Difference between revisions of "Samba (简体中文)"

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{{Related|Active Directory Integration}}
 
{{Related|Active Directory Integration}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
'''Samba''' 是 [[wikipedia:Server_Message_Block|SMB/CIFS]] 网络协议的重新实现, 它作为 [[NFS (简体中文)|NFS]] 的补充使得在 Linux 和 Windows 系统中进行文件共享、打印机共享更容易实现。一些用户说Samba配置简单,操作直观。然而,许多新用户会因为它的复杂性和非直观的机制而遇到问题。强烈建议新用户仔细按照下面的指导。
+
{{TranslationStatus (简体中文)|Samba|2019-03-13|568014}}
 +
'''Samba''' 是 [[wikipedia:Server_Message_Block|SMB/CIFS]] 网络协议的重新实现, 可以在 Linux 和 Windows 系统间进行文件、打印机共享,和 [[NFS (简体中文)|NFS]] 的功能类似。本文介绍如何配置和使用 Samba.
  
== 服务器配置 ==
+
== 服务器 ==
  
要通过 Samba 共享文件,还需额外 [[Pacman|安装]] 软件包 {{Pkg|samba}}。
+
=== 安装 ===
  
Samba 服务的配置文件是 {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}},如果没有则 smbd 无法启动。
+
[[Pacman|安装]] 软件包 {{Pkg|samba}}
  
你可以从 [https://git.samba.org/samba.git/?p=samba.git;a=blob_plain;f=examples/smb.conf.default;hb=HEAD 这里] 获取到默认配置文件:
+
Samba 服务的配置文件是 {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}},{{man|5|smb.conf}}提供了详细的文档。
# wget "https://git.samba.org/samba.git/?p=samba.git;a=blob_plain;f=examples/smb.conf.default;hb=HEAD" -O /etc/samba/smb.conf
 
  
{{注意|
+
{{Pkg|samba}} 软件包没有提供此文件,启动 ''smb''.service 前需要先创建这个文件。从 [https://git.samba.org/samba.git/?p=samba.git;a=blob_plain;f=examples/smb.conf.default;hb=HEAD 这里] 可以获取到示例文件。
*从上面载回来的默认配置文件里把日志{{ic|log file}}设置到了一个不能写的地方, 这会导致出错。 下面的办法可以解决这个问题:
+
 
** 把日志文件放到可写的路径: {{ic|1=log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log}}
+
从上面获取的默认配置文件里把日志{{ic|log file}}设置到一个不能写的地方, 这会引起错误。下面的办法可以解决这个问题:
 +
* 把日志文件放到可写的路径: {{ic|1=log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log}}
 
** 把日志存到非文件后端的解决方案里: {{ic|1=logging = syslog}} 配合 {{ic|1=syslog only = yes}}, 或者使用 {{ic|1=logging = systemd}}
 
** 把日志存到非文件后端的解决方案里: {{ic|1=logging = syslog}} 配合 {{ic|1=syslog only = yes}}, 或者使用 {{ic|1=logging = systemd}}
*如果需要的话; 在{{ic|[global]}}部份中指定的 {{ic|workgroup}} 需要对应windows工作组的名称 (默认是 {{ic|WORKGROUP}}).
 
}}
 
  
===建立共享===
+
如果需要的话; 在{{ic|[global]}}部份中指定的 {{ic|workgroup}} 需要对应windows工作组的名称 (默认是 {{ic|WORKGROUP}}).
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|修改 {{ic|smb.conf}} 文件后,运行 {{man|1|testparm}} 命令看看有没有语法错误。}}
 +
 
 +
==== 配置防火墙 ====
 +
 
 +
如果使用了 [[firewall|防火墙]],请记得打开需要的端口(通常是 137-139 + 445). 完整列表请查看 [https://www.samba.org/~tpot/articles/firewall.html Samba 端口使用]。
 +
 
 +
===用户管理===
 +
 
 +
==== 添加用户 ====
 +
Samba 需要 Linux 账户才能使用 - 可以使用已有账户或 [[Users and groups#User management|创建新用户]].
 +
 
