Difference between revisions of "Samba"

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{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary start|Summary}}
+
{{Related|Active Directory Integration}}
{{Article summary text|Installing, configuring and troubleshooting Samba}}
+
{{Related|Samba/Active Directory domain controller}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
+
{{Related|NFS}}
{{Article summary wiki|NFS}}
+
{{Related articles end}}
{{Article summary wiki|Samba Domain Controller}}
+
{{Article summary end}}
+
  
 +
'''Samba''' is a re-implementation of the [[wikipedia:Server_Message_Block|SMB/CIFS]] networking protocol, it facilitates file and printer sharing among Linux and Windows systems as an alternative to [[NFS]]. Some users say that Samba is easily configured and that operation is very straight-forward. However, many new users run into problems with its complexity and non-intuitive mechanism. This article provides instructions for users on how to setup Samba. It is strongly suggested that the user sticks close to the following directions.
  
'''Samba''' is a re-implementation of the SMB/CIFS networking protocol, it facilitates file and printer sharing among Linux and Windows systems as an alternative to [[NFS]].  Some users say that Samba is easily configured and that operation is very straight-forward.  However, many new users run into problems with its complexity and non-intuitive mechanism.  It is strongly suggested that the user stick close to the following directions.
+
== Server configuration ==
  
==Required packages==
+
To share files with Samba, [[install]] the {{Pkg|samba}} package.
===Server===
+
To share files with Samba, install {{Pkg|samba}}, from the [[Official Repositories]].
+
  
===Client===
+
The Samba server is configured in {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf.default}}. Copy the default Samba configuration file to {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}:
Only {{Pkg|smbclient}} is required to access files from a Samba/SMB/CIFS server. It is also available from the Official Repositories.
+
# cp /etc/samba/smb.conf.default /etc/samba/smb.conf
 +
Otherwise, smbd will fail to start.
  
==Server configuration==
+
=== Creating a share ===
The {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}} file must be created before starting the service. Once that is set up, users may opt for using an advanced configuration interface like SWAT.
+
  
As root, copy the default Samba configuration file to {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}:
+
Edit {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}, scroll down to the '''Share Definitions''' section. The default configuration automatically creates a share for each user's home directory. However, users cannot actually log in unless they add a users wildcard.
{{bc|# cp /etc/samba/smb.conf.default /etc/samba/smb.conf}}
+
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|2=
 +
...
 +
[homes]
 +
  comment = Home Directories
 +
  browseable = no
 +
  writable = yes
 +
  valid users = %S
 +
}}
  
===Creating a share===
+
It also creates a share for printers by default. There are a number of commented sample configurations included. More information about available options for shared resources can be found in {{ic|man smb.conf}}. [http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/manpages-3/smb.conf.5.html There] is also an on-line version available.
Edit {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}, scroll down to the '''Share Definitions''' section. The default configuration automatically creates a share for each user's home directory. It also creates a share for printers by default.
+
  
There are a number of commented sample configurations included. More information about available options for shared resources can be found in {{ic|man smb.conf}}. [http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/manpages-3/smb.conf.5.html Here] is the on-line version.
+
On Windows side, be sure to change {{ic|smb.conf}} to the in-use Windows Workgroup (default: {{ic|WORKGROUP}}).
  
===Adding a user===
+
=== Starting services ===
To log into a Samba share, a samba user is needed. The user '''must''' already have a [[Users and Groups|Linux user account]] with the same name on the server, otherwise running the next command will fail:
+
# pdbedit -a -u <user>
+
  
{{Note|As of version 3.4.0, smbpasswd is no longer used by default. Existing smbpasswd databases can be [[Samba/Troubleshooting#Changes_in_Samba_version_3.4.0|converted to the new format]]}}
+
To provide basic file sharing through SMB [[start/enable]] {{ic|smbd.service}} and/or {{ic|nmbd.service}} services. See [http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/manpages-3/smbd.8.html smbd] and [http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/manpages-3/nmbd.8.html nmbd] manpages for details, as the {{ic|nmbd.service}} service may not always be required.
  
=== Web-based configuration (SWAT)===
+
{{Tip|Instead of having the service running since boot, you can enable {{ic|smbd.socket}} so the daemon is started on the first incoming connection. Do not forget to disable {{ic|smbd.service}}.}}
'''SWAT''' (Samba Web Administration Tool) is a facility that is part of the Samba suite. Whether or not to use this tool remains a matter of personal preference. It does allow for quick configuration and has context-sensitive help for each {{ic|smb.conf}} parameter. SWAT also provides an interface for monitoring of current state of connection(s), and  allows network-wide MS Windows network password management.
+
  
{{Warning|Before using SWAT, be warned that SWAT will completely replace {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}} with a fully optimized file that has been stripped of all comments, and only non-default settings will be written to the file.}}
+
=== Creating usershare path ===
 +
{{Note|This is an optional feature. Skip this section if you do not need it.}}
  
To use SWAT, first install {{Pkg|xinetd}}, available in the [[Official Repositories]].
+
"Usershare" is a feature that gives non-root users the capability to add, modify, and delete their own share definitions.  
  
Edit {{ic|/etc/xinetd.d/swat}}. To enable SWAT, change the {{ic|1=disable = yes}} line to {{ic|1=disable = no}}.
+
This creates the usershare directory in {{ic|/var/lib/samba}}:
  
{{hc|/etc/xinetd.d/swat|<nowiki>
+
# mkdir -p /var/lib/samba/usershare
service swat
+
{
+
        type                    = UNLISTED
+
        protocol                = tcp
+
        port                    = 901
+
        socket_type            = stream
+
        wait                    = no
+
        user                    = root
+
        server                  = /usr/sbin/swat
+
        log_on_success          += HOST DURATION
+
        log_on_failure          += HOST
+
        disable                = no
+
}</nowiki>}}
+
  
Alternatively, add an entry for swat to {{ic|/etc/services}} and omit the first 3 lines of the configuration.
+
This makes the group sambashare:
  
Then start the "xinetd" [[Daemons|daemon]].
+
# groupadd -r sambashare
  
The web interface can be accessed on port 901 by default:
+
This changes the owner of the directory and group you just created to root:
{{ic|http://localhost:901/}}
+
  
{{Note|An all-encompasing [[Webmin]] tool is also available, and the SWAT module can be loaded there.}}
+
# chown root:sambashare /var/lib/samba/usershare
  
=== Starting the service ===
+
This changes the permissions of the usershare directory so that users in the group sambashare can read, write and execute files:
Start/enable Samba via the '''smbd''' and '''nmbd''' [[daemon]]s.
+
  
==Client configuration==
+
# chmod 1770 /var/lib/samba/usershare
Shared resources from other computers on the LAN may be accessed and mounted locally by GUI or CLI methods. The graphical manner is limited since most lightweight Desktop Environments do not have a native way to facilitate accessing these shared resources.
+
  
There are two parts to share access. First is the underlying file system mechanism, and second is the interface which allows the user to select to mount shared resources. Some environments have the first part built into them.
+
Set the following variables in {{ic|smb.conf}} configuration file:
  
===Manual mounting===
+
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|2=
Install {{pkg|smbclient}} from the [[Official Repositories]].
+
...
 +
[global]
 +
  usershare path = /var/lib/samba/usershare
 +
  usershare max shares = 100
 +
  usershare allow guests = yes
 +
  usershare owner only = yes
 +
  ...
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Add your user to the ''sambashare'' group. Replace {{ic|''your_username''}} with the name of your user:
 +
 
 +
# gpasswd sambashare -a ''your_username''
 +
 
 +
Restart {{ic|smbd.service}} and {{ic|nmbd.service}} services.
 +
 
 +
Log out and log back in. You should now be able to configure your samba share using GUI. For example, in [[Thunar]] you can right click on any directory and share it on the network. If you want to share pathes inside your home directory you must make it listable for the group others.
 +
 
