This article is a tutorial for turning a computer into an internet gateway/router. It focuses on security, since the gateway is connected directly to the Internet. It should not run any services available to the outside world. Towards the LAN, it should only run gateway specific services. It should not run httpd, ftpd, samba, nfsd, etc. as those belong on a server in the LAN as they introduce security flaws.
This article does not attempt to show how to set up a shared connection between 2 PCs using cross-over cables. For a simple internet sharing solution, see Internet sharing.
- 1 Hardware Requirements
- 2 Conventions
- 3 Network interface configuration
- 4 ADSL connection/PPPoE
- 5 DNS and DHCP
- 6 Connection sharing
- 7 IPv6 tips
- 8 Cleanup
- 9 Logrotate
- 10 Optional additions
- 11 See also
- At least 1 GB of hard drive space. The base install will take up around 500MB of space and if you want to use a caching web proxy, you will need to reserve space for the cache as well.
- At least two physical network interfaces: a gateway connects two networks with each other. You will need to be able to connect those networks to the same physical computer. One interface must connect to the external network, while the other connects to the internal network.
- A hub, switch or UTP cable: You need a way to connect the other computers to the gateway
Conventions in this guide will be to use non-realistic interface names, to avoid confusion about which interface is which.
- intern0: the network card connected to the LAN. On an actual computer it will probably have the name enp2s0, enp1s1, etc.
- extern0: the network card connected to the external network (or WAN). It will probably have the name enp2s0, enp1s1, etc.
Network interface configuration
Persistent naming and Interface renaming
Systemd automatically chooses unique interface names for all your interfaces. These are persistent and will not change when you reboot. If you would like to rename interface to user friendlier names read Network configuration#Device names.
Now you will need to configure the network interfaces. The best way to do so is using netctl profiles. You will need to create two profiles.
Description='Public Interface.' Interface=extern0 Connection=ethernet IP='dhcp'
Description='Private Interface' Interface=intern0 Connection=ethernet IP='static' Address=('10.0.0.1/24')
Next up is to set up the interfaces with netctl.
# netctl enable extern0-profile # netctl enable intern0-profile
Using rp-pppoe, we can connect an ADSL modem to the
extern0 interface of the firewall and have Arch manage the connection. Make sure you put the modem in bridged mode though (either half-bridge or RFC1483), otherwise the modem will act as a router too. Install the package.
It should be noted that if you use only PPPoE to connect to the internet (ie. you do not have other WAN port, except for the one that connects to your modem) you do not need to set up the
extern0-profile as the external pseudo-interface will be ppp0.
You can use netctl to setup the pppoe connection. To get started
# cp /etc/netctl/examples/pppoe /etc/netctl/
and start editing. For the interface configuration choose the interface that connects to the modem. If you only connect to the internet through PPPoE this will probably be
extern0. Fill in the rest of the fields with your ISP information. See the pppoe section in netctl.profile man page for more information on the fields.
DNS and DHCP
Dnsmasq needs to be configured to be a DHCP server. To do this:
interface=intern0 # make dnsmasq listen for requests only on intern0 (our LAN) expand-hosts # add a domain to simple hostnames in /etc/hosts domain=foo.bar # allow fully qualified domain names for DHCP hosts (needed when # "expand-hosts" is used) dhcp-range=10.0.0.2,10.0.0.255,255.255.255.0,1h # defines a DHCP-range for the LAN: # from 10.0.0.2 to .255 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 and a # DHCP lease of 1 hour (change to your own preferences)
Somewhere below, you will notice you can also add "static" DHCP leases, i.e. assign an IP-address to the MAC-address of a computer on the LAN. This way, whenever the computer requests a new lease, it will get the same IP. That is very useful for network servers with a DNS record. You can also deny certain MAC's from obtaining an IP.
Now start dnsmasq:
# systemctl start dnsmasq.service
Time to tie the two network interfaces to each other.
Make sure you added the firewall exceptions for DHCP and Domain, if you want to use Dnsmasq:
- Insert Rules:
# iptables -t filter -I INPUT -i intern0 -p udp -m udp --dport 67 -j ACCEPT # iptables -t filter -I INPUT -i intern0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 67 -j ACCEPT # iptables -t filter -I INPUT -i intern0 -p udp -m udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT # iptables -t filter -I INPUT -i intern0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
Shorewall, an iptables frontend, can be used as an easier alternative. See Shorewall for detailed configuration.
