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[[Category:Programming language]]
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[[Category:Programming languages]]
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[[ja:Ruby]]
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[[zh-CN:Ruby]]
 
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity.
 
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity.
  
 
== Installing Ruby ==
 
== Installing Ruby ==
The version of Ruby you need to install depends on your requirements, as not all 3rd party code is compatible with all versions. Here is a summary of the versions below and how to get them:
 
  
=== Ruby 1.9.3 (Stable) ===
+
For the latest version of Ruby, [[install]] the {{Pkg|ruby}} package. It includes [[#RubyGems|RubyGems]].
'''Summary:''' Ruby 1.9 is recommended usage for new projects.
+
  
Pros:
+
=== Older versions ===
* Vastly improved performance over 1.8
+
* New features for concurrency such as fibers.
+
* Various other language improvements, such as an improved CSV parser.
+
  
Cons:
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* For Ruby 2.2, install the {{AUR|ruby2.2}} package.
* Not compatible with many older gems (and Ruby On Rails versions prior to 2.3)
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* For Ruby 2.1, install the {{Pkg|ruby2.1}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|ruby2.1}}}} package.
* Changes in the language might cause older Ruby code not to run, or exhibit unexpected bugs.
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* For Ruby 2.0, install the {{AUR|ruby2.0}} package.
  
{{Note|Visit http://isitruby19.com/ to determine if the gems/modules you require are compatible with Ruby 1.9.}}
+
=== Multiple versions ===
  
To install Ruby 1.9, simply install {{Pkg|ruby}}.
+
If you want to run multiple versions on the same system (e.g. 2.0.0-p0 and 1.9.3-p392), the easiest way is to use [[RVM]], {{AUR|chruby}} or [[rbenv]].
  
Ruby 1.9 also includes RubyGems (detailed below), so you can easily update to the latest RubyGems using:
+
=== Documentation ===
# gem update --system
+
  
=== Ruby 1.8.7 (Deprecated) ===
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To make documentation available through the included {{ic|ri}} command-line tool, install {{Pkg|ruby-docs}}.
'''Summary:''' Use Ruby 1.8.7 with any incompatible or out of date code as necessary.
+
You can then query the docs with: {{ic|ri Array}}, {{ic|ri Array.pop}} etc. (much like man-pages)
  
Last stable version of 1.8, which is incompatible with 1.9. However, there is still code that is based on it.
+
== RubyGems ==
  
You can install {{AUR|ruby-1.8.7-svn}} or {{AUR|ruby1.8}} from the [[AUR]].
+
RubyGems is a package manager for Ruby modules (called ''gems''), somewhat comparable to what [[pacman]] is to Arch Linux. It is included in the {{pkg|ruby}} package.
  
RubyGems is not included with the {{AUR|ruby1.8}} package, so install {{AUR|rubygems1.8}} from the [[AUR]].
+
=== Setup ===
  
=== Multiple versions ===
+
Before you use RubyGems, you should add {{ic|$(ruby -e "print Gem.user_dir")/bin}} to your {{ic|$PATH}}. You can do this by adding the following line to {{ic|~/.bashrc}}:
If you want to run multiple versions on the same system (e.g. '''1.9.3''' and '''1.8.7'''), the easiest way is to use [[RVM]] or [[rbenv]].
+
PATH="$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')/bin:$PATH"
  
== RubyGems ==
+
This is required for executable gems to work without typing out the full location, although libraries will work without having to modify your path.
''gem'' is the package manager of sorts for Ruby modules (called Gems), somewhat comparable to what [[pacman]] is to Arch Linux. The ''gem'' command will be installed if you followed the installation instructions above.
+
  
=== Running as normal user ===
+
If the method above does not work, you can try adding these lines at the end of your shell configuration file instead:
When running ''gem'' as a user, the gems will be installed into {{ic|~/.gem}} and not affect anyone else, although it might be worth noting that not all gems are happy with being installed in this way, and might insist on being installed by root (especially if they have native extensions).  This is considered the best way to manage gems on Arch.
+
 
 +
  #Setting the GEM_PATH and GEM_HOME variables may not be necessary, check 'gem env' output to verify whether both variables already exist
 +
  GEM_HOME=$(ls -t -U | ruby -e 'puts Gem.user_dir')
 +
  GEM_PATH=$GEM_HOME
 +
  export PATH=$PATH:$GEM_HOME/bin
  