 +
=== Adding a user ===
 +
 
 +
Samba requires a Linux user account - you may use an existing user account or create a [[Users and groups#User management|new one]].
 +
 
 +
Although the user name is shared with Linux system, Samba uses a password separate from that of the Linux user accounts. Replace {{ic|samba_user}} with the chosen Samba user account:
 +
 
 +
# smbpasswd -a ''samba_user''
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Depending on the [https://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/manpages-3/smb.conf.5.html#SERVERROLE server role], existing [[File permissions and attributes]] may need to be altered for the Samba user account.}}
 +
{{Note|If you want the new user only to be allowed to remotely access the file server shares through Samba, you can restrict other login options - disabling shell ({{ic|usermod --shell /usr/bin/nologin --lock username}}), disabling SSH logons (/etc/ssh/sshd_conf, option {{ic|AllowUsers}}), etc... Also see [[Security]] for hardening your system.}}
 +
 
 +
=== Changing Samba user's password ===
 +
 
 +
To change a user's password, use {{ic|smbpasswd}}:
 +
 
 +
# smbpasswd ''samba_user''
 +
 
 +
=== Required ports ===
 +
 
 +
If you are using a [[firewall]], do not forget to open required ports (usually 137-139 + 445). For a complete list please check [https://wiki.samba.org/index.php/Samba_port_usage Samba port usage].
 +
 
 +
=== Sample configuration ===
 +
See {{ic|man smb.conf}} for details and explanation of configuration options. There is also an [http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/manpages-3/smb.conf.5.html online version] available.
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|<nowiki>
 +
[global]
 +
  deadtime = 60 ; This is useful to stop a server's resources being exhausted by a large number of inactive connections
 +
  disable netbios = yes ; Disable netbios announcing
 +
  dns proxy = no ; nmbd spawns a second copy of itself to do the DNS name lookup requests on 'yes'
 +
  hosts allow = 192.168.1. 127. 10. ; This parameter is a comma, space, or tab delimited set of hosts which are permitted to access a service
 +
  invalid users = root ; This is a list of users that should not be allowed to login to this service
 +
  security = user ; Use as standalone file server
 +
  map to guest = Bad User ; Means user logins with an invalid password are rejected, or allow guest login and mapped into the guest account
 +
  max connections = 100 ; Number of simultaneous connections to a service to be limited
 +
  workgroup = WORKGROUP ; Workgroup the server will appear to be in when queried by clients
 +
 
 +
  ; Uncomment the following lines to disable printer support
 +
  ;load printers = no
 +
  ;printing = bsd
 +
  ;printcap name = /dev/null
 +
  ;disable spoolss = yes
 +
 
 +
  ; Default permissions for all shares 
 +
  inherit owner = yes ; Take the ownership of the parent directory when creating files/folders
 +
  create mask = 0664 ; Create file mask
 +
  directory mask = 0775 ; Create director mask
 +
  force create mode = 0664 ; Force create file mask
 +
  force directory mode = 0775 ; Force create directory mask
 +
 
 +
; Private Share
 +
[private] ; translate into: \\server\private
 +
  comment = My Private Share ; Seen next to a share when a client queries the server
 +
  path = /path/to/data ; Directory to which the user of the service is to be given access
 +
  read only = no ; An inverted synonym to writeable.
 +
  valid users = user1 user2 @group1 @group2; restrict a service to a particular set of users and/or groups
 +
 
 +
; Public Share
 +
;[public]
 +
; comment = My Public Share
 +
; path = /path/to/public
 +
; read only = yes
 +
; guest ok = yes; No password required to connect to the service
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
Restart the {{ic|smbd}} service to apply configuration changes.
 +
{{note|Connected clients may need to reconnect before configuration changes take effect.}}
 +
 
 +
=== Validate configuration ===
 +
The command {{ic|testparm}} validates the configuration of {{ic|smb.conf}}:
 +
 
 +
# testparm -s
 +
 
 +
== Client configuration ==
 +
 
 +
For a lightweight method (without support for listing public shares, etc.), only install {{Pkg|cifs-utils}} to provide {{ic|/usr/bin/mount.cifs}}.
 +
 
 +
Install {{Pkg|smbclient}} for an ftp-like command line interface. See {{ic|man smbclient}} for commonly used commands.
 +
 
 +
Depending on the [[desktop environment]], GUI methods may be available. See [[#File manager configuration]] for use with a file manager.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|After installing {{Pkg|cifs-utils}} or {{Pkg|smbclient}}, load the {{ic|cifs}} [[kernel module]] or reboot to prevent mount fails.}}
 +
 
 +
=== List Public Shares ===
 +
To following command lists public shares on a server:
 +
 
 +
$ smbclient -L ''hostname'' -U%
 +
 
 +
=== WINS host names ===
 +
 
 +
The {{pkg|smbclient}} package provides a driver to resolve host names using WINS. To enable it, add “wins” to the “hosts” line in /etc/nsswitch.conf.
  
To list  public shares on a server:
+
=== Manual mounting ===
{{bc|$ smbclient -L <hostname> -U%}}
+
  
 
Create a mount point for the share:
 
Create a mount point for the share:
{{bc|# mkdir /mnt/MOUNTPOINT}}
 
  
Mount the share using the {{ic|mount.cifs}} type. Not all the options listed below are needed or desirable (ie. {{ic|password}}).
+
# mkdir /mnt/''mountpoint''
{{bc|# <nowiki>mount -t cifs //SERVER/SHARENAME /mnt/MOUNTPOINT -o user=USERNAME,password=PASSWORD,workgroup=WORKGROUP,ip=SERVERIP</nowiki>}}
+
{{ic|'''SERVER'''}}
+
:The Windows system name.
+
{{ic|'''SHARENAME'''}}
+
:The shared directory.
+
{{ic|'''MOUNTPOINT'''}}
+
:The local directory where the share will be mounted.
+
{{ic|'''-o <nowiki>[options]</nowiki>'''}}
+
:See {{ic|man mount.cifs}} for more information:
+
{{Note|Abstain from using a trailing '''/'''. {{ic|//SERVER/SHARENAME'''/'''}} will not work.}}
+
====Add Share to /etc/fstab====
+
The simplest way to add an fstab entry is something like this:
+
{{hc|/etc/fstab|<nowiki>
+
//SERVER/SHARENAME /mnt/MOUNTPOINT cifs noauto,username=USER,password=PASSWORD,workgroup=WORKGROUP,ip=SERVERIP 0 0</nowiki>}}
+
However, storing passwords in a world readable file is not recommended! A safer method would be to use a credentials file. As an example, create a file and {{ic|chmod 600 <filename>}} so only the owning user can read and write to it. It should contain the following information:
+
{{hc|/path/to/credentials/sambacreds|<nowiki>
+
username=USERNAME
+
password=PASSWORD</nowiki>}}
+
and the line in your fstab should look something like this:
+
{{hc|/etc/fstab|<nowiki>
+
//SERVER/SHARENAME /mnt/MOUNTPOINT cifs noauto,username=USER,credentials=/path/to/credentials/sambacreds,workgroup=WORKGROUP,ip=SERVERIP 0 0</nowiki>}}
+
If using '''systemd''' (modern installations), one can utilize the '''comment=systemd.automount''' option, which speeds up service boot by a few seconds. Also, one can map current user and group to make life a bit easier, utilizing '''uid''' and '''gid''' options:
+
{{hc|/etc/fstab|<nowiki>//SERVER/SHARENAME /mnt/MOUNTPOINT cifs noauto,credentials=/path/to/smbcredentials,comment=systemd.automount,uid=USERNAME,gid=USERGROUP 0 0</nowiki>}}
+
  