 +
虽然用户名可以和 Linux 系统共享,Samba 使用单独的密码管理,将下面的 {{ic|samba_user}} 替换为选择的 Samba 用户:
 +
 
 +
# smbpasswd -a ''samba_user''
 +
 
 +
根据 [https://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/manpages-3/smb.conf.5.html#SERVERROLE 服务器角色] 的差异,可能需要修改已有的 [[File permissions and attributes|文件权限和属性]]。
 +
 
 +
要让新创建的用户仅能访问 Samba 远程文件服务器,可以禁用其它登录选项
 +
* 禁用 shell - {{ic|usermod --shell /usr/bin/nologin --lock username}}
 +
* 禁用 SSH logons  - /etc/ssh/sshd_conf, option {{ic|AllowUsers}}
 +
 
 +
参阅[[Security]]。
 +
 
 +
==== 查询用户 ====
 +
 
 +
用 {{man|8|pdbedit}} 命令查询现有用户:
 +
 
 +
# pdbedit -L -v
 +
 
 +
==== 更改 samba 用户的密码 ====
  
编辑 {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}} ,滚动到 '''Share Definitions''' 部分,默认的配置文件会为所有用户在 HOME 目录建立一个共享。但是需要进行下面配置用户才能登录:
+
{{ic|smbpasswd}} 修改 samba 用户的密码:
  
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|2=
+
# smbpasswd ''samba_user''
...
 
[homes]
 
  comment = Home Directories
 
  browseable = no
 
  writable = yes
 
  valid users = %S
 
}}
 
  
同时,默认配置文件也共享打印机,包含一些不错的示例配置。更多的可用选项可以通过 {{man|5|smb.conf}} 查询,在此处 [http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/manpages-3/smb.conf.5.html Here] 是在线版本。
+
==== 创建共享 ====
 +
{{Note|To allow the usage of ''guests'' on public shares, one may need to [[append]] {{ic|1=map to guest = Bad User}} in the {{ic|[global]}} section of {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}. A different {{ic|1=guest account}} may be used instead of the default provided {{ic|nobody}}.}}
  
{{提示|如果需要共享给 Windows,需要在 {{ic|smb.conf}} 中设置当前使用的 Windows 工作组workgroup(默认工作组是 {{ic|WORKGROUP}})。}}
+
请确保 [https://git.samba.org/samba.git/?p=samba.git;a=blob_plain;f=examples/smb.conf.default;hb=HEAD smb.conf.default] 的 ''Share Definitions'' 部分正确设置了共享。
  
=== 启动服务 ===
+
==== 启动服务 ====
 
{{注意|在 {{Pkg|samba}} 4.8.0-1里, {{ic|smbd.service}} 和 {{ic|nmbd.service}} 单元被改名为 {{ic|smb.service}} 和 {{ic|nmb.service}}.}}
 
{{注意|在 {{Pkg|samba}} 4.8.0-1里, {{ic|smbd.service}} 和 {{ic|nmbd.service}} 单元被改名为 {{ic|smb.service}} 和 {{ic|nmb.service}}.}}
  
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{{提示|除了在启动时启动服务,可以选择启用 {{ic|smbd.socket}},禁用 {{ic|smbd.service}}。这样的话会在第一次收到连接请求是启动后台进程。}}
 
{{提示|除了在启动时启动服务,可以选择启用 {{ic|smbd.socket}},禁用 {{ic|smbd.service}}。这样的话会在第一次收到连接请求是启动后台进程。}}
  
===建立 Usershare 路径===
+
=== 高级配置 ===
 +
====建立 Usershare 路径====
  
 
{{Note|此为可选功能,如无需要可以跳过。}}
 
{{Note|此为可选功能,如无需要可以跳过。}}
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注销后重新登陆,此时您应该就可以使用 GUI 程序配置您的 samba 共享服务了。例如,在 [[Thunar]] 中您可以右键点击任何一个文件夹将它在局域网中共享。如果你想共享自己主目录内的路径,需要主目录的内容让其它用户可以列出。
 
注销后重新登陆,此时您应该就可以使用 GUI 程序配置您的 samba 共享服务了。例如,在 [[Thunar]] 中您可以右键点击任何一个文件夹将它在局域网中共享。如果你想共享自己主目录内的路径,需要主目录的内容让其它用户可以列出。
 
===添加用户===
 
 
Samba 需要 Linux 账户才能使用 - 可以使用已有账户或 [[Users and groups#User management|创建新用户]].
 
