Samba/Tips and tricks
The following simple configuration file allows for a quick and easy setup to share any number of directories, as well as easy browsing from Windows clients.
man smb.conf for details and explanation of configuration options.
[global] workgroup = WORKGROUP server string = Samba Server netbios name = SERVER name resolve order = bcast host dns proxy = no log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log create mask = 0664 directory mask = 0775 force create mode = 0664 force directory mode = 0775 ; One may be interested in the following setting: ;force group = +nas [media1] path = /media/media1 read only = No [media2] path = /media/media2 read only = No [media3] path = /media/media3 read only = No
testparm -s and
systemctl restart smbd nmbd after editing configuration files.
/etc/samba/smb.conf and add the following line:
map to guest = Bad User
After this line:
security = user
Restrict the shares data to a specific interface replace:
; interfaces = 192.168.12.2/24 192.168.13.2/24
interfaces = lo eth0 bind interfaces only = true
Optionally edit the account that access the shares, edit the following line:
; guest account = nobody
; guest account = pcguest
And do something in the likes of:
# useradd -c "Guest User" -d /dev/null -s /bin/false pcguest
Then setup a "" password for user pcguest.
The last step is to create share directory (for write access make writable = yes):
[Public Share] path = /path/to/public/share available = yes browsable = yes public = yes writable = no
An extra layer of security can be obtainded by restricting your acceptable networks:
hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/0 hosts allow = xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/xx yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy/yy
If you're behind a firewall, make sure to open the ports Samba uses:
UDP/137 - used by nmbd UDP/138 - used by nmbd TCP/139 - used by smbd TCP/445 - used by smbd
So a series of commands like this should suffice:
# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 139 -j ACCEPT # iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 445 -j ACCEPT # iptables -A INPUT -p udp --sport 137 -j ACCEPT # iptables -A INPUT -p udp --dport 137 -j ACCEPT # iptables -A INPUT -p udp --dport 138 -j ACCEPT
If you're basing your firewall upon Arch Linux's Simple Stateful Firewall, just substitute the INPUT chain for the correspondent TCP and UDP chains.
How to configure the folder sharing in KDE4. Simple file sharing limits user shared folders to their home directory and read-only access. Advanced file sharing gives full semantics of Samba with no limits to shared folders but requires su or sudo root permissions.
If nothing is known about other systems on the local network, and automated tools such as smbnetfs are not available, the following methods allow one to manually probe for Samba shares.
1. First, install pacman:and using
# pacman -S nmap smbclient
nmap checks which ports are open:
# nmap -p 139 -sT 192.168.1.*
In this case, a scan on the 192.168.1.* IP address range and port 139 has been performed, resulting in:
$ nmap -sT 192.168.1.*
Starting nmap 3.78 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2005-02-15 11:45 PHT Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1: (The 1661 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed) PORT STATE SERVICE 139/tcp open netbios-ssn 5000/tcp open UPnP Interesting ports on 192.168.1.5: (The 1662 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed) PORT STATE SERVICE 6000/tcp open X11 Nmap run completed -- 256 IP addresses (2 hosts up) scanned in 7.255 seconds
The first result is another system; the second happens to be the client from where this scan was performed.
3. Now that systems with port 139 open are revealed, use
nmblookup to check for NetBIOS names:
$ nmblookup -A 192.168.1.1
Looking up status of 192.168.1.1 PUTER <00> - B <ACTIVE> HOMENET <00> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE> PUTER <03> - B <ACTIVE> PUTER <20> - B <ACTIVE> HOMENET <1e> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE> USERNAME <03> - B <ACTIVE> HOMENET <1d> - B <ACTIVE> MSBROWSE <01> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
Regardless of the output, look for <20>, which shows the host with open services.
smbclient to list which services are shared on PUTER. If prompted for a password, pressing enter should still display the list:
$ smbclient -L \\PUTER
Sharename Type Comment --------- ---- ------- MY_MUSIC Disk SHAREDDOCS Disk PRINTER$ Disk PRINTER Printer IPC$ IPC Remote Inter Process Communication Server Comment --------- ------- PUTER Workgroup Master --------- ------- HOMENET PUTER
This shows which folders are shared and can be mounted locally. See: #Accessing shares
Remote control of Windows computer
Samba offers a set of tools for communication with Windows. These can be handy if access to a Windows computer through remote desktop is not an option, as shown by some examples.
Send shutdown command with a comment:
$ net rpc shutdown -C "comment" -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD
A forced shutdown instead can be invoked by changing -C with comment to a single -f. For a restart, only add -r, followed by a -C or -f.
Stop and start services:
$ net rpc service stop SERVICENAME -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD
To see all possible net rpc command:
$ net rpc
Samba offers an option to block files with certain patterns, like file extensions. This option can be used to prevent dissemination of viruses or to disuade users from wasting space with certain files:
Veto files = /*.exe/*.com/*.dll/*.bat/*.vbs/*.tmp/*.mp3/*.avi/*.mp4/*.wmv/*.wma/