====User mounting====
+
Mount the share using {{ic|mount.cifs}} as {{ic|type}}. Not all the options listed below are needed or desirable:
{{hc|/etc/fstab|<nowiki>//SERVER/SHARENAME /mnt/MOUNTPOINT cifs users,noauto,credentials=/path/to/smbcredentials,workgroup=WORKGROUP,ip=SERVERIP 0 0</nowiki>}}
+
{{bc|1=
{{note|Note: The option is user'''s''' (plural). For other filesystem types handled by mount, this option is usually ''user''; sans the "'''s'''".}}
+
# mount -t cifs //''SERVER''/''sharename'' /mnt/''mountpoint'' -o user=''username'',password=''password'',uid=''username'',gid=''group'',workgroup=''workgroup'',ip=''serverip'',iocharset=''utf8''
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
To allow users to mount it as long as the mount point resides in a directory controllable by the user; i.e. the user's home, append the {{ic|users}} mount option.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|The option is user'''s''' (plural). For other filesystem types handled by mount, this option is usually ''user''; sans the "'''s'''".}}
 +
{{Warning|Using {{ic|uid}} and/or {{ic|gid}} as mount options may cause I/O errors, it's recommended to set/check the [[File permissions and attributes]] instead.}}
 +
 
 +
''SERVER''
 +
: The server name.
 +
 
 +
''sharename''
 +
: The shared directory.
 +
 
 +
''mountpoint''
 +
: The local directory where the share will be mounted.
 +
 
 +
{{ic|<nowiki>-o [options]</nowiki>}}
 +
: See {{ic|man mount.cifs}} for more information.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|
 +
* The output "mount error(13): Permission denied", might be due to a bug in mount.cifs. See the following bug report. https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/43015#comment130771
 +
Try specifying the option <nowiki>"sec=ntlmv2"</nowiki> as workaround.
 +
* Abstain from using a trailing {{ic|/}}. {{ic|//''SERVER''/''sharename'''''/'''}} will not work.
 +
* If your mount does not work stable, stutters or freezes, try to enable different SMB protocol version with {{ic|1=vers=}} option. For example, {{ic|1=vers=2.0}} for Windows Vista mount.
 +
* If having timeouts on a mounted network share with cifs on a shutdown, see [[WPA supplicant#Problem with mounted network shares (cifs) and shutdown (Date: 1st Oct. 2015)]].
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
===== Storing Share Passwords =====
 +
Storing passwords in a world readable file is not recommended. A safer method is to create a credentials file:
 +
{{hc|/path/to/credentials/share|2=
 +
username=''myuser''
 +
password=''mypass''
 +
}}
 +
Replace {{ic|<nowiki>username=myuser,password=mypass</nowiki>}} with {{ic|<nowiki>credentials=/path/to/credentials/share</nowiki>}}.
 +
 
 +
The credential file should explicitly readable/writeable to root:
 +
# chmod 600 /path/to/credentials/share
 +
 
 +
=== Automatic mounting ===
 +
{{Note|You may need to [[enable]] {{ic|systemd-networkd-wait-online.service}} or {{ic| NetworkManager-wait-online.service}} (depending on your setup) to proper enable booting on start-up.}}
 +
 
 +
==== As mount entry ====
 +
 
 +
This is an simple example of a {{ic|cifs}} [[fstab|mount entry]] that requires authentication:
 +
{{hc|/etc/fstab|2=
 +
//''SERVER''/''sharename'' /mnt/''mountpoint'' cifs username=''myuser'',password=''mypass'' 0 0
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Space in sharename should be replaced by {{ic|\040}} (ASCII code for space in octal). For example, {{ic|//''SERVER''/share name}} on the command line should be {{ic|//''SERVER''/share\040name}} in {{ic|/etc/fstab}}.}}
 +
 
 +
To speed up the service on boot, add the {{ic|1=x-systemd.automount}} option to the entry:
 +
{{hc|/etc/fstab|2=
 +
//''SERVER''/''SHARENAME'' /mnt/''mountpoint'' cifs credentials=''/path/to/smbcredentials/share'',x-systemd.automount 0 0
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== As systemd unit ====
 +
Create a new {{ic|.mount}} file inside {{ic|/etc/systemd/system}}, e.g. {{ic|mnt-myshare.mount}}.
 +
 
 +
{{ic|1=Requires=}} replace (if needed) with your [[:Category:Network_configuration|Network configuration]].
 +
 
 +
{{ic|1=What=}} path to share
 +
 
 +
{{ic|1=Where=}} path to mount the share
 +
 
 +
{{ic|1=Options=}} share mounting options
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/mnt-myshare.mount|<nowiki>
 +
[Unit]
 +
Description=Mount Share at boot
 +
Requires=systemd-networkd.service
 +
After=network-online.target
 +
Wants=network-online.target
 +
 
 +
[Mount]
 +
What=//server/share
 +
Where=/mnt/myshare
 +
Options=credentials=/etc/samba/creds/myshare,iocharset=utf8,rw,x-systemd.automount
 +
Type=cifs
 +
TimeoutSec=30
 +
 
 +
[Install]
 +
WantedBy=multi-user.target
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
To use {{ic|myshare.mount}}, [[start]] the unit and [[enable]] it to run on system boot.
 +
 
 +
==== smbnetfs ====
 +
 
 +
{{Note|1=smbnetfs needs an intact Samba server setup.
 +
See above on how to do that.}}
 +
 
 +
First, check if you can see all the shares you are interested in mounting:
 +
$ smbtree -U ''remote_user''
 +
 
 +
If that does not work, find and modify the following line
 +
in {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}} accordingly:
 +
 
 +
domain master = auto
 +
 
 +
Now [[restart]] {{ic|smbd.service}} and {{ic|nmbd.service}}.
 +
 
 +
If everything works as expected, [[pacman#Installing specific packages|install]] {{Pkg|smbnetfs}} from the official repositories.
 +
 
 +
Then, add the following line to {{ic|/etc/fuse.conf}}:
 +
 
 +
user_allow_other
 +
 
 +
Now copy the directory {{ic|/etc/smbnetfs/.smb}} to your home directory:
  
This will allow users to mount it as long as the mount point resides in a directory controllable by the user; i.e. the user's home. For users to be allowed to mount and unmount the Samba shares with mount points that they do not own, use [[Samba#smbnetfs|smbnetfs]], or grant privileges using [[sudo]].
+
$ cp -a /etc/smbnetfs/.smb ~
  
===Automatic Mounting===
+
Then create a link to {{ic|smb.conf}}:
There are several ways to easily browse shared resources:
+
====smbnetfs====
+
Install {{pkg|smbnetfs}}, from the [[Official Repositories]].
+
  
Add the following line to {{ic|/etc/fuse.conf}}:
+
$ ln -sf /etc/samba/smb.conf ~/.smb/smb.conf
{{bc|user_allow_other}}
+
and load the {{ic|fuse}} [[kernel module]]:
+
{{bc|# modprobe fuse}}
+
  
If a username and a password are required to access some of the shared folders, edit /etc/smbnetfs/.smb/smbnetfs.conf and uncomment the line starting with "auth":
+
If a username and a password are required to access some of the shared folders, edit {{ic|~/.smb/smbnetfs.auth}}
 +
to include one or more entries like this:
  
{{hc|/etc/smbnetfs/.smb/smbnetfs.conf|
+
{{hc|~/.smb/smbnetfs.auth|
 
auth "hostname" "username" "password"
 
auth "hostname" "username" "password"
 
}}
 
}}
  
Make sure to {{ic|chmod 600 /etc/smbnetfs/.smb/smbnetfs.conf}}, and any include files for smbnetfs to work correctly.
+
It is also possible to add entries for specific hosts to be mounted by smbnetfs, if necessary.
 +
More details can be found in {{ic|~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf}}.
 +
 
 +
If you are using the Dolphin or Nautilus file managers, you may want to add the following to {{ic|~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf}} to avoid "Disk full" errors as smbnetfs by default will report 0 bytes of free space:
 +
{{hc|~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf|
 +
free_space_size 1073741824
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
When you are done with the configuration, you need to run
 +
$ chmod 600 ~/.smb/smbnetfs.*
 +
Otherwise, smbnetfs complains about 'insecure config file permissions'.
 +
 
 +
Finally, to mount your Samba network neighbourhood to a directory of your choice, call
 +
$ smbnetfs ''mount_point''
  
 
===== Daemon =====
 
===== Daemon =====
Start and enable the '''smbnetfs''' [[daemon]].
 
