Difference between revisions of "Ruby"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Managing RubyGems using pacman)
m
(41 intermediate revisions by 12 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[Category:Programming language]]
 
[[Category:Programming language]]
 +
[[ja:Ruby]]
 +
[[zh-CN:Ruby]]
 
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity.
 
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity.
  
 
== Installing Ruby ==
 
== Installing Ruby ==
The version of Ruby you need to install depends on your requirements, as not all 3rd party code is compatible with all versions. Here is a summary of the versions below and how to get them:
 
  
=== Ruby 1.9.3 (Stable) ===
+
The version of Ruby you need to install depends on your requirements. If you are supporting a legacy application, install Ruby 2.0 or 1.9 as necessary. If you are starting a new project, Ruby 2.1 is recommended. Below is a summary of the available versions and how to get them.
'''Summary:''' Ruby 1.9 is recommended usage for new projects.
+
  
Pros:
+
=== Ruby 2.1 ===
* Vastly improved performance over 1.8
+
* New features for concurrency such as fibers.
+
* Various other language improvements, such as an improved CSV parser.
+
  
Cons:
+
To install Ruby 2.1, install {{Pkg|ruby}}. Ruby 2.1 includes [[#RubyGems|RubyGems]].
* Not compatible with many older gems (and Ruby On Rails versions prior to 2.3)
+
* Changes in the language might cause older Ruby code not to run, or exhibit unexpected bugs.
+
  
{{Note|Visit http://isitruby19.com/ to determine if the gems/modules you require are compatible with Ruby 1.9.}}
+
=== Ruby 2.0 ===
  
To install Ruby 1.9, simply install {{Pkg|ruby}}.
+
To install Ruby 2.0, install {{AUR|ruby2.0}} from the [[AUR]]. Ruby 2.0 includes RubyGems.
  
Ruby 1.9 also includes RubyGems (detailed below), so you can easily update to the latest RubyGems using:
+
=== Ruby 1.9 ===
# gem update --system
+
  
=== Ruby 1.8.7 (Deprecated) ===
+
To install Ruby 1.9, install {{AUR|ruby1.9}} from the [[AUR]]. Ruby 1.9 includes RubyGems.
'''Summary:''' Use Ruby 1.8.7 with any incompatible or out of date code as necessary.
+
  
Last stable version of 1.8, which is incompatible with 1.9. However, there is still code that is based on it.
+
=== Multiple versions ===
  
You can install {{AUR|ruby-1.8.7-svn}} or {{AUR|ruby1.8}} from the [[AUR]].
+
If you want to run multiple versions on the same system (e.g. 2.0.0-p0 and 1.9.3-p392), the easiest way is to use [[RVM]] or [[rbenv]].
  
RubyGems is not included with the {{AUR|ruby1.8}} package, so install {{AUR|rubygems1.8}} from the [[AUR]].
+
=== Documentation ===
  
=== Multiple versions ===
+
To make documentation available through the included {{ic|ri}} command-line tool, install {{Pkg|ruby-docs}}.
If you want to run multiple versions on the same system (e.g. '''1.9.3''' and '''1.8.7'''), the easiest way is to use [[RVM]].
+
You can then query the docs with: {{ic|ri Array}}, {{ic|ri Array.pop}} etc. (much like man-pages)
  
 
== RubyGems ==
 
== RubyGems ==
''gem'' is the package manager of sorts for Ruby modules (called Gems), somewhat comparable to what [[pacman]] is to Arch Linux. The ''gem'' command will be installed if you followed the installation instructions above.
 