 
虽然用户名可以和 Linux 系统共享,Samba 使用单独的密码管理,将下面的 {{ic|samba_user}} 替换为选择的 Samba 用户:
 
 
# smbpasswd -a ''samba_user''
 
 
根据 [https://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/manpages-3/smb.conf.5.html#SERVERROLE 服务器角色] 的差异,可能需要修改已有的 [[File permissions and attributes|文件权限和属性]]。
 
 
要让新创建的用户仅能访问 Samba 远程文件服务器,可以禁用其它登录选项
 
* 禁用 shell - {{ic|usermod --shell /usr/bin/nologin --lock username}}
 
* 禁用 SSH logons  - /etc/ssh/sshd_conf, option {{ic|AllowUsers}}
 
 
参阅[[Security]]。
 
 
===更改 samba 用户的密码===
 
 
用 {{ic|smbpasswd}} 修改 samba 用户的密码:
 
 
# smbpasswd ''samba_user''
 
 
===端口设置===
 
 
如果使用 [[firewall]],需要将打开 samba 对于的窗口,通常是 137-139 + 445. 完整列表请参考 [https://wiki.samba.org/index.php/Samba_port_usage Samba port].
 
 
=== 验证配置 ===
 
{{ic|testparm}} 可以检查 samba.conf 是否有错误:
 
# testparm -s
 
  
 
== 客户端配置 ==
 
== 客户端配置 ==
Line 141: Line 136:
 
{{Note|安装 {{Pkg|cifs-utils}} 或 {{Pkg|smbclient}} 后,请加载 {{ic|cifs}} [[kernel module|内核模块]] 或重启以避免挂载失败。}}
 
{{Note|安装 {{Pkg|cifs-utils}} 或 {{Pkg|smbclient}} 后,请加载 {{ic|cifs}} [[kernel module|内核模块]] 或重启以避免挂载失败。}}
  
=== 显示可用共享 ===
+
==== 显示可用共享 ====
 
下面命令会显示服务器上的可用共享:
 
下面命令会显示服务器上的可用共享:
  
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{{ic|-b}} ({{ic|--broadcast}}) 使用广播模式,{{ic|-N}} ({{ic|-no-pass}}) 不询问密码.
 
{{ic|-b}} ({{ic|--broadcast}}) 使用广播模式,{{ic|-N}} ({{ic|-no-pass}}) 不询问密码.
  
=== WINS 主机名===
+
==== WINS 主机名====
  
 
{{pkg|smbclient}} 提供了一个用 WINS 解析主机名的驱动,要启用它,将 “wins” 添加到  /etc/nsswitch.conf 的 “hosts” 行。
 
{{pkg|smbclient}} 提供了一个用 WINS 解析主机名的驱动,要启用它,将 “wins” 添加到  /etc/nsswitch.conf 的 “hosts” 行。
  
=== 手动挂载 ===
+
==== 手动挂载 ====
  
 
创建共享挂载点:
 
创建共享挂载点:
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  # chmod 600 /path/to/credentials/share
 
  # chmod 600 /path/to/credentials/share
  
=== 自动挂载 ===
+
=== Automatic mounting ===
 +
 
 
{{Note|You may need to [[enable]] {{ic|systemd-networkd-wait-online.service}} or {{ic| NetworkManager-wait-online.service}} (depending on your setup) to proper enable booting on start-up.}}
 
{{Note|You may need to [[enable]] {{ic|systemd-networkd-wait-online.service}} or {{ic| NetworkManager-wait-online.service}} (depending on your setup) to proper enable booting on start-up.}}
  
 
==== As mount entry ====
 
==== As mount entry ====
  
This is an simple example of a {{ic|cifs}} [[fstab|mount entry]] that requires authentication:
+
This is a simple example of a {{ic|cifs}} [[fstab|mount entry]] that requires authentication:
 +
 