  
====fusesmb====
+
The Arch Linux package also maintains an additional system-wide operation mode for smbnetfs. To enable it, you need to make the
{{Note|1=Because {{ic|smbclient 3.2.X}} is malfunctioning with {{ic|fusesmb}}, revert to using older versions if necessary. See the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=58434 relevant forum topic] for details.}}
+
said modifications in the directoy {{ic|/etc/smbnetfs/.smb}}.
 +
 
 +
Then, you can start and/or enable the {{ic|smbnetfs}} [[daemon]] as usual. The system-wide mount point is at {{ic|/mnt/smbnet/}}.
  
# Install {{AUR|fusesmb}}, available in the [[Arch User Repository]].
+
==== autofs ====
# Create a mount point: {{ic|# mkdir /mnt/fusesmb}}
+
# Load {{ic|fuse}} [[kernel module]].
+
# Mount the shares: {{bc|# fusesmb -o allow_other /mnt/fusesmb}}
+
  
====autofs====
 
 
See [[Autofs]] for information on the kernel-based automounter for Linux.
 
See [[Autofs]] for information on the kernel-based automounter for Linux.
  
===File Manager Configuration===
+
=== File manager configuration ===
====Nautilus====
+
In order to access samba shares through Nautilus, install the {{pkg|gvfs-smb}} and {{pkg|gnome-vfs}} packages, available in the [[Official Repositories]].
+
  
Press {{keypress|Ctrl+L}} and enter {{ic|smb://servername/share}} in the location bar to access your share.
+
==== GNOME Files, Nemo, Caja, Thunar and PCManFM ====
  
The mounted share is likely to be present at {{ic|/run/user/<your UID>/gvfs}} in the filesystem.
+
In order to access samba shares through GNOME Files, Nemo, Caja, Thunar or PCManFM, install the {{Pkg|gvfs-smb}} package, available in the [[official repositories]].
  
====Thunar and pcmanfm====
+
Press {{ic|Ctrl+l}} and enter {{ic|smb://''servername''/''share''}} in the location bar to access your share.
For access using Thunar or pcmanfm, install {{pkg|gvfs-smb}}, available in the Official Repositories.  
+
  
Go to {{ic|smb://servername/share}}, to access your share.
+
The mounted share is likely to be present at {{ic|/run/user/''your_UID''/gvfs}} or {{ic|~/.gvfs}} in the filesystem.
  
====KDE====
+
==== KDE ====
KDE, has the ability to browse Samba shares built in. Therefore do not need any additional packages. However, for a GUI in the KDE System Settings, install the {{pkg|kdenetwork-filesharing}} package from the [[Official Repositories]]
+
 
 +
KDE, has the ability to browse Samba shares built in. Therefore do not need any additional packages. However, for a GUI in the KDE System Settings, install the {{Pkg|kdenetwork-filesharing}} package from the official repositories.
 +
 
 +
If when navigating with Dolphin you get a "Time Out" Error, you should uncomment and edit this line in smb.conf:{{bc|1=name resolve order = lmhosts bcast host wins}}
 +
as shown in this [http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1605499 page].
 +
 
 +
==== Other graphical environments ====
  
====Other Graphical Environments====
 
 
There are a number of useful programs, but they may need to have packages created for them. This can be done with the Arch package build system. The good thing about these others is that they do not require a particular environment to be installed to support them, and so they bring along less baggage.
 
There are a number of useful programs, but they may need to have packages created for them. This can be done with the Arch package build system. The good thing about these others is that they do not require a particular environment to be installed to support them, and so they bring along less baggage.
  
* {{pkg|pyneighborhood}} is available in the [[Official Repositories]].
+
* {{Pkg|pyneighborhood}} is available in the official repositories.
* LinNeighborhood, RUmba, xffm-samba plugin for Xffm are not available in the official repositories or the [[AUR]]. As they are not officially (or even unofficially supported), they may be obsolete and may not work at all.
+
* LinNeighborhood, RUmba, xffm-samba plugin for Xffm are not available in the official repositories or the AUR. As they are not officially (or even unofficially supported), they may be obsolete and may not work at all.
 +
 
 +
== Tips and tricks ==
 +
=== Block certain file extensions on Samba share ===
 +
{{Note|Setting this parameter will affect the performance of Samba, as it will be forced to check all files and directories for a match as they are scanned.}}
 +
Samba offers an option to block files with certain patterns, like file extensions. This option can be used to prevent dissemination of viruses or to dissuade users from wasting space with certain files. More information about this option can be found in {{ic|man smb.conf}}.
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|2=
 +
...
 +
[myshare]
 +
  comment = Private
 +
  path = /mnt/data
 +
  read only = no
 +
  veto files = /*.exe/*.com/*.dll/*.bat/*.vbs/*.tmp/*.mp3/*.avi/*.mp4/*.wmv/*.wma/
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== Discovering network shares ===
 +
If nothing is known about other systems on the local network, and automated tools such as [[#smbnetfs|smbnetfs]] are not available, the following methods allow one to manually probe for Samba shares.
 +
 
 +
1. First, install {{Pkg|nmap}} and {{Pkg|smbclient}} using [[pacman]]:
 +
# pacman -S nmap smbclient
 +
 
 +
2. {{ic|nmap}} checks which ports are open:
 +
# nmap -p 139 -sT 192.168.1.*
 +
 
 +
In this case, a scan on the 192.168.1.* IP address range and port 139 has been performed, resulting in:
 +
{{hc
 +
|$ nmap -sT 192.168.1.*
 +
|Starting nmap 3.78 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2005-02-15 11:45 PHT
 +
Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1:
 +
(The 1661 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
 +
PORT    STATE SERVICE
 +
'''139/tcp  open  netbios-ssn'''
 +
5000/tcp open  UPnP
 +
 
 +
Interesting ports on 192.168.1.5:
 +
(The 1662 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
 +
PORT    STATE SERVICE
 +
6000/tcp open  X11
 +
 
 +
Nmap run completed -- 256 IP addresses (2 hosts up) scanned in 7.255 seconds
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
The first result is another system; the second happens to be the client from where this scan was performed.
 +
 
 +
3. Now that systems with port 139 open are revealed, use {{ic|nmblookup}} to check for NetBIOS names:
 +
{{hc
 +
|$ nmblookup -A 192.168.1.1
 +
|Looking up status of 192.168.1.1
 +
        PUTER          <00> -        B <ACTIVE>
 +
        HOMENET        <00> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
 +
        PUTER          <03> -        B <ACTIVE>
 +
        '''PUTER          <20> -        B <ACTIVE>'''
 +
        HOMENET        <1e> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
 +
        USERNAME        <03> -        B <ACTIVE>
 +
        HOMENET        <1d> -        B <ACTIVE>
 +
        MSBROWSE        <01> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
Regardless of the output, look for '''<20>''', which shows the host with open services.
 +
 
 +
4. Use {{ic|smbclient}} to list which services are shared on ''PUTER''. If prompted for a password, pressing enter should still display the list:
 +
{{hc
 +
|$ smbclient -L \\PUTER
 +
|<nowiki>
 +
Sharename      Type      Comment
 +
---------      ----      -------
 +
MY_MUSIC        Disk
 +
SHAREDDOCS      Disk
 +
PRINTER$        Disk
 +
PRINTER        Printer
 +
IPC$            IPC      Remote Inter Process Communication
 +
 
