You can use sshfs to mount a remote system - accessible via SSH - to a local folder, so you will be able to do any operation on the mounted files with any tool (copy, rename, edit with vim, etc.). Using sshfs instead of shfs is generally preferred as a new version of shfs has not been released since 2004.
- 1 Installation
- 2 Chrooting
- 3 Helpers
- 4 Automounting
- 5 Options
- 6 Troubleshooting
- 7 See also
Before attempting to mount a directory, make sure the file permissions on the target directory allow your user correct access. To mount, invoke
sshfs to mount a remote directory:
$ sshfs USERNAME@HOSTNAME_OR_IP:/REMOTE_PATH LOCAL_MOUNT_POINT SSH_OPTIONS
$ sshfs sessy@mycomputer:/remote/path /local/path -C -p 9876 -o allow_other
-p 9876 stands for the port number,
-C use compression and
-o allow_other to allow non-rooted users have read/write access.
~/.ssh/configto avoid appending the -p switch here. For more information see Secure Shell#Saving connection data in ssh config.
sshfs USERNAME@HOSTNAME_OR_IP:/REMOTE_PATH LOCAL_MOUNT_POINT SSH_OPTIONS mc LOCAL_MOUNT_POINT fusermount -u LOCAL_MOUNT_POINT
This will mount the remote directory, launch MC, and unmount it when you exit.
To unmount the remote system:
$ fusermount -u LOCAL_MOUNT_POINT
$ fusermount -u /mnt/sessy
You may want to jail a (specific) user to a directory by editing
..... Match User someuser ChrootDirectory /chroot/%u ForceCommand internal-sftp #to restrict the user to sftp only AllowTcpForwarding no X11Forwarding no .....
If you often need to mount sshfs filesystems you may be interested in using an sshfs helper, such as sftpman.
It provides a command-line and a GTK frontend, to make mounting and unmounting a simple one click/command process.
Automounting can happen on boot, or on demand (when accessing the directory). For both, the setup happens in
.ssh/configof your normal user.
To let root user use an SSH key of a normal user, specify its full path in option
And most importantly, use each sshfs mount at least once manually while root so the host's signature is added to the
With systemd on-demand mounting is possible using
user@host:/remote/folder /mount/point fuse.sshfs noauto,x-systemd.automount,_netdev,users,idmap=user,IdentityFile=/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa,allow_other,reconnect 0 0
The important mount options here are noauto,x-systemd.automount,_netdev.
- noauto tells it not to mount at boot
- x-systemd.automount does the on-demand magic
- _netdev tells it that it is a network device, not a block device (without it "No such device" errors might happen)
There are two other ways to do this. Both do not require editing /etc/fstab to add a new mountpoint. Instead, regular users can create one by simply attempting to access it (with e. g. something like
AUR uses AutoFS. Users need to be enabled to use it with
afuse -o mount_template='sshfs -o ServerAliveInterval=10 -o reconnect %r:/ %m' -o unmount_template='fusermount -u -z %m' ~/mnt/sshAUR is a general-purpose userspace automounter for FUSE filesystems. It works well with sshfs. No user-activation is necessary. Example invocation:
An example on how to use sshfs to mount a remote filesystem through
USERNAME@HOSTNAME_OR_IP:/REMOTE/DIRECTORY /LOCAL/MOUNTPOINT fuse.sshfs defaults,_netdev 0 0
Take for example the fstab line
firstname.lastname@example.org:/home/llib/FAH /media/FAH2 fuse.sshfs defaults,_netdev 0 0
The above will work automatically if you are using an SSH key for the user. See Using SSH Keys.
If you want to use sshfs with multiple users:
email@example.com:/home/user /media/user fuse.sshfs defaults,allow_other,_netdev 0 0
Again, it is important to set the _netdev mount option to make sure the network is available before trying to mount.
Secure user access
When automounting via
/etc/fstab, the filesystem will generally be mounted by root. By default, this produces undesireable results if you wish access as an ordinary user and limit access to other users.
An example mountpoint configuration:
USERNAME@HOSTNAME_OR_IP:/REMOTE/DIRECTORY /LOCAL/MOUNTPOINT fuse.sshfs noauto,x-systemd.automount,_netdev,user,idmap=user,transform_symlinks,identityfile=/home/USERNAME/.ssh/id_rsa,allow_other,default_permissions,uid=USER_ID_N,gid=USER_GID_N 0 0
Summary of the relevant options:
- allow_other - Allow other users than the mounter (i.e. root) to access the share.
- default_permissions - Allow kernel to check permissions, i.e. use the actual permissions on the remote filesystem. This allows prohibiting access to everybody otherwise granted by allow_other.
- uid, gid - set reported ownership of files to given values; uid is the numeric user ID of your user, gid is the numeric group ID of your user.
sshfs can automatically convert your local and remote user IDs.
