SCP and SFTP
SFTP refers to various forms of (more or less) secure file transfer protocols. This article lists two examples and how to set them up.
SSH file transfer protocol
SSH file transfer protocol is a FTP-like protocol that allows secure file transfer and manipulation, encrypting both passwords and transfered data.
Setting up SSH file transfer protocol with OpenSSH
Before setting up SFTP you should install and configure OpenSSH. Once you have this running SFTP is very easy to set up.
1. Open /etc/ssh/sshd_config with your favorite editor and add this line:
Subsystem sftp /usr/lib/ssh/sftp-server
2. Restart the SSH-daemon with:
# /etc/rc.d/sshd restart
And it should work. You can access your files with the sftp program or sshfs. Many standard ftp programs should work as well.
FTP over SSH
FTP over SSH encrypts passwords unlike plain FTP. FTP over SSH is not really a true protocol, its just SSH + FTP or TLS/SSL + FTP . Note that there are many ways to set this up. This is one of them.
This setup in particular (using pure-ftpd + TLS) encrypts usernames, passwords, commands and server replies, but does NOT encrypt the data channel. This also means that that there is reduced performance cost on data transfer.
Setting up FTP with pure-ftpd
We will use pure-ftpd:
# pacman -Sy pure-ftpd openssh openssl
Then you can go ahead and edit the configuration file:
# vi /etc/pure-ftpd.conf
You can start and stop the pure-ftpd daemon by
# /etc/rc.d/pure-ftpd start # /etc/rc.d/pure-ftpd stop # /etc/rc.d/pure-ftpd restart
and you can set it to automatically start by adding it to the daemons list in /etc/rc.conf.
Set up Certicificates
Refer to http://download.pureftpd.org/pub/pure-ftpd/doc/README.TLS for more information. The short version is this:
1. Create a Self-Signed Certificate:
# mkdir -p /etc/ssl/private # openssl req -x509 -nodes -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout \ /etc/ssl/private/pure-ftpd.pem \ -out /etc/ssl/private/pure-ftpd.pem
2. Make it private:
# chmod 600 /etc/ssl/private/*.pem
3. Be aware that using 1024 bits in some countries will get you the legal banhammer. Choose 512 or less if unsure.
Towards the bottom of /etc/pure-ftpd.conf you should find a section for TLS. Uncomment and change the TLS setting to 1 (which enables both FTP and SFTP):
Now restart the pure-ftpd daemon and you should be able to login with sftp-enabled clients (e.g. FileZilla, SmartFTP). (Dont forget to use port 22.)