 +
Server              Comment
 +
---------            -------
 +
PUTER
 +
 
 +
Workgroup            Master
 +
---------            -------
 +
HOMENET              PUTER
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
=== Remote control of Windows computer ===
 +
Samba offers a set of tools for communication with Windows. These can be handy if access to a Windows computer through remote desktop is not an option, as shown by some examples.
 +
 
 +
Send shutdown command with a comment:
 +
 +
$ net rpc shutdown -C "comment" -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD
 +
A forced shutdown instead can be invoked by changing -C with comment to a single -f. For a restart, only add -r, followed by a -C or -f.
 +
 
 +
Stop and start services:
 +
 +
$ net rpc service stop SERVICENAME -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD
 +
 
 +
To see all possible net rpc command:
 +
 
 +
$ net rpc
 +
 
 +
===Share files without a username and password===
 +
Edit {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}} and add the following line:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>map to guest = Bad User</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
After this line:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>security = user</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
Restrict the shares data to a specific interface replace:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>;  interfaces = 192.168.12.2/24 192.168.13.2/24</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
with:
 +
 
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
interfaces = lo eth0
 +
bind interfaces only = true</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
Optionally edit the account that access the shares, edit the following line:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>;  guest account = nobody</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
For example:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>  guest account = pcguest</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
And do something in the likes of:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki># useradd -c "Guest User" -d /dev/null -s /bin/false pcguest</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
Then setup a "" password for user pcguest.
 +
 
 +
The last step is to create share directory (for write access make writable = yes):
 +
 
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
[Public Share]
 +
path = /path/to/public/share
 +
available = yes
 +
browsable = yes
 +
public = yes
 +
writable = no
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
{{note|Make sure the guest also has permission to visit /path, /path/to and /path/to/public, according to [http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/13858/do-the-parent-directorys-permissions-matter-when-accessing-a-subdirectory http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/13858/do-the-parent-directorys-permissions-matter-when-accessing-a-subdirectory]}}
 +
 
 +
==== Sample Passwordless Configuration ====
 +
This is the configuration I use with samba 4 for easy passwordless filesharing with family on a home network. Change any options needed to suit your network (workgroup and interface). I'm restricting it to the static IP I have on my ethernet interface, just delete that line if you do not care which interface is used.
 +
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|<nowiki>
 +
[global]
 +
 
 +
  workgroup = WORKGROUP
 +
 
 +
  server string = Media Server
 +
 
 +
  security = user
 +
  map to guest = Bad User
 +
 
 +
  log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log
 +
 
 +
  max log size = 50
 +
 
 +
 
 +
  interfaces = 192.168.2.194/24
 +
 
 +
 
 +
  dns proxy = no
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[media]
 +
  path = /shares
 +
  public = yes
 +
  only guest = yes
 +
  writable = yes
 +
 
 +
[storage]
 +
  path = /media/storage
 +
  public = yes
 +
  only guest = yes
 +
  writable = yes
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
=== Build Samba without CUPS ===
 +
 
 +
Just build without cups installed. From the [https://wiki.samba.org/index.php/Samba_as_a_print_server Samba Wiki]:
 +
<blockquote>Samba has built-in support [for CUPS] and defaults to CUPS if the development package (aka header files and libraries) could be found at compile time.</blockquote>
 +
 
 +
Of course, modifications to the PKGBUILD will also be necessary: libcups will have to be removed from the depends and makedepends arrays and other references to cups and printing will need to be deleted. In the case of the 4.1.9-1 PKGBUILD, 'other references' includes lines 169, 170 and 236:
 +
{{bc|
 +
    mkdir -p ${pkgdir}/usr/lib/cups/backend
 +
    ln -sf /usr/bin/smbspool ${pkgdir}/usr/lib/cups/backend/smb
 +
  install -d -m1777 ${pkgdir}/var/spool/samba
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
== Troubleshooting ==
 +
 
 +
=== Failed to start Samba SMB/CIFS server ===
 +
 
 +
Check if the permissions are set correctly for {{ic|/var/cache/samba/}} and restart the {{ic|smbd.service}} or {{ic|smbd.socket}}:
 +
# chmod 0755 /var/cache/samba/msg
 +
 
 +
=== Unable to overwrite files, permissions errors ===
 +
Possible solutions:
 +
*Append the mount option {{ic|nodfs}} to the {{ic|/etc/fstab}} [[#Add_Share_to_.2Fetc.2Ffstab|entry]].
 +
*Add {{ic|<nowiki>msdfs root = no</nowiki>}} to the {{ic|[global]}} section of the server's {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Windows clients keep asking for password even if Samba shares are created with guest permissions ===
 +
Set {{ic|map to guest}} inside the {{ic|global}} section of {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}:
 +
map to guest = Bad User
 +
 
 +
=== Windows 7 connectivity problems - mount error(12): cannot allocate memory ===
 +
 
 +
A known Windows 7 bug that causes "mount error(12): cannot allocate memory" on an otherwise perfect cifs share on the Linux end can be fixed by setting a few registry keys on the Windows box as follows:
 +
 
 +
*{{ic|HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management\LargeSystemCache}} (set to {{ic|1}})
 +
*{{ic|HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters\Size}} (set to {{ic|3}})
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, start Command Prompt in Admin Mode and execute the following:
 +
reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management" /v "LargeSystemCache" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
 +
reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters" /v "Size" /t REG_DWORD /d 3 /f
 +
 
 +
Do one of the following for the settings to take effect:
 +
* Restart Windows
 +
* Restart the Server service via services.msc
 +
* From the Command Prompt run: 'net stop lanmanserver' and 'net start lanmanserver' - The server may automatically restart after stopping it.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Googling will reveal another tweak recommending users to add a key modifying the "IRPStackSize" size.  This is incorrect for fixing this issue under Windows 7.  Do not attempt it.}}
 +
 
 +
[http://alan.lamielle.net/2009/09/03/windows-7-nonpaged-pool-srv-error-2017 Original article].
 +
 
 +
=== Trouble accessing a password-protected share from Windows ===
 +
 
 +
{{Note|This needs to be added to the '''local smb.conf''', not to the server's smb.conf}}
 +
 
 +
For trouble accessing a password protected share from Windows, try adding this to {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}:[http://blogs.computerworld.com/networking_nightmare_ii_adding_linux]
 +
 
 +
[global]
 +
# lanman fix
 +
client lanman auth = yes
 +
client ntlmv2 auth = no
 +
 
 +
=== Getting a dialog box up takes a long time ===
 +
 
 +
I had a problem that it took ~30 seconds to get a password dialog box up when trying to connect from both Windows XP/Windows 7. Analyzing the error.log on the server I saw:
 +
 
 +
[2009/11/11 06:20:12,  0] printing/print_cups.c:cups_connect(103)
 +
Unable to connect to CUPS server localhost:631 - Interrupted system call
 +
 
 +
This keeps samba from asking cups and also from complaining about /etc/printcap missing:
 +
 
 +
printing = bsd
 +
printcap name = /dev/null
 +
 
 +
=== Error: Failed to retrieve printer list: NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL ===
 +
 
 +
If you are a home user and using samba purely for file sharing from a server or NAS, you are probably not interested in sharing printers through it. If so, you can prevent this error from occurring by adding the following lines to your {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}:
 +
{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
load printers = No
 +
printing = bsd
 +
printcap name = /dev/null
 +
disable spoolss = Yes
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
[[Restart]] the samba service, {{ic|smbd.service}}, and then check your logs:
 +
{{bc|cat /var/log/samba/smbd.log}}
 +
and the error should now no longer be appearing.
 +
 
