Difference between revisions of "Ruby"

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[[Category:Programming language]]
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[[Category:Programming languages]]
 
[[ja:Ruby]]
 
[[ja:Ruby]]
[[zh-CN:Ruby]]
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[[zh-hans:Ruby]]
 
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity.
 
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity.
  
 
== Installing Ruby ==
 
== Installing Ruby ==
  
The version of Ruby you need to install depends on your requirements. If you are supporting a legacy application, install Ruby 2.1 or 2.0 as necessary. If you are starting a new project, Ruby 2.2 is recommended. Below is a summary of the available versions and how to get them.
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For the latest version of Ruby, [[install]] the {{Pkg|ruby}} package. It includes [[#RubyGems|RubyGems]].
 
 
=== Ruby 2.2 ===
 
 
 
To install Ruby 2.2, install {{Pkg|ruby}}. Ruby 2.2 includes [[#RubyGems|RubyGems]].
 
 
 
=== Ruby 2.1 ===
 
 
 
To install Ruby 2.1, install {{AUR|ruby2.1}}. Ruby 2.1 includes [[#RubyGems|RubyGems]].
 
 
 
=== Ruby 2.0 ===
 
 
 
To install Ruby 2.0, install {{AUR|ruby2.0}} from the [[AUR]]. Ruby 2.0 includes RubyGems.
 
 
 
=== Ruby 1.9 ===
 
 
 
To install Ruby 1.9, install {{AUR|ruby1.9}} from the [[AUR]]. Ruby 1.9 includes RubyGems.
 
  
 
=== Multiple versions ===
 
=== Multiple versions ===
  
If you want to run multiple versions on the same system (e.g. 2.0.0-p0 and 1.9.3-p392), the easiest way is to use [[RVM]], [[chruby]] or [[rbenv]].
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If you want to run multiple versions on the same system (e.g. 2.0.0-p0 and 1.9.3-p392), the easiest way is to use [[RVM]], {{AUR|chruby}} or [[rbenv]].
  
 
=== Documentation ===
 
=== Documentation ===
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=== Setup ===
 
=== Setup ===
  
Before you use RubyGems, you need to add {{ic|$(ruby -e "print Gem.user_dir")/bin}} to your {{ic|$PATH}}. You can do this by adding the following line to {{ic|~/.bashrc}}:
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[[Append]] {{ic|$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')/bin}} to the {{ic|PATH}} [[environment variable]] to allow RubyGems to be executed:
PATH="$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')/bin:$PATH"
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{{hc|1=~/.profile|2=
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PATH="$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')/bin:$PATH"
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}}
 +
 
 +
This is required for executable gems to work without typing out the full location, although libraries will work without having to modify your path.
 +
 
 +
To allow installing RubyGems through the current [[user]], e.g. on ''Your user account isn't allowed to install to the system RubyGems.'', export {{ic|GEM_HOME}} to the local path:
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 +
$ export GEM_HOME=$HOME/.gem
 +
 
 +
You may want to append this variable to {{ic|.profile}} instead:
 +
{{hc|1=~/.profile|2=
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PATH="$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')/bin:$PATH"
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export GEM_HOME=$HOME/.gem
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}}
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Use {{ic|gem env}} to view the current RubyGems environment:
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 +
$ gem env
  
 
=== Usage ===
 
=== Usage ===
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=== Managing RubyGems using pacman ===
 
=== Managing RubyGems using pacman ===
  
Instead of managing gems with {{ic|gem}}, you can use {{ic|pacman}}, or some [[AUR]] helper. Ruby packages follow the naming convention ruby-[gemname]. This option provides the following advantages:
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Instead of managing gems with {{ic|gem}}, you can use [[pacman]], or an [[AUR]] helper. Ruby packages follow the naming convention ruby-''gemname''.
  
* Gems are updated along with the rest of your system. As a result, you never need to run {{ic|gem update}}: {{ic|# pacman -Syu}} suffices.
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This option provides the following advantages:
 +
* Gems are updated along with the rest of your system.
 
* Installed gems are available system-wide, instead of being available only to the user who installed them.
 
* Installed gems are available system-wide, instead of being available only to the user who installed them.
  
If a gem is not available in AUR, you can use {{AUR|gem2arch}} or {{AUR|pacgem}} to automatically create a package, which can then be installed by pacman.
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{{Note|There are also tools integrating ''gem'' with ''pacman'' by automatically generating PKGBUILDs for specified gems: see [[Creating packages#PKGBUILD generators]].}}
  
 
==== Quarry ====
 
==== Quarry ====
  
Quarry is an opensource tool (GPL3 license) that allows to maintain [http://rubygems.org rubygems] binary repository for Linux Arch. The source is hosted at [https://github.com/anatol/quarry github].
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Quarry is an opensource tool (GPL3 license) that allows to maintain [http://rubygems.org rubygems] binary repository for Arch Linux, as an easier alternative to building packages manually from the AUR. The source is hosted at [https://github.com/anatol/quarry github].
  
An unofficial rubygems repository is maintained by Arch developer anatolik at http://pkgbuild.com/~anatolik/quarry/, currently x86 architecture only. The repo contains many popular gems and new gems can be added upon request. The binary packages repository is alternative to AUR source packages but easier to maintain and deal with.
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The repository is maintained by Arch developer anatolik at http://pkgbuild.com/~anatolik/quarry/, and is currently for the x86_64 architecture only. It contains many popular gems and new gems can be added upon request.
  