Unique Local Addresses
You can use your router in IPv6 mode even if you do not have an IPv6 address from your ISP. Unless you disable IPv6 all interfaces should have been assigned a unique
For internal networking the block
fc00::/7 has been reserved. These addresses are guaranteed to be unique and non-routable from the open internet. Addresses that belong to the
fc00::/7 block are called Unique Local Addresses. To get started generate a ULA /64 block to use in your network. For this example we will use
fd00:aaaa:bbbb:cccc::/64. Firstly we must assign a static IPv6 on the internal interface. Modify the
intern0-profile we created above to include the following line
IPCustom=('-6 addr add fd00:aaaa:bbbb:cccc::1/64 dev intern0')
This will add the ULA to the internal interface. As far as the router goes, this is all you need to configure.
Global Unicast Addresses
If your ISP or WAN network can access the IPv6 Internet you can additionally assign global link addresses to your router and propagate them through SLAAC to your internal network. The global unicast prefix is usually either static or provided through prefix delegation.
Static IPv6 prefix
If your ISP has provided you with a static prefix then edit
/etc/netctl/extern0-profile and simply add the IPv6 and the IPv6 prefix (usually /64) you have been provided
IPCustom=('-6 addr add 2002:1:2:3:4:5:6:7/64 dev extern0')
You can use this in addition to the ULA address described above.
Acquiring IPv6 prefix via DHCPv6-PD
If your ISP handles IPv6 via prefix delegation then you can follow the instructions in the main IPv6 article on how to properly configure your router. Following the conventions of this article the WAN interface is
ppp0 if you are connecting through PPPoE) and the LAN interface is
Router Advertisement and Stateless Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)
To properly hand out IPv6s to the network clients we will need to use an advertising daemon. Follow the details of the main IPv6 article on how to setup
radvd. Following the convention of this guide the LAN facing interfaces is
intern0. You can either advertise all prefixes or choose which prefixes will be assigned to the local network.
Now that the installation has been performed, it is necessary to remove as many packages as possible. Since we are making a gateway, keeping unneeded packages only "bloats" the system, and increases the number of security risks.
First, check for obsolete/deprecated packages (likely after a fresh install and massive series of updates):
$ pacman -Qm
Review the list of explicitly installed packages that are not dependencies and remove any that are unneeded. Having only needed packages installed is an important security consideration.
$ pacman -Qet
Completely remove the packages you do not need along with their configuration files and dependencies:
# pacman -Rsn package1 package2 package3
You should review the logrotate configuration to make sure the box is not brought down by lack of diskspace due to logging.
Logrotate is installed by default, so you will not have to install it.
The above configuration of shorewall does not include UPnP support. Use of UPnP is discouraged as it may make the gateway vulnerable to attacks from within the LAN. However, some applications require this to function correctly.
To enable UPnP on your router, you need to install an UPnP Internet gateway daemon (IGD). To get it, install official repositories.from the
Read the Shorewall guide on UPnP for more information
OpenSSH can be used to administer your router remotely. This is useful for running it "headless" (no monitor or input devices).
Caching web proxy
To use the router as a time server, see Network Time Protocol daemon.
Then, configure shorewall or iptables to allow NTP traffic in and out.
Traffic shaping is very useful, especially when you are not the only one on the LAN. The idea is to assign a priority to different types of traffic. Interactive traffic (ssh, online gaming) probably needs the highest priority, while P2P traffic can do with the lowest. Then there is everything in between.
Traffic shaping with shorewall
Read Shorewall's Traffic Shaping/Control guide.
Here is my config as an example:
- /etc/shorewall/tcdevices : here is where you define the interface you want to have shaped and its rates. I have got a ADSL connection with a 4MBit down/256KBit up profile.
ppp0 4mbit 256kbit
- /etc/shorewall/tcclasses : here you define the minimum (rate) and maximum (ceil) throughput per class. You will assign each one to a type of traffic to shape.
# interactive traffic (ssh) ppp0 1 full full 0 # online gaming ppp0 2 full/2 full 5 # http ppp0 3 full/4 full 10 # rest ppp0 4 full/6 full 15 default
- /etc/shorewall/tcrules : this file contains the types of traffic and the class it belongs to.
1 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 tcp ssh 2 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 udp 27000:28000 3 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 tcp http 3 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 tcp https
I have split it up my traffic in 4 groups:
- interactive traffic or ssh: although it takes up almost no bandwidth, it is very annoying if it lags due to leechers on the LAN. This get the highest priority.
- online gaming: needless to say you ca not play when your ping sucks. ;)
- webtraffic: can be a bit slower
- everything else: every sort of download, they are the cause of the lag anyway.
Intrusion detection and prevention with snort