 +
=== Sharing a folder fails  ===
 +
 
 +
It means that while you are sharing a folder from ''Dolphin'' (file manager) and everything seems ok at first, after restarting ''Dolphin'' the share icon is gone from the shared folder, and also some output like this in terminal (''Konsole'') output:
 +
 
 +
‘net usershare’ returned error 255: net usershare: usershares are currently disabled
 +
 
 +
To fix it, enable usershare as described in [[#Creating usershare path]].
 +
 
 +
=== "Browsing" network fails with "Failed to retrieve share list from server" ===
 +
And you are using a firewall (iptables) because you do not trust your local (school, university, hotel) local network.  This may be due to the following: When the smbclient is browsing the local network it sends out a broadcast request on udp port 137.  The servers on the network then reply to your client but as the source address of this reply is different from the destination address iptables saw when sending the request for the listing out, iptables will not recognize the reply as being "ESTABLISHED" or "RELATED", and hence the packet is dropped.  A possible solution is to add:{{bc|
 +
iptables -t raw -A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns
 +
}}
 +
to your iptables setup.
 +
 
 +
=== You are not the owner of the folder ===
 +
 
 +
Simply try to reboot the system.
 +
 
 +
=== protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_INVALID_NETWORK_RESPONSE ===
 +
 
 +
The client probably does not have access to shares.  Make sure clients' IP address is in {{ic|1=hosts allow =}} line in {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL) ===
 +
 
 +
You are probably passing wrong server name to {{ic|smbclient}}.  To find out the server name, run {{ic|hostnamectl}} on the server and look at "Transient hostname" line
 +
 
 +
=== Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_REFUSED) ===
 +
 
 +
Make sure that the server has started. The shared directories should exist and be accessible.
  
 +
== See also ==
  
==See also==
 
* [[{{FULLPAGENAME}}/Tips and tricks|Tips and tricks]] - A dedicated page for alternate configurations and suggestions.
 
* [[{{FULLPAGENAME}}/Troubleshooting|Troubleshooting]] - A dedicated page for solving common (or not so common) issues.
 
 
* [http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/SambaIntro.html Samba: An Introduction]
 
* [http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/SambaIntro.html Samba: An Introduction]
 
* [http://www.samba.org/ Official Samba site]
 
* [http://www.samba.org/ Official Samba site]

Latest revision as of 11:49, 18 May 2016

Samba is a re-implementation of the SMB/CIFS networking protocol, it facilitates file and printer sharing among Linux and Windows systems as an alternative to NFS. Some users say that Samba is easily configured and that operation is very straight-forward. However, many new users run into problems with its complexity and non-intuitive mechanism. This article provides instructions for users on how to setup Samba. It is strongly suggested that the user sticks close to the following directions.

Contents

Server configuration

To share files with Samba, install the samba package.

The Samba server is configured in /etc/samba/smb.conf.default. Copy the default Samba configuration file to /etc/samba/smb.conf:

# cp /etc/samba/smb.conf.default /etc/samba/smb.conf

Otherwise, smbd will fail to start.

Creating a share

Edit /etc/samba/smb.conf, scroll down to the Share Definitions section. The default configuration automatically creates a share for each user's home directory. However, users cannot actually log in unless they add a users wildcard.

/etc/samba/smb.conf
...
[homes]
   comment = Home Directories
   browseable = no
   writable = yes
   valid users = %S

It also creates a share for printers by default. There are a number of commented sample configurations included. More information about available options for shared resources can be found in man smb.conf. There is also an on-line version available.

On Windows side, be sure to change smb.conf to the in-use Windows Workgroup (default: WORKGROUP).

Starting services

To provide basic file sharing through SMB start/enable smbd.service and/or nmbd.service services. See smbd and nmbd manpages for details, as the nmbd.service service may not always be required.

Tip: Instead of having the service running since boot, you can enable smbd.socket so the daemon is started on the first incoming connection. Do not forget to disable smbd.service.

Creating usershare path

Note: This is an optional feature. Skip this section if you do not need it.

"Usershare" is a feature that gives non-root users the capability to add, modify, and delete their own share definitions.

This creates the usershare directory in /var/lib/samba:

# mkdir -p /var/lib/samba/usershare

This makes the group sambashare:

# groupadd -r sambashare

This changes the owner of the directory and group you just created to root:

# chown root:sambashare /var/lib/samba/usershare

This changes the permissions of the usershare directory so that users in the group sambashare can read, write and execute files:

# chmod 1770 /var/lib/samba/usershare

Set the following variables in smb.conf configuration file:

/etc/samba/smb.conf
...
[global]
  usershare path = /var/lib/samba/usershare
  usershare max shares = 100
  usershare allow guests = yes
  usershare owner only = yes
  ...

Add your user to the sambashare group. Replace your_username with the name of your user:

# gpasswd sambashare -a your_username

Restart smbd.service and nmbd.service services.

Log out and log back in. You should now be able to configure your samba share using GUI. For example, in Thunar you can right click on any directory and share it on the network. If you want to share pathes inside your home directory you must make it listable for the group others.

Adding a user

Samba requires a Linux user account - you may use an existing user account or create a new one.

Although the user name is shared with Linux system, Samba uses a password separate from that of the Linux user accounts. Replace samba_user with the chosen Samba user account:

# smbpasswd -a samba_user
Note: Depending on the server role, existing File permissions and attributes may need to be altered for the Samba user account.
Note: If you want the new user only to be allowed to remotely access the file server shares through Samba, you can restrict other login options - disabling shell (usermod --shell /usr/bin/nologin --lock username), disabling SSH logons (/etc/ssh/sshd_conf, option AllowUsers), etc... Also see Security for hardening your system.

Changing Samba user's password

To change a user's password, use smbpasswd:

# smbpasswd samba_user

Required ports

If you are using a firewall, do not forget to open required ports (usually 137-139 + 445). For a complete list please check Samba port usage.

Sample configuration

See man smb.conf for details and explanation of configuration options. There is also an online version available.

/etc/samba/smb.conf
[global]
  deadtime = 60 ; This is useful to stop a server's resources being exhausted by a large number of inactive connections
  disable netbios = yes ; Disable netbios announcing
  dns proxy = no ; nmbd spawns a second copy of itself to do the DNS name lookup requests on 'yes'
  hosts allow = 192.168.1. 127. 10. ; This parameter is a comma, space, or tab delimited set of hosts which are permitted to access a service
  invalid users = root ; This is a list of users that should not be allowed to login to this service
  security = user ; Use as standalone file server
  map to guest = Bad User ; Means user logins with an invalid password are rejected, or allow guest login and mapped into the guest account
  max connections = 100 ; Number of simultaneous connections to a service to be limited
  workgroup = WORKGROUP ; Workgroup the server will appear to be in when queried by clients

  ; Uncomment the following lines to disable printer support
  ;load printers = no
  ;printing = bsd
  ;printcap name = /dev/null
  ;disable spoolss = yes

  ; Default permissions for all shares  
  inherit owner = yes ; Take the ownership of the parent directory when creating files/folders
  create mask = 0664 ; Create file mask
  directory mask = 0775 ; Create director mask
  force create mode = 0664 ; Force create file mask
  force directory mode = 0775 ; Force create directory mask

; Private Share
[private] ; translate into: \\server\private
  comment = My Private Share ; Seen next to a share when a client queries the server
  path = /path/to/data ; Directory to which the user of the service is to be given access
  read only = no ; An inverted synonym to writeable.
  valid users = user1 user2 @group1 @group2; restrict a service to a particular set of users and/or groups

; Public Share
;[public]
; comment = My Public Share
; path = /path/to/public
; read only = yes
; guest ok = yes; No password required to connect to the service

Restart the smbd service to apply configuration changes.

Note: Connected clients may need to reconnect before configuration changes take effect.

