Difference between revisions of "Runit"

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{{i18n|Systemd}}
+
[[Category:Boot process]]
 
+
[[Category:Daemons and system services]]
[[Category: Daemons and system services (English)]]
+
Runit is a process supervisor.  It includes {{ic|runit-init}}, which can replace sysv's init as pid1, or can be run from inittab or your init system of choice.   
Runit is a process supervisor.  It includes runit-init, which can replace sysv's init as pid1, or can be run from inittab or your init system of choice.   
+
 
Runit's simple collection of tools can be used to build flexible dependency structures and distributed systems, or blazing fast parallel runlevel changes (including the initial boot).  
 
Runit's simple collection of tools can be used to build flexible dependency structures and distributed systems, or blazing fast parallel runlevel changes (including the initial boot).  
  
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To replace init with runit-init
 
To replace init with runit-init
  
* install runit-run-git from the AUR
+
* install sysvinit-tools and sysvinit (say Yes to replacing systemd-sysvcompat)
 +
* install {{aur|runit-musl}} and {{aur|runit-run}} from the [[AUR]]
 
* choose/create a default runlevel (see Run Levels)
 
* choose/create a default runlevel (see Run Levels)
 +
* add init=/sbin/runit-init to your bootloader's kernel command line
 
* reboot
 
* reboot
 
   
 
   
 
If you just want to get your feet wet and not replace init just yet,  
 
If you just want to get your feet wet and not replace init just yet,  
runit-dietlibc can be installed side-by-side with the regular Arch initscripts, providing just process supervision of those services you put in /var/service.
+
runit-musl can be installed side-by-side with the regular Arch systemd PID1, providing just process supervision of those services you put in {{ic|/var/service}}.
  
* install runit-dietlibc from the AUR
+
* install {{aur|runit-musl}} and {{aur|runit-services}} from the [[AUR]]
* start runsvdir /var/service using your current init scheme (inittab/rc.local/systemd, whatever)
+
* start runsvdir /var/service using your current init scheme (inittab/rc.local/systemd, whatever)  
  
To see a wide variety of services built for runit's style of supervision, install the runit-services package and see /etc/runit/runsvdir/all
+
The {{aur|runit-services}} package puts services in {{ic|/etc/sv}} and uses {{ic|/usr/bin/rsvlog}} as a logger (it's a shell script, take a look and modify to taste, improvements welcome).
 +
 
 +
{{aur|runit-scripts}} puts many new runlevels and symlinks them to the service directories it creates in {{ic|/etc/runit/runsvdir/all}}, and uses its own {{ic|/usr/bin/nsvlog}} script for logging.
  
 
== Using runit ==
 
== Using runit ==
Line 27: Line 30:
 
=== The Tools ===
 
=== The Tools ===
  
* sv - used for controlling services, getting status of services, and dependency checking.
+
* {{ic|sv}} - used for controlling services, getting status of services, and dependency checking.
* runsv - supervises a process, and optionally a log service for that process.
+
* {{ic|chpst}} - control of a process environment, including memory caps, limits on cores, data segments, environments, user/group privileges, and more.
* svlogd - a simple but powerful logger, includes auto-rotation based on different methods (time, size, etc), post-processing, pattern matching, and socket (remote logging) options. Say goodbye to logrotate and the need to stop your services to rotate logs.
+
* {{ic|runsv}} - supervises a process, and optionally a log service for that process.
* runsvchdir - changes service levels (runlevels, see below).
+
* {{ic|svlogd}} - a simple but powerful logger, includes auto-rotation based on different methods (time, size, etc), post-processing, pattern matching, and socket (remote logging) options. Say goodbye to logrotate and the need to stop your services to rotate logs.
* runit-init - PID 1, tiny, does almost nothing, dietlibc staticly compiled.  Just what you want your PID 1 to be.
+
* {{ic|runsvchdir}} - changes service levels (runlevels, see below).
+
* {{ic|runsvdir}} - starts a supervision tree
 +
* {{ic|runit-init}} - PID 1, tiny, does almost nothing, dietlibc staticly compiled.  Just what you want your PID 1 to be.
 +
 
 
See the manpages for usage details not covered below.
 
See the manpages for usage details not covered below.
  