Add the idmap option with user value to translate UID of connecting user:
# sshfs -o idmap=user sessy@mycomputer:/home/sessy /mnt/sessy -C -p 9876
This will map UID of the remote user "sessy" to the local user, who runs this process ("root" in the above example) and GID remains unchanged. If you need more precise control over UID and GID translation, look at the options idmap=file and uidfile and gidfile.
Read the SSH Checklist Wiki entry first. Further issues to check are:
1. Is your SSH login sending additional information from server's
/etc/issue file e.g.? This might confuse SSHFS. You should temporarily deactivate server's
$ mv /etc/issue /etc/issue.orig
2. Keep in mind that most SSH related troubleshooting articles you will find on the web are not Systemd related. Often
/etc/fstab definitions wrongly begin with
sshfs#user@host:/mnt/server/folder ... fuse ... instead of using the syntax
user@host:/mnt/server/folder ... fuse.sshfs ... x-systemd, ....
3. Check that the owner of server's source folder and content is owned by the server's user.
$ chown -R USER_S: /mnt/servers/folder
4. The server's user ID can be different from the client's one. Obviously both user names have to be the same. You just have to care for the client's user IDs. SSHFS will translate the UID for you with the following mount options:
5. Check that the client's target mount point (folder) is owned by the client user. This folder should have the same user ID as defined in SSHFS's mount options.
$ chown -R USER_C: /mnt/client/folder
6. Check that the client's mount point (folder) is empty. By default you cannot mount SSHFS folders to non-empty folders.
7. If you want to automount SSH shares by using an SSH public key authentication (no password) via
/etc/fstab, you can use this line as an example:
USER_S@SERVER:/mnt/on/server /nmt/on/client fuse.sshfs x-systemd.automount,_netdev,user,idmap=user,transform_symlinks,identityfile=/home/USER_C/.ssh/id_rsa,allow_other,default_permissions,uid=USER_C_ID,gid=GROUP_C_ID,umask=0 0 0
Considering the following example settings ...
SERVER = Server host name (serv) USER_S = Server user name (pete) USER_C = Client user name (pete) USER_S_ID = Server user ID (1004) USER_C_ID = Client user ID (1000) GROUP_C_ID = Client user's group ID (100)
you get the client user's ID and group ID with
$ id USERNAME
this is the final SSHFS mount row in
pete@serv:/mnt/on/server /nmt/on/client fuse.sshfs x-systemd.automount,_netdev,user,idmap=user,transform_symlinks,identityfile=/home/pete/.ssh/id_rsa,allow_other,default_permissions,uid=1004,gid=1000,umask=0 0 0
8. If you know another issue for this checklist please add it the list above.
Connection reset by peer
- If you are trying to access the remote system with a hostname, try using its IP address, as it can be a domain name solving issue. Make sure you edit
/etc/hostswith the server details.
- If you are using non-default key names and are passing it as
-i .ssh/my_key, this will not work. You have to use
-o IdentityFile=/home/user/.ssh/my_key, with the full path to the key.
- If your /root/.ssh/config is a symlink, you will be getting this error as well. See this serverfault topic
- Adding the option '
sshfs_debug' (as in '
sshfs -o sshfs_debug user@server ...') can help in resolving the issue.
- If that doesn't reveal anything useful, you might also try adding the option '
- If you are trying to sshfs into a router running DD-WRT or the like, there is a solution here. (note that the -osftp_server=/opt/libexec/sftp-server option can be used to the sshfs command in stead of patching dropbear)
- Old Forum thread: sshfs: Connection reset by peer
- Make sure your user can log into the server (especially when using AllowUsers)
- Make sure
Subsystem sftp /usr/lib/ssh/sftp-serveris enabled in
sshfs -o sshfs_debug,IdentityFile=</path/to/key> user@server ...')
Remote host has disconnected
If you receive this message directly after attempting to use sshfs:
- First make sure that the remote machine has sftp installed! It will not work, if not.
opkg install openssh-sftp-serverwill do the trick
- Then, try checking the path of the
/etc/ssh/sshd_configon the remote machine to see, if it is valid. You can check the path to it with
find / -name sftp-server.
For Arch Linux the default value in
Subsystem sftp /usr/lib/ssh/sftp-server.
Freezing apps (e.g. Nautilus, Gedit)
If you experience freezing/hanging (stopped responding) applications, you may need to disable write-access to the
# chattr +i /home/USERNAME/.local/share/recently-used.xbel
See the following bug report for more details and/or solutions.
Shutdown hangs when sshfs is mounted
Systemd may hang on shutdown if an sshfs mount was mounted manually and not unmounted before shutdown. To solve this problem, create this file (as root):
[Unit] After=network.target [Service] RemainAfterExit=yes ExecStart=-/bin/true ExecStop=-/usr/bin/pkill sshfs [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
Then enable the service:
systemctl enable killsshfs.service