Ranger (简体中文)

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Revision as of 12:30, 22 May 2013 by Jason Zhang (talk | contribs) (命令定义)
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ranger 是一个 Python 编写,vi 操作风格,基于文本的文件管理器。它具有良好的扩展性能,你可以在不需要鼠标的情况下,通过一些按键完成文件管理任务。


ranger 可以使用 pacmanofficial repositories 安装 :

# pacman -S ranger

AUR 还包含 ranger-git

Optional, for file previews with "scope.sh":


启动一个终端,例如 xterm,以运行 ranger,输入命令 ranger。或者,你也可以使用如下命令

xterm -e ranger


较之于图形化基于鼠标的文件管理器,ranger 效率更高,but still visually appealing。 ranger has one pane with multiple columns for different directories in the path, and file previews on the right. Compared to double-pane file managers, ranger shows more directory and file information. You can quickly move between directories using keystrokes, bookmarks or the command history. Previews of files and directory contents automatically show up for the current selection. ranger's features include: vi-style key bindings, bookmarks, selections, tagging, tabs, command history, the ability to make symbolic links, several console modes, and a task view. ranger has customizable commands and key bindings, including bindings to external scripts. The closest competitor is Vifm, which has two panes and vi-style key bindings, but has fewer features overall.


输入 ? 可以打开 ranger 的 man page。 也可以输入 1? 得到一个键绑定的列表,2? 得到一个命令的列表,3? 得到设置的列表.


启动之后 ranger 会创建一个目录 ~/.config/ranger/。可以使用以下命令复制默认配置文件到这个目录:

ranger --copy-config=all

然后可以对它们进行定制。了解一些基本的 python 知识可能会有帮助。

  • rc.conf 控制启动命令和键绑定
  • commands.py controls the commands which are launched with the ":" key
  • rifle.conf 控制当给定文件类型启动时,使用的应用程序。

You can launch files with "l" (ell) or "<Enter>". For rc.conf, you need only include changes from the default file, since both are loaded. For commands.py, if you do not include the whole file, put this line at the top:

from ranger.api.commands import *


Use the file ~/.config/ranger/rc.conf to modify key bindings. There are many keybindings already defined, and you can learn the syntax by reading the file.

以下示例显示如何使用 "DD" 移动指定文件到一个目录 ~/.Trash/。把代码放在 ~/.config/ranger/rc.conf

# move to trash
map DD shell mv -t /home/myname/.config/ranger/Trash %s


继续上面的例子,在 ~/.config/ranger/commands.py 增加如下代码将会定义一个清空垃圾箱 ~/.Trash 的命令.

class empty(Command):

    Empties the trash directory ~/.Trash

    def execute(self):
        self.fm.run("rm -rf /home/myname/.Trash/{*,.[^.]*}")

输入 ":empty<Enter>" 以使用命令, 如果希望的话,也可以使用 tab 补全。

Warning: 注意 [^.] 是上面命令的必要部分. Otherwise, it will remove all files and directories of the form ..*, thereby wiping out everything in your home directory.

Opening files with a given application

Modify ~/.config/ranger/rifle.conf. Since the beginning lines are executed first, you should put your modifications at the beginning of the file. For example, the following entry will open a tex file with kile.

ext tex = kile "$@"

Using sxiv to browse through images

In order to browse through images in sxiv after launching the viewer from ranger by opening an image file, use the rifle_sxiv.sh script and follow the instructions in its comments.

Useful commands

External Drives

External drives can be automatically mounted with an Udev rule or with the help of an automounting Udev wrapper. Drives mounted under /media can be easily accessed by pressing Template:Keypress (go, media).

Network Drives

Archive Related

These commands use atool to perform archive operations.


The following command implements archive extraction by copying (yy) one or more archive files and then executing ":extracthere" on the desired directory.

import os
from ranger.core.loader import CommandLoader

class extracthere(Command):
    def execute(self):
        """ Extract copied files to current directory """
        copied_files = tuple(self.fm.env.copy)

        if not copied_files:

        def refresh(_):
            cwd = self.fm.env.get_directory(original_path)

        one_file = copied_files[0]
        cwd = self.fm.env.cwd
        original_path = cwd.path
        au_flags = ['-X', cwd.path]
        au_flags += self.line.split()[1:]
        au_flags += ['-e']

        self.fm.env.cut = False
        if len(copied_files) == 1:
            descr = "extracting: " + os.path.basename(one_file.path)
            descr = "extracting files from: " + os.path.basename(one_file.dirname)
        obj = CommandLoader(args=['aunpack'] + au_flags \
                + [f.path for f in copied_files], descr=descr)

        obj.signal_bind('after', refresh)


The following command allows the user to compress several files on the current directory by marking them and then calling ":compress <package name>". It supports name suggestions by getting the basename of the current directory and appending several possibilities for the extension.

import os
from ranger.core.loader import CommandLoader

class compress(Command):
    def execute(self):
        """ Compress marked files to current directory """
        cwd = self.fm.env.cwd
        marked_files = cwd.get_selection()

        if not marked_files:

        def refresh(_):
            cwd = self.fm.env.get_directory(original_path)

        original_path = cwd.path
        parts = self.line.split()
        au_flags = parts[1:]

        descr = "compressing files in: " + os.path.basename(parts[1])
        obj = CommandLoader(args=['apack'] + au_flags + \
                [os.path.relpath(f.path, cwd.path) for f in marked_files], descr=descr)

        obj.signal_bind('after', refresh)

    def tab(self):
        """ Complete with current folder name """

        extension = ['.zip', '.tar.gz', '.rar', '.7z']
        return ['compress ' + os.path.basename(self.fm.env.cwd.path) + ext for ext in extension]

Image Mounting

The following command assumes you are using cdemu as your image mounter and some kind of system like autofs which mounts the virtual drive to a specified location ('/media/virtualrom' in this case). Don't forget to change mountpath to reflect your system settings.

To mount an image (or images) to a cdemud virtual drive from ranger you select the image files and then type ':mount' on the console. The mounting may actually take some time depending on your setup (in mine it may take as long as one minute) so the command uses a custom loader that waits until the mount directory is mounted and then opens it on the background in tab 9.

import os, time
from ranger.core.loader import Loadable
from ranger.ext.signals import SignalDispatcher
from ranger.ext.shell_escape import *

class MountLoader(Loadable, SignalDispatcher):
    Wait until a directory is mounted
    def __init__(self, path):
        descr = "Waiting for dir '" + path + "' to be mounted"
        Loadable.__init__(self, self.generate(), descr)
        self.path = path

    def generate(self):
        available = False
        while not available:
                if os.path.ismount(self.path):
                    available = True

class mount(Command):
    def execute(self):
        selected_files = self.fm.env.cwd.get_selection()

        if not selected_files:

        space = ' '
        self.fm.execute_command("cdemu -b system unload 0")
        self.fm.execute_command("cdemu -b system load 0 " + \
                space.join([shell_escape(f.path) for f in selected_files]))
        mountpath = "/media/virtualrom/"

        def mount_finished(path):
            currenttab = self.fm.current_tab
            self.fm.tab_open(9, mountpath)

        obj = MountLoader(mountpath)
        obj.signal_bind('after', mount_finished)

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