To use gems which install binaries, you need to add {{ic|~/.gem/ruby/1.9.3/bin}} to your {{ic|$PATH}}.
+
=== Usage ===
  
This per-user behavior is enabled via {{ic|/etc/gemrc}} and can be overridden by a {{ic|~/.gemrc}} file.
+
To see what gems are installed:
 +
$ gem list
  
=== Running as root ===
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To get information about a gem:
When running as root, the gems will be installed into {{ic|/root/.gems}} and will '''not''' be installed to {{ic|/usr/lib/ruby/gems/}}.
+
$ gem spec ''gem_name''
  
{{Note|See bug #[https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/33327 33327] for more information.}}
+
By default, {{ic|gem list}} and {{ic|gem spec}} use the {{ic|--local}} option, which forces ''gem'' to search only the local system. This can be overridden with the {{ic|--remote}} flag. Thus, to search for the mysql gem:
 +
$ gem list --remote mysql
  
[[Ruby#Bundler|Bundler]] solves these problems to some extent by packaging gems into your application. See the section below on using bundler.
+
To install a gem:
 +
$ gem install mysql
  
=== Updating RubyGems ===
+
The process can be sped up somewhat if you do not need local documentation:
 +
$ gem install mysql --no-document
 +
 
 +
{{Note|This can be made the default option by configuring the following {{ic|~/.gemrc}} file:
 +
{{hc|~/.gemrc|<nowiki>
 +
gem: --no-document
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
To update all installed gems:
 
  $ gem update
 
  $ gem update
  
=== Installing a gem ===
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=== Installing gems per-user or system-wide ===
This example installs the MySQL ruby gem:
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$ gem install mysql
+
  
The process can be sped up somewhat if you do not need local documentation:
+
By default in Arch Linux, when running {{ic|gem}}, gems are installed per-user (into {{ic|~/.gem/ruby/}}), instead of system-wide (into {{ic|/usr/lib/ruby/gems/}}). This is considered the best way to manage gems on Arch, because otherwise they might interfere with gems installed by Pacman.
$ gem install mysql --no-rdoc --no-ri
+
 
 +
Gems can be installed system wide by running the {{ic|gem}} command as root, appended with the {{ic|--no-user-install}} flag. This flag can be set as default by replacing {{ic|--user-install}} by {{ic|--no-user-install}} in {{ic|/etc/gemrc}} (system-wide) or {{ic|~/.gemrc}} (per-user, overrides system-wide).
  
The gem will now be downloaded, compiled if necessary, and installed.
+
[[#Bundler|Bundler]] solves these problems to some extent by packaging gems into your application. See the section below on using bundler.
  
 
=== Bundler ===
 
=== Bundler ===
[http://github.com/carlhuda/bundler Bundler] installs gems (including those with native extensions) directly into your application, which works very well for shared hosting and easy deployment of [[Ruby on Rails]] applications for example. Bundler also resolves dependencies as a whole, rather than individually like RubyGems, making things a lot easier. To install:
+
 
 +
[http://bundler.io Bundler] allows you to specify which gems your application depends upon, and optionally which version those gems should be. Once this specification is in place, Bundler installs all required gems (including the full gem dependency tree) and logs the results for later inspection. By default, Bundler installs gems into a shared location, but they can also be installed directly into your application. When your application is run, Bundler provides the correct version of each gem, even if multiple versions of each gem have been installed. This requires a little bit of work: applications should be called with {{ic|bundle exec}}, and two lines of boilerplate code must be placed in your application's main executable.
 +
 
 +
To install Bundler:
 
  $ gem install bundler
 
  $ gem install bundler
  
Bundler seems to want to install gems system-wide, contrary to the current default behaviour of ''gem'' itself on Arch. To correct this, add the following line to your {{ic|~/.bashrc}}:
+
By default, Bundler installs gems system-wide, which is contrary to the behaviour of ''gem'' itself on Arch. To correct this, add the following to your {{ic|~/.bashrc}}:
  export GEM_HOME=~/.gem/ruby/1.9.3
+
  export GEM_HOME=$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')
  
 
To start a new bundle:
 
To start a new bundle:
 
  $ bundle init
 
  $ bundle init
  
Then add your required gems into "Gemfile" in the current directory (created by bundle init):
+
Then edit {{ic|Gemfile}} in the current directory (created by bundle init) and list your required gems:
 