 +
=== The Extras ===
 +
 +
Added by runit-dietlibc and runit-run
 +
 +
* /etc/runit/1 - bootstraps the system using arch rc scripts
 +
* /etc/runit/2 - starts single or multi-user runlevels using arch's rc.single or rc.multi
 +
* /etc/runit/3 - brings the system down using arch's rc scripts
 +
* /etc/runit/runsvdir/* - various runlevels
 +
* /usr/bin/rsvlog - a wrapper to svlogd meant to be symlinked as 'run' in a log service
 +
* /etc/sv/* - the service directories available (more available here when you install runit-services-git)
 +
 +
Added by runit-scripts
 +
 +
* /etc/runit/1_new - meant to be an alternate way to bootstrap, does not necessarily use arch boot scripts
 +
* /etc/runit/2_new - single/multi user runlevels (not based on arch scripts)
 +
* /etc/runit/3_new - take the system down
 +
* /etc/runit/runsvdir/all - every service directory available
 +
* /etc/runit/runsvdir/* - various runlevels
 +
* /usr/bin/nsvlog - wrapper meant to be symlinked as 'run' in a log service
 +
 
=== Run Levels and Service Directories ===
 
=== Run Levels and Service Directories ===
  
Runit uses directories of symlinks to specify runlevels, other than the 3 main ones, which are defined in /etc/runit/1, 2, and 3.  1 bootstraps the system, 2 starts runsvdir on /service, and 3 stops the system.
+
Runit uses directories of symlinks to specify runlevels, other than the 3 main ones, which are defined in /etc/runit/1, 2, and 3.   
While in run level 2, you are not contstrained to any amount service levels (equivalent to runlevels in sysvinit).  You can runschdir to any directory (full of service directory symlinks) you've made in /etc/runit/runsvdir/.   
+
 
 +
1 bootstraps the system, 2 starts runsvdir on /service, and 3 stops the system.
 +
 
 +
While in run level 2, you are not constrained to any amount of service levels (equivalent to runlevels in sysvinit).  You can runschdir to any directory (full of service directory symlinks) you've made in /etc/runit/runsvdir/.   
 
This becomes very handy in cases where you have an HA (Failover) setup, and you have one machine that can take over services for many other machines, simply by runsvchdir <theservicedir>.
 
This becomes very handy in cases where you have an HA (Failover) setup, and you have one machine that can take over services for many other machines, simply by runsvchdir <theservicedir>.
You can also run trees of dependent service levels by having user-level supervision directories.  See User Level Services below.
+
 
 +
You can also run trees of dependent service levels by having user-level supervision directories.  See User Level Services below
 +
 
 +
By default, the runit-run package uses a very minimal service set, defined in /etc/runit/runsvdir/archlinux-default and symlinked to /etc/runit/runsvdir/default. 
 +
 
 +
It only gives gettys on tty2 and tty3, so you will boot to just console scroll and a tidy 'runsvchdir: default: current'.  This means when you start X it will be on tty4. 
 +
 
 +
To go back to the standard arch consoles, remove the link /service/ngetty and link as many /etc/sv/*getty* services you like in /service, or edit the /etc/sv/ngetty/run file to get more getties.  Better yet, create your own directory in /etc/runit/runsvdir and add the symlinks you want for just the services you desire.  Remember to take any services you start with runit out of DAEMONS in /etc/rc.conf or systemctl disable them, they do not need to be started there, and runit will allow parallel startup without backgrounding them.
  
 
=== General Use ===
 
=== General Use ===
  
For convenience I'll be using /service as the service directory in these examples.  Since this has not been accepted by FHS, it is only made available as a symlink in the runit-run-git package.  This allows importing of /service scripts written by others without as much fuss.  If you only install runit-dietlibc, you would use /var/service as your service directory, or make the /service symlink to /var/service yourself.
+
For convenience I'll be using /service as the service directory in these examples.  Since this has not been accepted by FHS, it is only made available as a symlink in the runit-run package.  This allows importing of /service scripts written by others without as much fuss.  If you only install runit-musl, you would use /var/service as your service directory, or make the /service symlink to /var/service yourself.
  