 
{{hc|/etc/fstab|2=
 
{{hc|/etc/fstab|2=
 
//''SERVER''/''sharename'' /mnt/''mountpoint'' cifs username=''myuser'',password=''mypass'' 0 0
 
//''SERVER''/''sharename'' /mnt/''mountpoint'' cifs username=''myuser'',password=''mypass'' 0 0
 
}}
 
}}
  
{{Note|Space in sharename should be replaced by {{ic|\040}} (ASCII code for space in octal). For example, {{ic|//''SERVER''/share name}} on the command line should be {{ic|//''SERVER''/share\040name}} in {{ic|/etc/fstab}}.}}
+
{{Note|Spaces in sharename should be replaced by {{ic|\040}} (ASCII code for space in octal). For example, {{ic|//''SERVER''/share name}} on the command line should be {{ic|//''SERVER''/share\040name}} in {{ic|/etc/fstab}}.}}
  
To speed up the service on boot, add the {{ic|1=x-systemd.automount}} option to the entry:
+
{{Tip|Use {{ic|x-systemd.automount}} if you want them to be mounted only upon access. See [[Fstab#Remote filesystem]] for details.}}
{{hc|/etc/fstab|2=
 
//''SERVER''/''SHARENAME'' /mnt/''mountpoint'' cifs credentials=''/path/to/smbcredentials/share'',x-systemd.automount 0 0
 
}}
 
  
 
==== As systemd unit ====
 
==== As systemd unit ====
 +
 
Create a new {{ic|.mount}} file inside {{ic|/etc/systemd/system}}, e.g. {{ic|mnt-myshare.mount}}.
 
Create a new {{ic|.mount}} file inside {{ic|/etc/systemd/system}}, e.g. {{ic|mnt-myshare.mount}}.
  
{{ic|1=Requires=}} replace (if needed) with your [[:Category:Network_configuration|Network configuration]].
+
{{Note|Make sure the filename corresponds to the mountpoint you want to use.
 +
E.g. the unit name {{ic|mnt-myshare.mount}} can only be used if are going to mount the share under {{ic|/mnt/myshare}}. Otherwise the following error might occur: {{ic|1=systemd[1]: mnt-myshare.mount: Where= setting does not match unit name. Refusing.}}.}}
 +
 
 +
{{ic|1=Requires=}} replace (if needed) with your [[:Category:Network configuration|Network configuration]].
  
 
{{ic|1=What=}} path to share
 
{{ic|1=What=}} path to share
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{{ic|1=Options=}} share mounting options
 
{{ic|1=Options=}} share mounting options
  
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/mnt-myshare.mount|<nowiki>
+
{{Note|If you want to use a hostname for the server you want to share (instead of an IP address), add {{ic|1=systemd-resolved.service}} to {{ic|1=After}} and {{ic|1=Wants}}. This might avoid mount errors at boot time that do not arise when testing the unit.}}
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/mnt-myshare.mount|2=
 
[Unit]
 
[Unit]
 
Description=Mount Share at boot
 
Description=Mount Share at boot
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[Install]
 
[Install]
 
WantedBy=multi-user.target
 
WantedBy=multi-user.target
</nowiki>}}
+
}}
  
 
To use {{ic|mnt-myshare.mount}}, [[start]] the unit and [[enable]] it to run on system boot.
 
To use {{ic|mnt-myshare.mount}}, [[start]] the unit and [[enable]] it to run on system boot.
Line 264: Line 264:
 
  domain master = auto
 
  domain master = auto
  
Now [[restart]] {{ic|smbd.service}} and {{ic|nmbd.service}}.
+
Now [[restart]] {{ic|smb.service}} and {{ic|nmb.service}}.
  
 
If everything works as expected, [[pacman#Installing specific packages|install]] {{Pkg|smbnetfs}} from the official repositories.
 