  
=== Running as normal user ===
+
RubyGems is a package manager for Ruby modules (called ''gems''), somewhat comparable to what [[pacman]] is to Arch Linux. It is included in the {{pkg|ruby}} package.
When running ''gem'' as a user, the gems will be installed into {{ic|~/.gem}} and not affect anyone else, although it might be worth noting that not all gems are happy with being installed in this way, and might insist on being installed by root (especially if they have native extensions).  This is considered the best way to manage gems on Arch.
+
  
To use gems which install binaries, you need to add {{ic|~/.gem/ruby/1.9.3/bin}} to your {{ic|$PATH}}.
+
=== Setup ===
  
This per-user behavior is enabled via {{ic|/etc/gemrc}} and can be overridden by a {{ic|~/.gemrc}} file.
+
Before you use RubyGems, you need to add {{ic|$(ruby -rubygems -e "puts Gem.user_dir")/bin}} to your {{ic|$PATH}}. You can do this by adding the following line to {{ic|~/.bashrc}}:
 +
PATH="$(ruby -e 'puts Gem.user_dir')/bin:$PATH"
  
=== Running as root ===
+
=== Usage ===
When running as root, the gems will be installed into {{ic|/root/.gems}} and will '''not''' be installed to {{ic|/usr/lib/ruby/gems/}}.
+
  
{{Note|See bug #[https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/33327 33327] for more information.}}
+
To see what gems are installed:
 +
$ gem list
  
[[Ruby#Bundler|Bundler]] solves these problems to some extent by packaging gems into your application. See the section below on using bundler.
+
To get information about a gem:
 +
$ gem spec ''gem_name''
  
=== Updating RubyGems ===
+
By default, {{ic|gem list}} and {{ic|gem spec}} use the {{ic|--local}} option, which forces ''gem'' to search only the local system. This can be overridden with the {{ic|--remote}} flag. Thus, to search for the mysql gem:
  $ gem update
+
  $ gem list --remote mysql
  
=== Installing a gem ===
+
To install a gem:
This example installs the MySQL ruby gem:
+
 
  $ gem install mysql
 
  $ gem install mysql
  
Line 63: Line 55:
 
  $ gem install mysql --no-rdoc --no-ri
 
  $ gem install mysql --no-rdoc --no-ri
  
The gem will now be downloaded, compiled if necessary, and installed.
+
{{Note|This can be made the default option by configuring the following {{ic|~/.gemrc}} file:
 +
{{hc|~/.gemrc|<nowiki>
 +
gem: --no-rdoc --no-ri
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
To update all installed gems:
 +
$ gem update
 +
 
 +
=== Installing gems per-user or system-wide ===
 +
 
 +
By default in Arch Linux, when running {{ic|gem}}, gems are installed per-user (into {{ic|~/.gem/ruby/}}), instead of system-wide (into {{ic|/usr/lib/ruby/gems/}}). This is considered the best way to manage gems on Arch, because otherwise they might interfere with gems installed by Pacman.
 +
 
 +
Gems can be installed system wide by running the {{ic|gem}} command as root, appended with the {{ic|--no-user-install}} flag. This flag can be set as default by replacing {{ic|--user-install}} by {{ic|--no-user-install}} in {{ic|/etc/gemrc}} (system-wide) or {{ic|~/.gemrc}} (per-user, overrides system-wide).
 +
 
 +
[[#Bundler|Bundler]] solves these problems to some extent by packaging gems into your application. See the section below on using bundler.
  
 
=== Bundler ===
 
=== Bundler ===
[http://github.com/carlhuda/bundler Bundler] installs gems (including those with native extensions) directly into your application, which works very well for shared hosting and easy deployment of [[Ruby on Rails]] applications for example. Bundler also resolves dependencies as a whole, rather than individually like RubyGems, making things a lot easier. To install:
+
 
 +
[http://github.com/carlhuda/bundler Bundler] allows you to specify which gems your application depends upon, and optionally which version those gems should be. Once this specification is in place, Bundler installs all required gems (including the full gem dependency tree) and logs the results for later inspection. By default, Bundler installs gems into a shared location, but they can also be installed directly into your application. When your application is run, Bundler provides the correct version of each gem, even if multiple versions of each gem have been installed. This requires a little bit of work: applications should be called with {{ic|bundle exec}}, and two lines of boilerplate code must be placed in your application's main executable.
 +
 
 +
To install Bundler:
 