+
 
{{hc|Gemfile|
 
{{hc|Gemfile|
 
gem "rails", "3.2.9"
 
gem "rails", "3.2.9"
Line 82: Line 94:
 
}}
 
}}
  
Finally, run the following to install your gems:
+
Run the following to install gems into {{ic|GEM_HOME}}:
 
  $ bundle install
 
  $ bundle install
  
Or, alternatively, in order to install locally to {{ic|.bundle}} under the working directory:
+
Alternatively, run the following to install gems to {{ic|.bundle}} in the working directory:
 
  $ bundle install --path .bundle
 
  $ bundle install --path .bundle
  
== Managing RubyGems using pacman ==
+
Don't forget to edit your main executable:
 +
{{bc|#!/usr/bin/env ruby
 +
 
 +
# "This will automatically discover your Gemfile, and make all of the gems in
 +
# your Gemfile available to Ruby." http://bundler.io/rationale.html
 +
require 'bundler/setup'
 +
 
 +
...
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Finally, run your program:
 +
bundle exec ''main_executable_name.rb''
 +
 
 +
=== Managing RubyGems using pacman ===
 +
 
 +
Instead of managing gems with {{ic|gem}}, you can use {{ic|pacman}}, or some [[AUR]] helper. Ruby packages follow the naming convention ruby-[gemname]. This option provides the following advantages:
 +
 
 +
* Gems are updated along with the rest of your system. As a result, you never need to run {{ic|gem update}}: {{ic|# pacman -Syu}} suffices.
 +
* Installed gems are available system-wide, instead of being available only to the user who installed them.
 +
 
 +
If a gem is not available in AUR, you can use {{AUR|gem2arch}} or {{AUR|pacgem}} to automatically create a package, which can then be installed by pacman.
 +
 
 +
==== Quarry ====
 +
 
 +
Quarry is an opensource tool (GPL3 license) that allows to maintain [http://rubygems.org rubygems] binary repository for Arch Linux, as an easier alternative to building packages manually from the AUR. The source is hosted at [https://github.com/anatol/quarry github].
 +
 
 +
The repository is maintained by Arch developer anatolik at http://pkgbuild.com/~anatolik/quarry/, and is currently for the x86_64 architecture only. It contains many popular gems and new gems can be added upon request.
 +
 
 +
See [[Unofficial user repositories#quarry]] to enable it.
  
Instead of using the gem command directly you can use pacman to manage the installed gems like normal packages. There are a lot of ruby packages available from [[AUR]]. Ruby packages follow the naming convention ruby-[gemname]. As an alternative you can use the tool {{AUR|pacgem}} which automatically creates arch packages from gems and installs them afterwards using pacman.
+
Then install required gem {{ic|# pacman -S ruby-$gemname}}.
  
{{Warning|Many ruby gem packages in the AUR explicitly use the {{ic|--no-user-install}} or {{ic|--user-install}} command line switches, bypassing the global setting found in {{ic|/etc/gemrc}} or the users own {{ic|~/.gemrc}}. You're editing the PKGBUILD file before you install, right?}}
+
If you have general questions - send it at the project announcement https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=182729<br>
 +
If you have bugreports or code improvements - file at github https://github.com/anatol/quarry
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
* [[Ruby On Rails]]
 
  
== References ==
+
* [[Ruby on Rails]]
 
* Ruby - http://ruby-lang.org/
 
* Ruby - http://ruby-lang.org/
* Rubyforge - http://rubyforge.org
+
* Bundler - http://bundler.io/
* Bundler - http://github.com/carlhuda/bundler
+
* [[wikipedia:Why's_(poignant)_Guide_to_Ruby|why's (poignant) Guide to Ruby]]
 +
* [http://ruby.learncodethehardway.org/ Learn Ruby The H

Latest revision as of 01:28, 20 September 2016

Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity.

Installing Ruby

For the latest version of Ruby, install the ruby package. It includes RubyGems.

Older versions

Multiple versions

If you want to run multiple versions on the same system (e.g. 2.0.0-p0 and 1.9.3-p392), the easiest way is to use RVM, chrubyAUR or rbenv.

Documentation

To make documentation available through the included ri command-line tool, install ruby-docs. You can then query the docs with: ri Array, ri Array.pop etc. (much like man-pages)

RubyGems

RubyGems is a package manager for Ruby modules (called gems), somewhat comparable to what pacman is to Arch Linux. It is included in the ruby package.

