from libqtile.config import Group, Match
 
from libqtile.config import Group, Match
Line 42: Line 63:
  
 
=== Keys ===
 
=== Keys ===
 +
 
You can configure your shortcuts with the '''Key''' class.
 
You can configure your shortcuts with the '''Key''' class.
Here is an example of the shortcut {{Keypress|Alt+Shift+q}} to quit the window manager.
+
Here is an example of the shortcut {{ic|Alt+Shift+q}} to quit the window manager.
 +
 
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
from libqtile.config import Key
 
from libqtile.config import Key
Line 55: Line 78:
 
...</nowiki>
 
...</nowiki>
 
}}
 
}}
 +
 
You can find out which {{ic|modX}} corresponds to which key with the command [[Xmodmap]].
 
You can find out which {{ic|modX}} corresponds to which key with the command [[Xmodmap]].
  
=== Screens and Bars ===
+
==== Sound ====
 +
 
 +
You can add shortcuts to easily control the sound volume and state by [[Users and groups#Group_management|adding a user]] to the '''audio''' group and using the {{ic|alsamixer}} command-line interface.
 +
 
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
keys= [
 +
    ...
 +
    # Sound
 +
    Key([], "XF86AudioMute", lazy.spawn("amixer -q set Master toggle")),
 +
    Key([], "XF86AudioLowerVolume", lazy.spawn("amixer -c 0 sset Master 1- unmute")),
 +
    Key([], "XF86AudioRaiseVolume", lazy.spawn("amixer -c 0 sset Master 1+ unmute"))
 +
  ]</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== Screens ===
 +
 
 
Create one '''Screen''' class for every monitor you have. The bars of Qtile are configured in the '''Screen''' class as in the following example:
 
Create one '''Screen''' class for every monitor you have. The bars of Qtile are configured in the '''Screen''' class as in the following example:
 +
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
from libqtile.config import Screen
 
from libqtile.config import Screen
Line 73: Line 113:
 
}}
 
}}
  
=== Widgets ===
+
==== Bars and widgets ====
 +
 
 
You can find a list of all the built-in widgets in [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/ref/widgets.html the official documentation].
 
You can find a list of all the built-in widgets in [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/ref/widgets.html the official documentation].
  
 
If you want to add a widget to your bar, just add it like in the example above (for the {{ic|WindowName}} widget). For example, if we want
 
If you want to add a widget to your bar, just add it like in the example above (for the {{ic|WindowName}} widget). For example, if we want
 
to add a battery notification, we can use the {{ic|Battery}} widget:
 
to add a battery notification, we can use the {{ic|Battery}} widget:
 +
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
from libqtile.config import Screen
 
from libqtile.config import Screen
Line 92: Line 134:
  
 
=== Startup ===
 
=== Startup ===
 +
 
You can start up applications using '''hooks''', specifically the {{ic|startup}} hook. For a list of available hooks see [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/ref/hooks.html the documentation].
 
You can start up applications using '''hooks''', specifically the {{ic|startup}} hook. For a list of available hooks see [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/manual/ref/hooks.html the documentation].
  
 
Here is an example where an application starts only once:
 
Here is an example where an application starts only once:
 +
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
import subprocess, re
+
import os
 +
import subprocess
  
def is_running(process):
+
@hook.subscribe.startup_once
    s = subprocess.Popen(["ps", "axw"], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
+
def autostart():
    for x in s.stdout:
+
     home = os.path.expanduser('~')
        if re.search(process, x):
+
     subprocess.call([home + '/.config/qtile/autostart.sh'])</nowiki>
            return True
+
    return False
+
 
+
def execute_once(process):
+
    if not is_running(process):
+
        return subprocess.Popen(process.split())
+
 
+
# start the applications at Qtile startup
+
@hook.subscribe.startup
+
def startup():
+
     execute_once("parcellite")
+
     execute_once("nm-applet")
+
    execute_once("dropboxd")
+
    execute_once("feh --bg-scale ~/Pictures/wallpapers.jpg")</nowiki>
+
 
}}
 
}}
  
=== Sound ===
+
== Debugging ==
You can add shortcuts to easily control the sound volume and state by [[Users_and_Groups#Group_management|adding a user]] to the '''audio''' group and using the {{ic|alsamixer}} command-line interface.
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
keys= [
+
    ...
+
    # Sound
+
    Key([], "XF86AudioMute", lazy.spawn("amixer -q set Master toggle")),
+
    Key([], "XF86AudioLowerVolume", lazy.spawn("amixer -c 0 sset Master 1- unmute")),
+
    Key([], "XF86AudioRaiseVolume", lazy.spawn("amixer -c 0 sset Master 1+ unmute"))
+
  ]</nowiki>
+
}}
+
  
== Debugging ==
 
 
If you want to locate the source of a problem, you can execute the following line in your terminal:
 