 
Listing running services
 
Listing running services
  
{{cli|$ sudo sv s /service/*}}
+
{{bc|$ sudo sv s /service/*}}
  
Services should live in /etc/sv; however, the runit-services package puts a bunch of common ones in /etc/runit/runsvdir/all.  We're working to replace/convert these to /etc/sv where they belong.
+
    run: /service/agetty-2: (pid 4120) 7998s
 +
    run: /service/agetty-3: (pid 4119) 7998s
 +
    run: /service/bougyman: (pid 4465) 7972s
 +
    run: /service/bougyx: (pid 4135) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4127) 7998s
 +
    run: /service/cron: (pid 4137) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4122) 7998s
 +
    run: /service/dialer: (pid 4121) 7998s
 +
    run: /service/qmail: (pid 4138) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4126) 7998s
 +
    run: /service/smtpd: (pid 4136) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4125) 7998s
 +
    run: /service/socklog-klog: (pid 4139) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4132) 7998s
 +
    run: /service/socklog-unix: (pid 4133) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4124) 7998s
 +
    run: /service/ssh: (pid 4134) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4123) 7998s
 +
 
 +
Services should live in /etc/sv; however, the runit-scripts package puts a bunch of common ones in /etc/runit/runsvdir/all.  We're working to replace/convert these to /etc/sv in the runit-services-git package.
  
 
Create and Start a service:
 
Create and Start a service:
  
{{cli|# ln -s /etc/sv/ssh /service/ssh}}
+
{{bc|# ln -s /etc/sv/ssh /service/ssh}}
  
 
Stops a service immediately (would still start on next boot):
 
Stops a service immediately (would still start on next boot):
  
{{cli|# sv d ssh}}
+
{{bc|# sv d ssh}}
  
 
Restarts a service:
 
Restarts a service:
  
{{cli|# sv t ssh}}
+
{{bc|# sv t ssh}}
  
 
Reloads a service:
 
Reloads a service:
  
{{cli|# sv h ssh}}
+
{{bc|# sv h ssh}}
  
Shows status of a service including whether it is running or not:
+
Shows status of a service and it's log service:
  
{{cli|# sv s ssh}}
+
{{bc|# sv s ssh}}
  
 
Stops a service, and disables it (won't start next boot):
 
Stops a service, and disables it (won't start next boot):
  
{{cli|# rm /service/ssh}}
+
{{bc|# rm /service/ssh}}
  
 
Refer to man sv for more details.  
 
Refer to man sv for more details.  
Line 80: Line 127:
 
Shut down the system  
 
Shut down the system  
  
{{cli|# init 0}}
+
{{bc|# runit-init 0}}
  
 
Reboot the system  
 
Reboot the system  
  
{{cli|# init 6}}
+
{{bc|# runit-init 6}}
  
We've symlinked /sbin/runit-init to /sbin/init in runit-run-git, so as not to have to change grub stuff.  The original sysvinit can be started (even after a runit-run-git install) with init=/sbin/init.sysv appended to your kernel command line.
+
== User Level Services ==
 
+
=== User Level Services ===
+
  
 
You can extend the supervision tree by starting a runsvdir as a specific user, giving that user control of their own supervise tree.
 
You can extend the supervision tree by starting a runsvdir as a specific user, giving that user control of their own supervise tree.
 +
 +
=== Add a user level service tree ===
 +
 +
{{bc|# mkdir -p /etc/sv/homes/joeuser}}
 +
 +
Create /etc/sv/homes/joeuser/run with the following:
 +
 +
    #!/bin/sh
 +
    export PATH=/home/joeuser/bin:$PATH # optional, if your services rely on binaries in ~/bin
 +
    exec 2>&1 \
 +
      sudo -H -u joeuser runsvdir -P /home/joeuser/service 'log:...................................................................................................................................' # Requires sudo, of course
 +
     