  $ gem install bundler
 
  $ gem install bundler
  
Bundler seems to want to install gems system-wide, contrary to the current default behaviour of ''gem'' itself on Arch. To correct this, add the following line to your {{ic|~/.bashrc}}:
+
By default, Bundler installs gems system-wide, which is contrary to the behaviour of ''gem'' itself on Arch. To correct this, add the following to your {{ic|~/.bashrc}}:
  export GEM_HOME="~/.gem/ruby/1.9.3"
+
  export GEM_HOME=$(ruby -e 'puts Gem.user_dir')
  
 
To start a new bundle:
 
To start a new bundle:
 
  $ bundle init
 
  $ bundle init
  
Then add your required gems into "Gemfile" in the current directory (created by bundle init):
+
Then edit {{ic|Gemfile}} in the current directory (created by bundle init) and list your required gems:
 
+
 
{{hc|Gemfile|
 
{{hc|Gemfile|
 
gem "rails", "3.2.9"
 
gem "rails", "3.2.9"
Line 82: Line 91:
 
}}
 
}}
  
Finally, run the following to install your gems:
+
Run the following to install gems into {{ic|GEM_HOME}}:
 
  $ bundle install
 
  $ bundle install
  
Or, alternatively, in order to install locally to {{ic|.bundle}} under the working directory:
+
Alternatively, run the following to install gems to {{ic|.bundle}} in the working directory:
 
  $ bundle install --path .bundle
 
  $ bundle install --path .bundle
  
== Managing RubyGems using pacman ==
+
Don't forget to edit your main executable:
 +
{{bc|#!/usr/bin/env ruby
 +
 
 +
# "This will automatically discover your Gemfile, and make all of the gems in
 +
# your Gemfile available to Ruby." http://gembundler.com/v1.3/rationale.html
 +
require 'rubygems'
 +
require 'bundler/setup'
 +
 
 +
...
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Finally, run your program:
 +
bundle exec ''main_executable_name.rb''
 +
 
 +
=== Managing RubyGems using pacman ===
 +
 
 +
Instead of managing gems with {{ic|gem}}, you can use {{ic|pacman}}, or some [[AUR]] helper. Ruby packages follow the naming convention ruby-[gemname]. This option provides the following advantages:
  
Instead of using the gem command directly you can use pacman to manage the installed gems like normal packages. There are a lot of ruby packages available from [[AUR]]. Ruby packages follow the naming convention ruby-[gemname]. As an alternative you can use the tool {{AUR|pacgem}} which automatically creates arch packages from gems and installs them afterwards using pacman.
+
* Gems are updated along with the rest of your system. As a result, you never need to run {{ic|gem update}}: {{ic|# pacman -Syu}} suffices.
 +
* Installed gems are available system-wide, instead of being available only to the user who installed them.
  
{{Warning|Many ruby gem packages in the AUR explicitly use the {{ic|--no-user-install}} or {{ic|--user-install}} command line switches, bypassing the global setting found in {{ic|/etc/gemrc}} or the users own {{ic|~/.gemrc}}. You're editing the PKGBUILD file before you install, right?}}
+
If a gem is not available in the repositories, you can use {{AUR|gem2arch}} or {{AUR|pacgem}} to automatically create a package, which can then be installed by pacman.
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
* [[Ruby On Rails]]
 
  
== References ==
+
* [[Ruby on Rails]]
 
* Ruby - http://ruby-lang.org/
 
* Ruby - http://ruby-lang.org/
 
* Rubyforge - http://rubyforge.org
 
* Rubyforge - http://rubyforge.org
 
* Bundler - http://github.com/carlhuda/bundler
 
* Bundler - http://github.com/carlhuda/bundler

Revision as of 09:16, 16 February 2014

Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity.

Installing Ruby

The version of Ruby you need to install depends on your requirements. If you are supporting a legacy application, install Ruby 2.0 or 1.9 as necessary. If you are starting a new project, Ruby 2.1 is recommended. Below is a summary of the available versions and how to get them.

Ruby 2.1

To install Ruby 2.1, install ruby. Ruby 2.1 includes RubyGems.

Ruby 2.0

To install Ruby 2.0, install ruby2.0AUR from the AUR. Ruby 2.0 includes RubyGems.