Setup

Before you use RubyGems, you should add $(ruby -e "print Gem.user_dir")/bin to your $PATH. You can do this by adding the following line to ~/.bashrc:

PATH="$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')/bin:$PATH"

This is required for executable gems to work without typing out the full location, although libraries will work without having to modify your path.

If the method above does not work, you can try adding these lines at the end of your shell configuration file instead:

 #Setting the GEM_PATH and GEM_HOME variables may not be necessary, check 'gem env' output to verify whether both variables already exist 
 GEM_HOME=$(ls -t -U | ruby -e 'puts Gem.user_dir')
 GEM_PATH=$GEM_HOME
 export PATH=$PATH:$GEM_HOME/bin

Usage

To see what gems are installed:

$ gem list

To get information about a gem:

$ gem spec gem_name

By default, gem list and gem spec use the --local option, which forces gem to search only the local system. This can be overridden with the --remote flag. Thus, to search for the mysql gem:

$ gem list --remote mysql

To install a gem:

$ gem install mysql

The process can be sped up somewhat if you do not need local documentation:

$ gem install mysql --no-document
Note: This can be made the default option by configuring the following ~/.gemrc file:
~/.gemrc
gem: --no-document

To update all installed gems:

$ gem update

Installing gems per-user or system-wide

By default in Arch Linux, when running gem, gems are installed per-user (into ~/.gem/ruby/), instead of system-wide (into /usr/lib/ruby/gems/). This is considered the best way to manage gems on Arch, because otherwise they might interfere with gems installed by Pacman.

Gems can be installed system wide by running the gem command as root, appended with the --no-user-install flag. This flag can be set as default by replacing --user-install by --no-user-install in /etc/gemrc (system-wide) or ~/.gemrc (per-user, overrides system-wide).

Bundler solves these problems to some extent by packaging gems into your application. See the section below on using bundler.

Bundler

Bundler allows you to specify which gems your application depends upon, and optionally which version those gems should be. Once this specification is in place, Bundler installs all required gems (including the full gem dependency tree) and logs the results for later inspection. By default, Bundler installs gems into a shared location, but they can also be installed directly into your application. When your application is run, Bundler provides the correct version of each gem, even if multiple versions of each gem have been installed. This requires a little bit of work: applications should be called with bundle exec, and two lines of boilerplate code must be placed in your application's main executable.

To install Bundler:

$ gem install bundler

By default, Bundler installs gems system-wide, which is contrary to the behaviour of gem itself on Arch. To correct this, add the following to your ~/.bashrc:

export GEM_HOME=$(ruby -e 'print Gem.user_dir')

To start a new bundle:

$ bundle init

Then edit Gemfile in the current directory (created by bundle init) and list your required gems:

Gemfile
gem "rails", "3.2.9"
gem "mysql"

Run the following to install gems into GEM_HOME:

$ bundle install

Alternatively, run the following to install gems to .bundle in the working directory:

$ bundle install --path .bundle

Don't forget to edit your main executable:

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

# "This will automatically discover your Gemfile, and make all of the gems in
# your Gemfile available to Ruby." http://bundler.io/rationale.html
require 'bundler/setup'

...

Finally, run your program:

bundle exec main_executable_name.rb

Managing RubyGems using pacman

Instead of managing gems with gem, you can use pacman, or some AUR helper. Ruby packages follow the naming convention ruby-[gemname]. This option provides the following advantages:

  • Gems are updated along with the rest of your system. As a result, you never need to run gem update: # pacman -Syu suffices.
  • Installed gems are available system-wide, instead of being available only to the user who installed them.

If a gem is not available in AUR, you can use gem2archAUR or pacgemAUR to automatically create a package, which can then be installed by pacman.

Quarry

Quarry is an opensource tool (GPL3 license) that allows to maintain rubygems binary repository for Arch Linux, as an easier alternative to building packages manually from the AUR. The source is hosted at github.

The repository is maintained by Arch developer anatolik at http://pkgbuild.com/~anatolik/quarry/, and is currently for the x86_64 architecture only. It contains many popular gems and new gems can be added upon request.

See Unofficial user repositories#quarry to enable it.

Then install required gem # pacman -S ruby-$gemname.

If you have general questions - send it at the project announcement https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=182729
If you have bugreports or code improvements - file at github https://github.com/anatol/quarry

See also