If you want to locate the source of a problem, you can execute the following line in your terminal:
 +
 
  echo "exec qtile" > /tmp/.start_qtile ; xinit /tmp/.start_qtile -- :2
 
  echo "exec qtile" > /tmp/.start_qtile ; xinit /tmp/.start_qtile -- :2
  
== See Also ==
+
== See also ==
 +
 
 
* [http://qtile.org/ Qtile website]
 
* [http://qtile.org/ Qtile website]
 
* [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/ The official documentation]
 
* [http://docs.qtile.org/en/latest/ The official documentation]
* [[Comparison of Tiling Window Managers]]
+
* [https://github.com/tailhook/tilenol tilenol] - A window manager inspired by Qtile.
* [[xinitrc]]
+
* [https://github.com/tailhook/tilenol tilenol] - A window manager inspired by Qtile. Written in Python3, while Qtile in Python2.
+

Latest revision as of 19:08, 6 August 2015

From Qtile web site:

Qtile is a full-featured, hackable tiling window manager written in Python. Qtile is simple, small, and extensible. It's easy to write your own layouts, widgets, and built-in commands.It is written and configured entirely in Python, which means you can leverage the full power and flexibility of the language to make it fit your needs.

Installing

Install one of the following packages:

  • qtileAUR for the latest official release, running on Python 3.
  • qtile-python2AUR for the latest official release, running on Python 2.
  • qtile-python3-gitAUR for the latest git commit, running on Python 3.
  • qtile-gitAUR for the latest git commit, running on Python 2.

Starting

To start Qtile add exec qtile to your ~/.xinitrc and launch Xorg. The default configuration includes the shortcut Super+Enter to open a new xterm terminal, and Super+Ctrl+q to quit Qtile.

Configuration

Note: This chapter only explains the basics of the configuration of Qtile. For more complete information, look at the official documentation.

As described in Configuration Lookup, Qtile provides a default configuration file that will be used in absence of user-defined ones. In order to start customizing Qtile, copy it to ~/.config/qtile/config.py:

$ mkdir -p ~/.config/qtile/
$ cp /usr/share/doc/qtile_dir/default_config.py ~/.config/qtile/config.py

Where qtile_dir is the name of the AUR package you installed.

Alternatively, the most recent default configuration file can be downloaded from the git repository at libqtile/resources/default_config.py.

Several more complete configuration file examples can be found in the qtile-examples repository.

The configuration is fully done in Python: for a very quick introduction to the language you can read this tutorial.

Before restarting Qtile you can test your configuration file for syntax errors using the command:

$ python2 -m py_compile ~/.config/qtile/config.py

If the command gives no output, your script is correct.

Groups

In Qtile, the workspaces (or views) are called Groups. They can be defined as following:

from libqtile.config import Group, Match
...
groups = [
    Group("term"),
    Group("irc"),
    Group("web", match=Match(title=["Firefox"])),
   ]
...

Keys

You can configure your shortcuts with the Key class. Here is an example of the shortcut Alt+Shift+q to quit the window manager.

from libqtile.config import Key
from libqtile.command import lazy
...
keys = [
    Key(
        ["mod1", "shift"], "q",
        lazy.shutdown())
   ]
...

You can find out which modX corresponds to which key with the command Xmodmap.

Sound

You can add shortcuts to easily control the sound volume and state by adding a user to the audio group and using the alsamixer command-line interface.

keys= [
    ...
    # Sound
    Key([], "XF86AudioMute", lazy.spawn("amixer -q set Master toggle")),
    Key([], "XF86AudioLowerVolume", lazy.spawn("amixer -c 0 sset Master 1- unmute")),
    Key([], "XF86AudioRaiseVolume", lazy.spawn("amixer -c 0 sset Master 1+ unmute"))
   ]

Screens

Create one Screen class for every monitor you have. The bars of Qtile are configured in the Screen class as in the following example:

from libqtile.config import Screen
from libqtile import bar, widget
...
screens = [
    Screen(
        bottom=bar.Bar([          # add a bar to the bottom of the screen
            widget.GroupBox(),    # display the current Group
            widget.WindowName()   # display the name of the window that currently has focus
            ], 30))
   ]
...

Bars and widgets

You can find a list of all the built-in widgets in the official documentation.

If you want to add a widget to your bar, just add it like in the example above (for the WindowName widget). For example, if we want to add a battery notification, we can use the Battery widget:

from libqtile.config import Screen
from libqtile import bar, widget
...
screens = [
    Screen(top=bar.Bar([
        widget.GroupBox(),    # display the current Group
        widget.Battery()      # display the battery state
       ], 30))
   ]
...

Startup

You can start up applications using hooks, specifically the startup hook. For a list of available hooks see the documentation.

Here is an example where an application starts only once:

import os
import subprocess

@hook.subscribe.startup_once
def autostart():
    home = os.path.expanduser('~')
    subprocess.call([home + '/.config/qtile/autostart.sh'])

Debugging

If you want to locate the source of a problem, you can execute the following line in your terminal:

echo "exec qtile" > /tmp/.start_qtile ; xinit /tmp/.start_qtile -- :2

See also