If everything works as expected, [[pacman#Installing specific packages|install]] {{Pkg|smbnetfs}} from the official repositories.
Line 291: Line 291:
  
 
If you are using the [[Dolphin]] or [[GNOME Files]], you may want to add the following to {{ic|~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf}} to avoid "Disk full" errors as smbnetfs by default will report 0 bytes of free space:
 
If you are using the [[Dolphin]] or [[GNOME Files]], you may want to add the following to {{ic|~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf}} to avoid "Disk full" errors as smbnetfs by default will report 0 bytes of free space:
 +
 
{{hc|~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf|
 
{{hc|~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf|
 
free_space_size 1073741824
 
free_space_size 1073741824
Line 296: Line 297:
  
 
When you are done with the configuration, you need to run
 
When you are done with the configuration, you need to run
 +
 
  $ chmod 600 ~/.smb/smbnetfs.*
 
  $ chmod 600 ~/.smb/smbnetfs.*
 +
 
Otherwise, smbnetfs complains about 'insecure config file permissions'.
 
Otherwise, smbnetfs complains about 'insecure config file permissions'.
  
 
Finally, to mount your Samba network neighbourhood to a directory of your choice, call
 
Finally, to mount your Samba network neighbourhood to a directory of your choice, call
 +
 
  $ smbnetfs ''mount_point''
 
  $ smbnetfs ''mount_point''
  
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==== autofs ====
 
==== autofs ====
  
查看 [[Autofs]] 以获得关于基于内核的 Linux 自动挂载器的相关信息。
+
See [[Autofs]] for information on the kernel-based automounter for Linux.
  
=== 文件管理器配置 ===
+
=== File manager configuration ===
  
 
==== GNOME Files, Nemo, Caja, Thunar and PCManFM ====
 
==== GNOME Files, Nemo, Caja, Thunar and PCManFM ====
Line 325: Line 329:
 
==== KDE ====
 
==== KDE ====
  
KDE, has the ability to browse Samba shares built in. Therefore do not need any additional packages. However, for a GUI in the KDE System Settings, install the {{Pkg|kdenetwork-filesharing}} package from the official repositories.
+
KDE has the ability to browse Samba shares built in. To use a GUI in the KDE System Settings, you will need to install the {{Pkg|kdenetwork-filesharing}} package.
  
If when navigating with Dolphin you get a "Time Out" Error, you should uncomment and edit this line in smb.conf:{{bc|1=name resolve order = lmhosts bcast host wins}}
+
If you get a "Time Out" Error when navigating with Dolphin, you should uncomment and edit the following line in smb.conf:{{bc|1=name resolve order = lmhosts bcast host wins}}
 
as shown in this [http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1605499 page].
 
as shown in this [http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1605499 page].
  
Line 338: Line 342:
  
 
== Tips and tricks ==
 
== Tips and tricks ==
=== Block certain file extensions on Samba share ===
 
{{Note|Setting this parameter will affect the performance of Samba, as it will be forced to check all files and directories for a match as they are scanned.}}
 
Samba offers an option to block files with certain patterns, like file extensions. This option can be used to prevent dissemination of viruses or to dissuade users from wasting space with certain files. More information about this option can be found in {{man|5|smb.conf}}.
 
  
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|2=
+
=== Discovering network shares ===
...
 
[myshare]
 
  comment = Private
 
  path = /mnt/data
 
  read only = no
 
  veto files = /*.exe/*.com/*.dll/*.bat/*.vbs/*.tmp/*.mp3/*.avi/*.mp4/*.wmv/*.wma/
 
}}
 
  
=== Discovering network shares ===
 
 
If nothing is known about other systems on the local network, and automated tools such as [[#smbnetfs|smbnetfs]] are not available, the following methods allow one to manually probe for Samba shares.
 
If nothing is known about other systems on the local network, and automated tools such as [[#smbnetfs|smbnetfs]] are not available, the following methods allow one to manually probe for Samba shares.
  
1. First, install {{Pkg|nmap}} and {{Pkg|smbclient}} using [[pacman]]:
+
1. First, [[install]] the {{Pkg|nmap}} and {{Pkg|smbclient}} packages.
# pacman -S nmap smbclient
 
  
 
2. {{ic|nmap}} checks which ports are open:
 
2. {{ic|nmap}} checks which ports are open:
 +
 
  # nmap -p 139 -sT "192.168.1.*"
 
  # nmap -p 139 -sT "192.168.1.*"
  
 
In this case, a scan on the 192.168.1.* IP address range and port 139 has been performed, resulting in:
 
In this case, a scan on the 192.168.1.* IP address range and port 139 has been performed, resulting in:
{{hc
+
 
|$ nmap -sT "192.168.1.*"
+
{{hc|$ nmap -sT "192.168.1.*"|
|Starting nmap 3.78 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2005-02-15 11:45 PHT
+
Starting nmap 3.78 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2005-02-15 11:45 PHT
 
Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1:
 
Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1:
 
(The 1661 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
 
(The 1661 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
Line 380: Line 373:
 
The first result is another system; the second happens to be the client from where this scan was performed.
 