 +
{{bc|# chmod 700 /etc/sv/homes/joeuser/run}}
 +
 +
Then symlink /etc/sv/homes/joeuser to /service and any service joe puts in ~/service will start, as him, with his environment.
 +
 +
(the .......... represent placeholders, the proceess will print stdout/err every 5 seconds for each placeholder . you use in this case)
 +
 +
=== Create an X session service for a user ===
 +
 +
{{bc|# mkdir -p /etc/sv/joeuserX}}
 +
 +
Create the /etc/sv/joeuserX/run script with the following
 +
 +
    #!/bin/sh
 +
    exec 2>&1 \
 +
      su -c xinit - joeuser
 +
 +
{{bc|# chmod 700 /etc/sv/joeuserX/run}}
 +
 +
Then symlink /etc/sv/joeuserX to /service.  joe's X session will now always run (in this runlevel). 
 +
To protect it using joe's ssh passphrase, use the following in your .xinitrc:
 +
 +
    #!/bin/sh
 +
    ...
 +
    SNIP
 +
    ...
 +
    xscreensaver&
 +
    eval $(keychain --eval)
 +
    exec sh -c \
 +
      'SSH_ASKPASS=/usr/lib/openssh/ssh-askpass-fullscreen ssh-add < /dev/null \
 +
      && exec stumpwm'
 +
 +
Replace the 'stumpwm' with the command to launch your window manager or desktop environment.
 +
 +
Requires the 'keychain' and 'ssh-askpass-fullscreen' packages, or you could replace 'eval $(keychain)' with 'eval $(ssh-agent) and replace ssh-askpass-fullscreen with any ssh passphrase asker. 
 +
The fullscreen version guarantees protection of your desktop, so we prefer that.  This also exports your key to all your x apps,
 +
so you do not need another keychain manager for ssh.  In addition, 'keychain' (as opposed to just ssh-agent) supports gpg passphrase caching, as well, not
 +
just the ssh keys.
 +
 +
== Advanced Recipes ==
 +
 +
=== Running a read-only Postgresql Slave database in-memory ===
 +
 +
This recipe was created for a small but vital database which required very high read throughput.  To sort it out we use Postgresql's Streaming Replication and Hot Standby mode.
 +
 +
==== Requirements ====
 +
 +
* Postgresql 9.0 or above
 +
* runit-services (includes /etc/sv/postgresql)
 +
* Rsync (for initial replication)
 +
 +
==== Instructions ====
 +
 +
1. Create /etc/sv/pg_mem/log directory
 +
{{bc|# mkdir -p /etc/sv/pg_mem/log}}
 +
 +
2. Create three new files
 +
 +
/etc/sv/pg_shm/run:
 +
 +
    #!/bin/sh -e
 +
    sleep 3 # Give postgresql a chance to start and replay any transactions
 +
   
 +
    . /etc/conf.d/pg_shm # Read any conf vars
 +
    PG_DISK_ROOT=/var/lib/postgres # Where the 'master' data directory lives
 +
   
 +
    [ -d "$PGROOT" ] || mkdir -p "$PGROOT" # Create the new $PGROOT if it does not exist
 +
   
 +
    sv -w7 c postgresql 2>&1
 +
   
 +
    # Stop the main postgres from making changes by enttering backup mode
 +
    psql -U postgres -c "SELECT pg_start_backup('seed',true)" 2>&1
 +
    # Sync the main postgres data dir to our new $PGROOT
 +
    rsync --progress --delete -a "$PG_DISK_ROOT/data" "$PGROOT/" --exclude=postmaster.pid 2>&1
 +
    # Allow changes on the primary server again
 +
    psql -U postgres -c "SELECT pg_stop_backup()" 2>&1
 +
   
 +
    # Set up the hot standby mode on the slave server
 +
    echo "hot_standby = 'on'" >> "$PGROOT/data/postgresql.conf"
 +
    echo "port = $PGPORT" >> "$PGROOT/data/postgresql.conf"
 +
    echo "standby_mode = 'on'" >> "$PGROOT/data/recovery.conf"
 +
    echo "primary_conninfo = 'host=localhost port=5432 user=postgres'" >> "$PGROOT/data/recovery.conf"
 +
    echo "trigger_file = '/tmp/stop_replication'" >> "$PGROOT/data/recovery.conf"
 +
    echo "restore_command = 'cp /var/lib/postgres/archive/%f \"%p\"'" >> "$PGROOT/data/recovery.conf"
 +
   