Ruby 1.9

To install Ruby 1.9, install ruby1.9AUR from the AUR. Ruby 1.9 includes RubyGems.

Multiple versions

If you want to run multiple versions on the same system (e.g. 2.0.0-p0 and 1.9.3-p392), the easiest way is to use RVM or rbenv.

Documentation

To make documentation available through the included ri command-line tool, install ruby-docs. You can then query the docs with: ri Array, ri Array.pop etc. (much like man-pages)

RubyGems

RubyGems is a package manager for Ruby modules (called gems), somewhat comparable to what pacman is to Arch Linux. It is included in the ruby package.

Setup

Before you use RubyGems, you need to add $(ruby -rubygems -e "puts Gem.user_dir")/bin to your $PATH. You can do this by adding the following line to ~/.bashrc:

PATH="$(ruby -e 'puts Gem.user_dir')/bin:$PATH"

Usage

To see what gems are installed:

$ gem list

To get information about a gem:

$ gem spec gem_name

By default, gem list and gem spec use the --local option, which forces gem to search only the local system. This can be overridden with the --remote flag. Thus, to search for the mysql gem:

$ gem list --remote mysql

To install a gem:

$ gem install mysql

The process can be sped up somewhat if you do not need local documentation:

$ gem install mysql --no-rdoc --no-ri
Note: This can be made the default option by configuring the following ~/.gemrc file:
~/.gemrc
gem: --no-rdoc --no-ri

To update all installed gems:

$ gem update

Installing gems per-user or system-wide

By default in Arch Linux, when running gem, gems are installed per-user (into ~/.gem/ruby/), instead of system-wide (into /usr/lib/ruby/gems/). This is considered the best way to manage gems on Arch, because otherwise they might interfere with gems installed by Pacman.

Gems can be installed system wide by running the gem command as root, appended with the --no-user-install flag. This flag can be set as default by replacing --user-install by --no-user-install in /etc/gemrc (system-wide) or ~/.gemrc (per-user, overrides system-wide).

Bundler solves these problems to some extent by packaging gems into your application. See the section below on using bundler.

Bundler

Bundler allows you to specify which gems your application depends upon, and optionally which version those gems should be. Once this specification is in place, Bundler installs all required gems (including the full gem dependency tree) and logs the results for later inspection. By default, Bundler installs gems into a shared location, but they can also be installed directly into your application. When your application is run, Bundler provides the correct version of each gem, even if multiple versions of each gem have been installed. This requires a little bit of work: applications should be called with bundle exec, and two lines of boilerplate code must be placed in your application's main executable.

To install Bundler:

$ gem install bundler

By default, Bundler installs gems system-wide, which is contrary to the behaviour of gem itself on Arch. To correct this, add the following to your ~/.bashrc:

export GEM_HOME=$(ruby -e 'puts Gem.user_dir')

To start a new bundle:

$ bundle init

Then edit Gemfile in the current directory (created by bundle init) and list your required gems:

Gemfile
gem "rails", "3.2.9"
gem "mysql"

Run the following to install gems into GEM_HOME:

$ bundle install

Alternatively, run the following to install gems to .bundle in the working directory:

$ bundle install --path .bundle

Don't forget to edit your main executable:

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

# "This will automatically discover your Gemfile, and make all of the gems in
# your Gemfile available to Ruby." http://gembundler.com/v1.3/rationale.html
require 'rubygems'
require 'bundler/setup'

...

Finally, run your program:

bundle exec main_executable_name.rb

Managing RubyGems using pacman

Instead of managing gems with gem, you can use pacman, or some AUR helper. Ruby packages follow the naming convention ruby-[gemname]. This option provides the following advantages:

  • Gems are updated along with the rest of your system. As a result, you never need to run gem update: # pacman -Syu suffices.
  • Installed gems are available system-wide, instead of being available only to the user who installed them.

If a gem is not available in the repositories, you can use gem2archAUR or pacgemAUR to automatically create a package, which can then be installed by pacman.

See also