Validate configuration

The command testparm validates the configuration of smb.conf:

# testparm -s

Client configuration

For a lightweight method (without support for listing public shares, etc.), only install cifs-utils to provide /usr/bin/mount.cifs.

Install smbclient for an ftp-like command line interface. See man smbclient for commonly used commands.

Depending on the desktop environment, GUI methods may be available. See #File manager configuration for use with a file manager.

Note: After installing cifs-utils or smbclient, load the cifs kernel module or reboot to prevent mount fails.

List Public Shares

To following command lists public shares on a server:

$ smbclient -L hostname -U%

WINS host names

The smbclient package provides a driver to resolve host names using WINS. To enable it, add “wins” to the “hosts” line in /etc/nsswitch.conf.

Manual mounting

Create a mount point for the share:

# mkdir /mnt/mountpoint

Mount the share using mount.cifs as type. Not all the options listed below are needed or desirable:

# mount -t cifs //SERVER/sharename /mnt/mountpoint -o user=username,password=password,uid=username,gid=group,workgroup=workgroup,ip=serverip,iocharset=utf8

To allow users to mount it as long as the mount point resides in a directory controllable by the user; i.e. the user's home, append the users mount option.

Note: The option is users (plural). For other filesystem types handled by mount, this option is usually user; sans the "s".
Warning: Using uid and/or gid as mount options may cause I/O errors, it's recommended to set/check the File permissions and attributes instead.

SERVER

The server name.

sharename

The shared directory.

mountpoint

The local directory where the share will be mounted.

-o [options]

See man mount.cifs for more information.
Note:

Try specifying the option "sec=ntlmv2" as workaround.

Storing Share Passwords

Storing passwords in a world readable file is not recommended. A safer method is to create a credentials file:

/path/to/credentials/share
username=myuser
password=mypass

Replace username=myuser,password=mypass with credentials=/path/to/credentials/share.

The credential file should explicitly readable/writeable to root:

# chmod 600 /path/to/credentials/share

Automatic mounting

Note: You may need to enable systemd-networkd-wait-online.service or NetworkManager-wait-online.service (depending on your setup) to proper enable booting on start-up.

As mount entry

This is an simple example of a cifs mount entry that requires authentication:

/etc/fstab
//SERVER/sharename /mnt/mountpoint cifs username=myuser,password=mypass 0 0
Note: Space in sharename should be replaced by \040 (ASCII code for space in octal). For example, //SERVER/share name on the command line should be //SERVER/share\040name in /etc/fstab.

To speed up the service on boot, add the x-systemd.automount option to the entry:

/etc/fstab
//SERVER/SHARENAME /mnt/mountpoint cifs credentials=/path/to/smbcredentials/share,x-systemd.automount 0 0

As systemd unit

Create a new .mount file inside /etc/systemd/system, e.g. mnt-myshare.mount.

Requires= replace (if needed) with your Network configuration.

What= path to share

Where= path to mount the share

Options= share mounting options

/etc/systemd/system/mnt-myshare.mount
[Unit]
Description=Mount Share at boot
Requires=systemd-networkd.service
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Mount]
What=//server/share
Where=/mnt/myshare
Options=credentials=/etc/samba/creds/myshare,iocharset=utf8,rw,x-systemd.automount
Type=cifs
TimeoutSec=30

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

To use myshare.mount, start the unit and enable it to run on system boot.

smbnetfs

Note: smbnetfs needs an intact Samba server setup. See above on how to do that.

First, check if you can see all the shares you are interested in mounting:

$ smbtree -U remote_user

If that does not work, find and modify the following line in /etc/samba/smb.conf accordingly:

domain master = auto

Now restart smbd.service and nmbd.service.

If everything works as expected, install smbnetfs from the official repositories.

Then, add the following line to /etc/fuse.conf:

user_allow_other

Now copy the directory /etc/smbnetfs/.smb to your home directory:

$ cp -a /etc/smbnetfs/.smb ~

Then create a link to smb.conf:

$ ln -sf /etc/samba/smb.conf ~/.smb/smb.conf

If a username and a password are required to access some of the shared folders, edit ~/.smb/smbnetfs.auth to include one or more entries like this:

~/.smb/smbnetfs.auth
auth			"hostname" "username" "password"

It is also possible to add entries for specific hosts to be mounted by smbnetfs, if necessary. More details can be found in ~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf.

If you are using the Dolphin or Nautilus file managers, you may want to add the following to ~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf to avoid "Disk full" errors as smbnetfs by default will report 0 bytes of free space:

~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf
free_space_size 1073741824

When you are done with the configuration, you need to run

$ chmod 600 ~/.smb/smbnetfs.*

Otherwise, smbnetfs complains about 'insecure config file permissions'.

Finally, to mount your Samba network neighbourhood to a directory of your choice, call

$ smbnetfs mount_point
Daemon

The Arch Linux package also maintains an additional system-wide operation mode for smbnetfs. To enable it, you need to make the said modifications in the directoy /etc/smbnetfs/.smb.

Then, you can start and/or enable the smbnetfs daemon as usual. The system-wide mount point is at /mnt/smbnet/.

autofs

See Autofs for information on the kernel-based automounter for Linux.

File manager configuration

GNOME Files, Nemo, Caja, Thunar and PCManFM

In order to access samba shares through GNOME Files, Nemo, Caja, Thunar or PCManFM, install the gvfs-smb package, available in the official repositories.

Press Ctrl+l and enter smb://servername/share in the location bar to access your share.

The mounted share is likely to be present at /run/user/your_UID/gvfs or ~/.gvfs in the filesystem.

KDE

KDE, has the ability to browse Samba shares built in. Therefore do not need any additional packages. However, for a GUI in the KDE System Settings, install the kdenetwork-filesharing package from the official repositories.

If when navigating with Dolphin you get a "Time Out" Error, you should uncomment and edit this line in smb.conf:
name resolve order = lmhosts bcast host wins

as shown in this page.

Other graphical environments

There are a number of useful programs, but they may need to have packages created for them. This can be done with the Arch package build system. The good thing about these others is that they do not require a particular environment to be installed to support them, and so they bring along less baggage.

  • pyneighborhood is available in the official repositories.
  • LinNeighborhood, RUmba, xffm-samba plugin for Xffm are not available in the official repositories or the AUR. As they are not officially (or even unofficially supported), they may be obsolete and may not work at all.

Tips and tricks

Block certain file extensions on Samba share

Note: Setting this parameter will affect the performance of Samba, as it will be forced to check all files and directories for a match as they are scanned.

Samba offers an option to block files with certain patterns, like file extensions. This option can be used to prevent dissemination of viruses or to dissuade users from wasting space with certain files. More information about this option can be found in man smb.conf.

/etc/samba/smb.conf
...
[myshare]
  comment = Private
  path = /mnt/data
  read only = no
  veto files = /*.exe/*.com/*.dll/*.bat/*.vbs/*.tmp/*.mp3/*.avi/*.mp4/*.wmv/*.wma/

Discovering network shares

If nothing is known about other systems on the local network, and automated tools such as smbnetfs are not available, the following methods allow one to manually probe for Samba shares.

1. First, install nmap and smbclient using pacman:

# pacman -S nmap smbclient

2. nmap checks which ports are open:

# nmap -p 139 -sT 192.168.1.*

In this case, a scan on the 192.168.1.* IP address range and port 139 has been performed, resulting in:

$ nmap -sT 192.168.1.*
Starting nmap 3.78 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2005-02-15 11:45 PHT
Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1:
(The 1661 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
PORT     STATE SERVICE
139/tcp  open  netbios-ssn
5000/tcp open  UPnP

Interesting ports on 192.168.1.5:
(The 1662 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
PORT     STATE SERVICE
6000/tcp open  X11

Nmap run completed -- 256 IP addresses (2 hosts up) scanned in 7.255 seconds

The first result is another system; the second happens to be the client from where this scan was performed.