 +
    exec chpst -u postgres /usr/bin/postgres -D "$PGROOT/data" -c config_file="$PGROOT/data/postgresql.conf" 2>&1
 +
 +
Which requires /etc/conf.d/pg_shm:
 +
 +
PGROOT=/dev/shm/pg_mem
 +
PGPORT=5434
 +
PGLOG="/var/log/pg_mem.log"
 +
 +
as well as a file in /etc/sv/postgresql (or wherever your postgresql service directory lives) named 'finish':
 +
 +
#/bin/sh
 +
sv -v i pg_shm
 +
 +
3. Make run and finish executable
 +
{{bc|# chmod 700 /etc/sv/pg_mem/run}}
 +
{{bc|# chmod 700 /etc/sv/postgresql/finish}}
 +
 +
4. Create a log service
 +
{{bc|# ln -s /usr/bin/rsvlog /etc/sv/pg_shm/log/run}}
 +
 +
5. Edit /var/lib/postgres/data/postmaster.conf, to enable wal archiving. See this [http://wiki.postgresql.org/wiki/Streaming_Replication#How_to_Use The PostgreSQL] page, steps 3 and 4, for detailed instructions on this.
 +
 +
6. Restart postgresql
 +
{{bc|# sv i postgresql}}
 +
 +
7. Start pg_shm (replace /service with your service directory, if it differs)
 +
{{bc|# ln -s /etc/sv/pg_shm /service}}
 +
 +
8. Make sure everything is running
 +
{{bc|# sv s postgresql pg_mem}}
 +
 +
That's it, you'll have a replica of your postgresql on-disk database published on port 5434, in read-only mode from the memory space utilized from /dev/shm.

Revision as of 17:22, 7 March 2013

Runit is a process supervisor. It includes runit-init, which can replace sysv's init as pid1, or can be run from inittab or your init system of choice. Runit's simple collection of tools can be used to build flexible dependency structures and distributed systems, or blazing fast parallel runlevel changes (including the initial boot).

See G. Pape's Runit Page for a complete description, but follow the installation instructions below for your Arch system.

Installation

To replace init with runit-init

  • install sysvinit-tools and sysvinit (say Yes to replacing systemd-sysvcompat)
  • install runit-muslAUR and runit-runAUR from the AUR
  • choose/create a default runlevel (see Run Levels)
  • add init=/sbin/runit-init to your bootloader's kernel command line
  • reboot

If you just want to get your feet wet and not replace init just yet, runit-musl can be installed side-by-side with the regular Arch systemd PID1, providing just process supervision of those services you put in /var/service.

  • install runit-muslAUR and runit-servicesAUR from the AUR
  • start runsvdir /var/service using your current init scheme (inittab/rc.local/systemd, whatever)

The runit-servicesAUR package puts services in /etc/sv and uses /usr/bin/rsvlog as a logger (it's a shell script, take a look and modify to taste, improvements welcome).

runit-scriptsAUR puts many new runlevels and symlinks them to the service directories it creates in /etc/runit/runsvdir/all, and uses its own /usr/bin/nsvlog script for logging.

Using runit

The Tools

  • sv - used for controlling services, getting status of services, and dependency checking.
  • chpst - control of a process environment, including memory caps, limits on cores, data segments, environments, user/group privileges, and more.
  • runsv - supervises a process, and optionally a log service for that process.
  • svlogd - a simple but powerful logger, includes auto-rotation based on different methods (time, size, etc), post-processing, pattern matching, and socket (remote logging) options. Say goodbye to logrotate and the need to stop your services to rotate logs.
  • runsvchdir - changes service levels (runlevels, see below).
  • runsvdir - starts a supervision tree
  • runit-init - PID 1, tiny, does almost nothing, dietlibc staticly compiled. Just what you want your PID 1 to be.

See the manpages for usage details not covered below.

The Extras

Added by runit-dietlibc and runit-run

  • /etc/runit/1 - bootstraps the system using arch rc scripts
  • /etc/runit/2 - starts single or multi-user runlevels using arch's rc.single or rc.multi
  • /etc/runit/3 - brings the system down using arch's rc scripts
  • /etc/runit/runsvdir/* - various runlevels
  • /usr/bin/rsvlog - a wrapper to svlogd meant to be symlinked as 'run' in a log service
  • /etc/sv/* - the service directories available (more available here when you install runit-services-git)

Added by runit-scripts

  • /etc/runit/1_new - meant to be an alternate way to bootstrap, does not necessarily use arch boot scripts
  • /etc/runit/2_new - single/multi user runlevels (not based on arch scripts)
  • /etc/runit/3_new - take the system down
  • /etc/runit/runsvdir/all - every service directory available
  • /etc/runit/runsvdir/* - various runlevels
  • /usr/bin/nsvlog - wrapper meant to be symlinked as 'run' in a log service

Run Levels and Service Directories

Runit uses directories of symlinks to specify runlevels, other than the 3 main ones, which are defined in /etc/runit/1, 2, and 3.