The first result is another system; the second happens to be the client from where this scan was performed.
  
3. Now that systems with port 139 open are revealed, use {{ic|nmblookup}} to check for NetBIOS names:  
+
3. Now that systems with port 139 open are revealed, use {{man|1|nmblookup}} to check for NetBIOS names:  
{{hc
+
 
|$ nmblookup -A 192.168.1.1
+
{{hc|$ nmblookup -A 192.168.1.1|
|Looking up status of 192.168.1.1
+
Looking up status of 192.168.1.1
 
         PUTER          <00> -        B <ACTIVE>
 
         PUTER          <00> -        B <ACTIVE>
 
         HOMENET        <00> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
 
         HOMENET        <00> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
Line 397: Line 390:
  
 
4. Use {{ic|smbclient}} to list which services are shared on ''PUTER''. If prompted for a password, pressing enter should still display the list:
 
4. Use {{ic|smbclient}} to list which services are shared on ''PUTER''. If prompted for a password, pressing enter should still display the list:
{{hc
+
 
|$ smbclient -L \\PUTER
+
{{hc|$ smbclient -L \\PUTER|2=
|<nowiki>
 
 
Sharename      Type      Comment
 
Sharename      Type      Comment
 
---------      ----      -------
 
---------      ----      -------
Line 415: Line 407:
 
---------            -------
 
---------            -------
 
HOMENET              PUTER
 
HOMENET              PUTER
</nowiki>}}
+
}}
  
 
=== Remote control of Windows computer ===
 
=== Remote control of Windows computer ===
 +
 
Samba offers a set of tools for communication with Windows. These can be handy if access to a Windows computer through remote desktop is not an option, as shown by some examples.
 
Samba offers a set of tools for communication with Windows. These can be handy if access to a Windows computer through remote desktop is not an option, as shown by some examples.
  
Line 423: Line 416:
 
   
 
   
 
  $ net rpc shutdown -C "comment" -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD
 
  $ net rpc shutdown -C "comment" -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD
 +
 
A forced shutdown instead can be invoked by changing -C with comment to a single -f. For a restart, only add -r, followed by a -C or -f.
 
A forced shutdown instead can be invoked by changing -C with comment to a single -f. For a restart, only add -r, followed by a -C or -f.
  
Line 433: Line 427:
 
  $ net rpc
 
  $ net rpc
  
===Share files without a username and password===
+
== Troubleshooting ==
Edit {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}} and add the following line:
 
{{bc|<nowiki>map to guest = Bad User</nowiki>}}
 
  
After this line:
+
=== Failed to start Samba SMB/CIFS server ===
{{bc|<nowiki>security = user</nowiki>}}
 
  
Restrict the shares data to a specific interface replace:
+
Possible solutions:
{{bc|<nowiki>;  interfaces = 192.168.12.2/24 192.168.13.2/24</nowiki>}}
 
  
with:
+
* Check {{ic|smb.conf}} on syntactic errors with {{man|1|testparm}}.
 +
* Set correct permissions for {{ic|/var/cache/samba/}} and [[restart]] {{ic|smb.service}}:
  
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
# chmod 0755 /var/cache/samba/msg
interfaces = lo eth0
 
bind interfaces only = true</nowiki>}}
 
  
Optionally edit the account that access the shares, edit the following line:
+
=== Permission issues on AppArmor ===
{{bc|<nowiki>;  guest account = nobody</nowiki>}}
 
  
For example:
+
If using a [[#Creating a share|share path]] located outside of a home-directory, whitelist it in {{ic|/etc/apparmor.d/local/usr.sbin.smbd}}. E.g.:
{{bc|<nowiki>  guest account = pcguest</nowiki>}}
 
  
And do something in the likes of:
+
{{hc|/etc/apparmor.d/local/usr.sbin.smbd|
{{bc|<nowiki># useradd -c "Guest User" -d /dev/null -s /bin/false pcguest</nowiki>}}
+
/data/** lrwk,
 +
}}
  
Then setup a "" password for user pcguest.
+
=== No dialect specified on mount ===
  
The last step is to create share directory (for write access make writable = yes):
+
The client is using an unsupported SMB/CIFS version that is required by the server.
  