 
See [[Unofficial user repositories#quarry]] to enable it.
 
See [[Unofficial user repositories#quarry]] to enable it.
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* Ruby - http://ruby-lang.org/
 
* Ruby - http://ruby-lang.org/
 
* Bundler - http://bundler.io/
 
* Bundler - http://bundler.io/
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* [[wikipedia:Why's_(poignant)_Guide_to_Ruby|why's (poignant) Guide to Ruby]]
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* [http://ruby.learncodethehardway.org/ Learn Ruby The Hard Way]
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* [http://blog.hyfather.com/blog/2011/10/18/bundler/ Comparison of Bundler and RVM workflows]

Revision as of 11:54, 28 November 2017

Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity.

Installing Ruby

For the latest version of Ruby, install the ruby package. It includes RubyGems.

Multiple versions

If you want to run multiple versions on the same system (e.g. 2.0.0-p0 and 1.9.3-p392), the easiest way is to use RVM, chrubyAUR or rbenv.

Documentation

To make documentation available through the included ri command-line tool, install ruby-docs. You can then query the docs with: ri Array, ri Array.pop etc. (much like man-pages)

RubyGems

RubyGems is a package manager for Ruby modules (called gems), somewhat comparable to what pacman is to Arch Linux. It is included in the ruby package.

Setup

Append $(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')/bin to the PATH environment variable to allow RubyGems to be executed:

~/.profile
PATH="$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')/bin:$PATH"

This is required for executable gems to work without typing out the full location, although libraries will work without having to modify your path.

To allow installing RubyGems through the current user, e.g. on Your user account isn't allowed to install to the system RubyGems., export GEM_HOME to the local path:

$ export GEM_HOME=$HOME/.gem

You may want to append this variable to .profile instead:

~/.profile
PATH="$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')/bin:$PATH"
export GEM_HOME=$HOME/.gem

Use gem env to view the current RubyGems environment:

$ gem env

Usage

To see what gems are installed:

$ gem list

To get information about a gem:

$ gem spec gem_name

By default, gem list and gem spec use the --local option, which forces gem to search only the local system. This can be overridden with the --remote flag. Thus, to search for the mysql gem:

$ gem list --remote mysql

To install a gem:

$ gem install mysql

The process can be sped up somewhat if you do not need local documentation:

$ gem install mysql --no-document
Note: This can be made the default option by configuring the following ~/.gemrc file:
~/.gemrc
gem: --no-document

To update all installed gems:

$ gem update

Installing gems per-user or system-wide

By default in Arch Linux, when running gem, gems are installed per-user (into ~/.gem/ruby/), instead of system-wide (into /usr/lib/ruby/gems/). This is considered the best way to manage gems on Arch, because otherwise they might interfere with gems installed by Pacman.

Gems can be installed system wide by running the gem command as root, appended with the --no-user-install flag. This flag can be set as default by replacing --user-install by --no-user-install in /etc/gemrc (system-wide) or ~/.gemrc (per-user, overrides system-wide).

Bundler solves these problems to some extent by packaging gems into your application. See the section below on using bundler.

Bundler

Bundler allows you to specify which gems your application depends upon, and optionally which version those gems should be. Once this specification is in place, Bundler installs all required gems (including the full gem dependency tree) and logs the results for later inspection. By default, Bundler installs gems into a shared location, but they can also be installed directly into your application. When your application is run, Bundler provides the correct version of each gem, even if multiple versions of each gem have been installed. This requires a little bit of work: applications should be called with bundle exec, and two lines of boilerplate code must be placed in your application's main executable.

To install Bundler:

$ gem install bundler

By default, Bundler installs gems system-wide, which is contrary to the behaviour of gem itself on Arch. To correct this, add the following to your ~/.bashrc:

export GEM_HOME=$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')

To start a new bundle:

$ bundle init

Then edit Gemfile in the current directory (created by bundle init) and list your required gems:

Gemfile
gem "rails", "3.2.9"
gem "mysql"

Run the following to install gems into GEM_HOME:

$ bundle install

Alternatively, run the following to install gems to .bundle in the working directory:

$ bundle install --path .bundle

Don't forget to edit your main executable:

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

# "This will automatically discover your Gemfile, and make all of the gems in
# your Gemfile available to Ruby." http://bundler.io/rationale.html
require 'bundler/setup'

...

Finally, run your program:

bundle exec main_executable_name.rb

Managing RubyGems using pacman

Instead of managing gems with gem, you can use pacman, or an AUR helper. Ruby packages follow the naming convention ruby-gemname.

This option provides the following advantages:

  • Gems are updated along with the rest of your system.
  • Installed gems are available system-wide, instead of being available only to the user who installed them.
Note: There are also tools integrating gem with pacman by automatically generating PKGBUILDs for specified gems: see Creating packages#PKGBUILD generators.

Quarry

Quarry is an opensource tool (GPL3 license) that allows to maintain rubygems binary repository for Arch Linux, as an easier alternative to building packages manually from the AUR. The source is hosted at github.

The repository is maintained by Arch developer anatolik at http://pkgbuild.com/~anatolik/quarry/, and is currently for the x86_64 architecture only. It contains many popular gems and new gems can be added upon request.

See Unofficial user repositories#quarry to enable it.

Then install required gem # pacman -S ruby-$gemname.

If you have general questions - send it at the project announcement https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=182729
If you have bugreports or code improvements - file at github https://github.com/anatol/quarry

See also