1 bootstraps the system, 2 starts runsvdir on /service, and 3 stops the system.

While in run level 2, you are not constrained to any amount of service levels (equivalent to runlevels in sysvinit). You can runschdir to any directory (full of service directory symlinks) you've made in /etc/runit/runsvdir/. This becomes very handy in cases where you have an HA (Failover) setup, and you have one machine that can take over services for many other machines, simply by runsvchdir <theservicedir>.

You can also run trees of dependent service levels by having user-level supervision directories. See User Level Services below.

By default, the runit-run package uses a very minimal service set, defined in /etc/runit/runsvdir/archlinux-default and symlinked to /etc/runit/runsvdir/default.

It only gives gettys on tty2 and tty3, so you will boot to just console scroll and a tidy 'runsvchdir: default: current'. This means when you start X it will be on tty4.

To go back to the standard arch consoles, remove the link /service/ngetty and link as many /etc/sv/*getty* services you like in /service, or edit the /etc/sv/ngetty/run file to get more getties. Better yet, create your own directory in /etc/runit/runsvdir and add the symlinks you want for just the services you desire. Remember to take any services you start with runit out of DAEMONS in /etc/rc.conf or systemctl disable them, they do not need to be started there, and runit will allow parallel startup without backgrounding them.

General Use

For convenience I'll be using /service as the service directory in these examples. Since this has not been accepted by FHS, it is only made available as a symlink in the runit-run package. This allows importing of /service scripts written by others without as much fuss. If you only install runit-musl, you would use /var/service as your service directory, or make the /service symlink to /var/service yourself.

Listing running services

$ sudo sv s /service/*
   run: /service/agetty-2: (pid 4120) 7998s
   run: /service/agetty-3: (pid 4119) 7998s
   run: /service/bougyman: (pid 4465) 7972s
   run: /service/bougyx: (pid 4135) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4127) 7998s
   run: /service/cron: (pid 4137) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4122) 7998s
   run: /service/dialer: (pid 4121) 7998s
   run: /service/qmail: (pid 4138) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4126) 7998s
   run: /service/smtpd: (pid 4136) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4125) 7998s
   run: /service/socklog-klog: (pid 4139) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4132) 7998s
   run: /service/socklog-unix: (pid 4133) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4124) 7998s
   run: /service/ssh: (pid 4134) 7998s; run: log: (pid 4123) 7998s

Services should live in /etc/sv; however, the runit-scripts package puts a bunch of common ones in /etc/runit/runsvdir/all. We're working to replace/convert these to /etc/sv in the runit-services-git package.

Create and Start a service:

# ln -s /etc/sv/ssh /service/ssh

Stops a service immediately (would still start on next boot):

# sv d ssh

Restarts a service:

# sv t ssh

Reloads a service:

# sv h ssh

Shows status of a service and it's log service:

# sv s ssh

Stops a service, and disables it (won't start next boot):

# rm /service/ssh

Refer to man sv for more details.

Shut down the system

# runit-init 0

Reboot the system

# runit-init 6

User Level Services

You can extend the supervision tree by starting a runsvdir as a specific user, giving that user control of their own supervise tree.

Add a user level service tree

# mkdir -p /etc/sv/homes/joeuser

Create /etc/sv/homes/joeuser/run with the following:

   #!/bin/sh
   export PATH=/home/joeuser/bin:$PATH # optional, if your services rely on binaries in ~/bin
   exec 2>&1 \
     sudo -H -u joeuser runsvdir -P /home/joeuser/service 'log:...................................................................................................................................' # Requires sudo, of course
     
# chmod 700 /etc/sv/homes/joeuser/run

Then symlink /etc/sv/homes/joeuser to /service and any service joe puts in ~/service will start, as him, with his environment.