3. Now that systems with port 139 open are revealed, use nmblookup to check for NetBIOS names:

$ nmblookup -A 192.168.1.1
Looking up status of 192.168.1.1
        PUTER           <00> -         B <ACTIVE>
        HOMENET         <00> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
        PUTER           <03> -         B <ACTIVE>
        PUTER           <20> -         B <ACTIVE>
        HOMENET         <1e> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
        USERNAME        <03> -         B <ACTIVE>
        HOMENET         <1d> -         B <ACTIVE>
        MSBROWSE        <01> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>

Regardless of the output, look for <20>, which shows the host with open services.

4. Use smbclient to list which services are shared on PUTER. If prompted for a password, pressing enter should still display the list:

$ smbclient -L \\PUTER
Sharename       Type      Comment
---------       ----      -------
MY_MUSIC        Disk
SHAREDDOCS      Disk
PRINTER$        Disk
PRINTER         Printer
IPC$            IPC       Remote Inter Process Communication

Server               Comment
---------            -------
PUTER

Workgroup            Master
---------            -------
HOMENET               PUTER

Remote control of Windows computer

Samba offers a set of tools for communication with Windows. These can be handy if access to a Windows computer through remote desktop is not an option, as shown by some examples.

Send shutdown command with a comment:

$ net rpc shutdown -C "comment" -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD

A forced shutdown instead can be invoked by changing -C with comment to a single -f. For a restart, only add -r, followed by a -C or -f.

Stop and start services:

$ net rpc service stop SERVICENAME -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD

To see all possible net rpc command:

$ net rpc

Share files without a username and password

Edit /etc/samba/smb.conf and add the following line:

map to guest = Bad User

After this line:

security = user

Restrict the shares data to a specific interface replace:

;   interfaces = 192.168.12.2/24 192.168.13.2/24

with:

interfaces = lo eth0
bind interfaces only = true

Optionally edit the account that access the shares, edit the following line:

;   guest account = nobody

For example:

   guest account = pcguest

And do something in the likes of:

# useradd -c "Guest User" -d /dev/null -s /bin/false pcguest

Then setup a "" password for user pcguest.

The last step is to create share directory (for write access make writable = yes):

[Public Share]
path = /path/to/public/share
available = yes
browsable = yes
public = yes
writable = no
Note: Make sure the guest also has permission to visit /path, /path/to and /path/to/public, according to http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/13858/do-the-parent-directorys-permissions-matter-when-accessing-a-subdirectory

Sample Passwordless Configuration

This is the configuration I use with samba 4 for easy passwordless filesharing with family on a home network. Change any options needed to suit your network (workgroup and interface). I'm restricting it to the static IP I have on my ethernet interface, just delete that line if you do not care which interface is used.

/etc/samba/smb.conf
[global]

   workgroup = WORKGROUP

   server string = Media Server

   security = user
   map to guest = Bad User

   log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log

   max log size = 50


   interfaces = 192.168.2.194/24


   dns proxy = no 


[media]
   path = /shares
   public = yes
   only guest = yes
   writable = yes

[storage]
   path = /media/storage
   public = yes
   only guest = yes
   writable = yes

Build Samba without CUPS

Just build without cups installed. From the Samba Wiki:

Samba has built-in support [for CUPS] and defaults to CUPS if the development package (aka header files and libraries) could be found at compile time.

Of course, modifications to the PKGBUILD will also be necessary: libcups will have to be removed from the depends and makedepends arrays and other references to cups and printing will need to be deleted. In the case of the 4.1.9-1 PKGBUILD, 'other references' includes lines 169, 170 and 236:

    mkdir -p ${pkgdir}/usr/lib/cups/backend
    ln -sf /usr/bin/smbspool ${pkgdir}/usr/lib/cups/backend/smb
  install -d -m1777 ${pkgdir}/var/spool/samba

Troubleshooting

Failed to start Samba SMB/CIFS server

Check if the permissions are set correctly for /var/cache/samba/ and restart the smbd.service or smbd.socket:

# chmod 0755 /var/cache/samba/msg

Unable to overwrite files, permissions errors

Possible solutions:

  • Append the mount option nodfs to the /etc/fstab entry.
  • Add msdfs root = no to the [global] section of the server's /etc/samba/smb.conf.

Windows clients keep asking for password even if Samba shares are created with guest permissions

Set map to guest inside the global section of /etc/samba/smb.conf:

map to guest = Bad User

Windows 7 connectivity problems - mount error(12): cannot allocate memory

A known Windows 7 bug that causes "mount error(12): cannot allocate memory" on an otherwise perfect cifs share on the Linux end can be fixed by setting a few registry keys on the Windows box as follows:

  • HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management\LargeSystemCache (set to 1)
  • HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters\Size (set to 3)

Alternatively, start Command Prompt in Admin Mode and execute the following:

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management" /v "LargeSystemCache" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters" /v "Size" /t REG_DWORD /d 3 /f

Do one of the following for the settings to take effect:

  • Restart Windows
  • Restart the Server service via services.msc
  • From the Command Prompt run: 'net stop lanmanserver' and 'net start lanmanserver' - The server may automatically restart after stopping it.
Note: Googling will reveal another tweak recommending users to add a key modifying the "IRPStackSize" size. This is incorrect for fixing this issue under Windows 7. Do not attempt it.

Original article.

Trouble accessing a password-protected share from Windows

Note: This needs to be added to the local smb.conf, not to the server's smb.conf

For trouble accessing a password protected share from Windows, try adding this to /etc/samba/smb.conf:[1]

[global]
# lanman fix
client lanman auth = yes
client ntlmv2 auth = no

Getting a dialog box up takes a long time

I had a problem that it took ~30 seconds to get a password dialog box up when trying to connect from both Windows XP/Windows 7. Analyzing the error.log on the server I saw:

[2009/11/11 06:20:12,  0] printing/print_cups.c:cups_connect(103)
Unable to connect to CUPS server localhost:631 - Interrupted system call

This keeps samba from asking cups and also from complaining about /etc/printcap missing:

printing = bsd
printcap name = /dev/null

Error: Failed to retrieve printer list: NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL

If you are a home user and using samba purely for file sharing from a server or NAS, you are probably not interested in sharing printers through it. If so, you can prevent this error from occurring by adding the following lines to your /etc/samba/smb.conf:

load printers = No
printing = bsd
printcap name = /dev/null
disable spoolss = Yes

Restart the samba service, smbd.service, and then check your logs:

cat /var/log/samba/smbd.log

and the error should now no longer be appearing.

Sharing a folder fails

It means that while you are sharing a folder from Dolphin (file manager) and everything seems ok at first, after restarting Dolphin the share icon is gone from the shared folder, and also some output like this in terminal (Konsole) output:

‘net usershare’ returned error 255: net usershare: usershares are currently disabled

To fix it, enable usershare as described in #Creating usershare path.

"Browsing" network fails with "Failed to retrieve share list from server"

And you are using a firewall (iptables) because you do not trust your local (school, university, hotel) local network. This may be due to the following: When the smbclient is browsing the local network it sends out a broadcast request on udp port 137. The servers on the network then reply to your client but as the source address of this reply is different from the destination address iptables saw when sending the request for the listing out, iptables will not recognize the reply as being "ESTABLISHED" or "RELATED", and hence the packet is dropped. A possible solution is to add:
iptables -t raw -A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns

to your iptables setup.

You are not the owner of the folder

Simply try to reboot the system.

protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_INVALID_NETWORK_RESPONSE

The client probably does not have access to shares. Make sure clients' IP address is in hosts allow = line in /etc/samba/smb.conf.

Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL)

You are probably passing wrong server name to smbclient. To find out the server name, run hostnamectl on the server and look at "Transient hostname" line

Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_REFUSED)

Make sure that the server has started. The shared directories should exist and be accessible.

See also