(the .......... represent placeholders, the proceess will print stdout/err every 5 seconds for each placeholder . you use in this case)

Create an X session service for a user

# mkdir -p /etc/sv/joeuserX

Create the /etc/sv/joeuserX/run script with the following

   #!/bin/sh
   exec 2>&1 \
     su -c xinit - joeuser
# chmod 700 /etc/sv/joeuserX/run

Then symlink /etc/sv/joeuserX to /service. joe's X session will now always run (in this runlevel). To protect it using joe's ssh passphrase, use the following in your .xinitrc:

   #!/bin/sh
   ...
   SNIP
   ...
   xscreensaver&
   eval $(keychain --eval)
   exec sh -c \
     'SSH_ASKPASS=/usr/lib/openssh/ssh-askpass-fullscreen ssh-add < /dev/null \
      && exec stumpwm'

Replace the 'stumpwm' with the command to launch your window manager or desktop environment.

Requires the 'keychain' and 'ssh-askpass-fullscreen' packages, or you could replace 'eval $(keychain)' with 'eval $(ssh-agent) and replace ssh-askpass-fullscreen with any ssh passphrase asker. The fullscreen version guarantees protection of your desktop, so we prefer that. This also exports your key to all your x apps, so you do not need another keychain manager for ssh. In addition, 'keychain' (as opposed to just ssh-agent) supports gpg passphrase caching, as well, not just the ssh keys.

Advanced Recipes

Running a read-only Postgresql Slave database in-memory

This recipe was created for a small but vital database which required very high read throughput. To sort it out we use Postgresql's Streaming Replication and Hot Standby mode.

Requirements

  • Postgresql 9.0 or above
  • runit-services (includes /etc/sv/postgresql)
  • Rsync (for initial replication)

Instructions

1. Create /etc/sv/pg_mem/log directory

# mkdir -p /etc/sv/pg_mem/log

2. Create three new files

/etc/sv/pg_shm/run:

   #!/bin/sh -e
   sleep 3 # Give postgresql a chance to start and replay any transactions
   
   . /etc/conf.d/pg_shm # Read any conf vars
   PG_DISK_ROOT=/var/lib/postgres # Where the 'master' data directory lives
   
   [ -d "$PGROOT" ] || mkdir -p "$PGROOT" # Create the new $PGROOT if it does not exist
   
   sv -w7 c postgresql 2>&1
   
   # Stop the main postgres from making changes by enttering backup mode
   psql -U postgres -c "SELECT pg_start_backup('seed',true)" 2>&1
   # Sync the main postgres data dir to our new $PGROOT
   rsync --progress --delete -a "$PG_DISK_ROOT/data" "$PGROOT/" --exclude=postmaster.pid 2>&1
   # Allow changes on the primary server again
   psql -U postgres -c "SELECT pg_stop_backup()" 2>&1
   
   # Set up the hot standby mode on the slave server
   echo "hot_standby = 'on'" >> "$PGROOT/data/postgresql.conf"
   echo "port = $PGPORT" >> "$PGROOT/data/postgresql.conf"
   echo "standby_mode = 'on'" >> "$PGROOT/data/recovery.conf"
   echo "primary_conninfo = 'host=localhost port=5432 user=postgres'" >> "$PGROOT/data/recovery.conf"
   echo "trigger_file = '/tmp/stop_replication'" >> "$PGROOT/data/recovery.conf"
   echo "restore_command = 'cp /var/lib/postgres/archive/%f \"%p\"'" >> "$PGROOT/data/recovery.conf"
   
   exec chpst -u postgres /usr/bin/postgres -D "$PGROOT/data" -c config_file="$PGROOT/data/postgresql.conf" 2>&1

Which requires /etc/conf.d/pg_shm:

PGROOT=/dev/shm/pg_mem
PGPORT=5434
PGLOG="/var/log/pg_mem.log"

as well as a file in /etc/sv/postgresql (or wherever your postgresql service directory lives) named 'finish':

#/bin/sh
sv -v i pg_shm

3. Make run and finish executable

# chmod 700 /etc/sv/pg_mem/run
# chmod 700 /etc/sv/postgresql/finish

4. Create a log service

# ln -s /usr/bin/rsvlog /etc/sv/pg_shm/log/run

5. Edit /var/lib/postgres/data/postmaster.conf, to enable wal archiving. See this The PostgreSQL page, steps 3 and 4, for detailed instructions on this.

6. Restart postgresql

# sv i postgresql

7. Start pg_shm (replace /service with your service directory, if it differs)

# ln -s /etc/sv/pg_shm /service

8. Make sure everything is running

# sv s postgresql pg_mem

That's it, you'll have a replica of your postgresql on-disk database published on port 5434, in read-only mode from the memory space utilized from /dev/shm.