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
See [[#Restrict protocols for better security]] for more information.
[Public Share]
 
path = /path/to/public/share
 
available = yes
 
browsable = yes
 
public = yes
 
writable = no
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
{{note|Make sure the guest also has permission to visit /path, /path/to and /path/to/public, according to [http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/13858/do-the-parent-directorys-permissions-matter-when-accessing-a-subdirectory http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/13858/do-the-parent-directorys-permissions-matter-when-accessing-a-subdirectory]}}
+
=== Unable to overwrite files, permissions errors ===
  
==== Sample Passwordless Configuration ====
+
{{Accuracy|An user should set/check for server/client permissions, instead of using incorrect/possible insecure flags.}}
This is the configuration I use with samba 4 for easy passwordless filesharing with family on a home network. Change any options needed to suit your network (workgroup and interface). I'm restricting it to the static IP I have on my ethernet interface, just delete that line if you do not care which interface is used.
 
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|<nowiki>
 
[global]
 
  
  workgroup = WORKGROUP
+
Possible solutions:
  
  server string = Media Server
+
* Append the mount option {{ic|nodfs}} to the {{ic|/etc/fstab}} [[#As mount entry|entry]].
 +
* Add {{ic|1=msdfs root = no}} to the {{ic|[global]}} section of the server's {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}.
  
  security = user
+
=== Windows clients keep asking for password even if Samba shares are created with guest permissions ===
  map to guest = Bad User
 
  
  log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log
+
Set {{ic|map to guest}} inside the {{ic|global}} section of {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}:
 
 
  max log size = 50
 
 
 
 
 
  interfaces = 192.168.2.194/24
 
 
 
 
 
  dns proxy = no
 
 
 
 
 
[media]
 
  path = /shares
 
  public = yes
 
  only guest = yes
 
  writable = yes
 
 
 
[storage]
 
  path = /media/storage
 
  public = yes
 
  only guest = yes
 
  writable = yes
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
=== Build Samba without CUPS ===
 
 
 
Just build without cups installed. From the [https://wiki.samba.org/index.php/Samba_as_a_print_server Samba Wiki]:
 
<blockquote>Samba has built-in support [for CUPS] and defaults to CUPS if the development package (aka header files and libraries) could be found at compile time.</blockquote>
 
 
 
Of course, modifications to the PKGBUILD will also be necessary: libcups will have to be removed from the depends and makedepends arrays and other references to cups and printing will need to be deleted. In the case of the 4.1.9-1 PKGBUILD, 'other references' includes lines 169, 170 and 236:
 
{{bc|
 
    mkdir -p ${pkgdir}/usr/lib/cups/backend
 
    ln -sf /usr/bin/smbspool ${pkgdir}/usr/lib/cups/backend/smb
 
  install -d -m1777 ${pkgdir}/var/spool/samba
 
}}
 
 
 
== Troubleshooting ==
 
 
 
=== Failed to start Samba SMB/CIFS server ===
 
 
 
Check if the permissions are set correctly for {{ic|/var/cache/samba/}} and restart the {{ic|smbd.service}} or {{ic|smbd.socket}}:
 
# chmod 0755 /var/cache/samba/msg
 
 
 
=== Unable to overwrite files, permissions errors ===
 
Possible solutions:
 
*Append the mount option {{ic|nodfs}} to the {{ic|/etc/fstab}} [[#Add_Share_to_.2Fetc.2Ffstab|entry]]{{Broken section link}}.
 
*Add {{ic|<nowiki>msdfs root = no</nowiki>}} to the {{ic|[global]}} section of the server's {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}.
 
  
=== Windows clients keep asking for password even if Samba shares are created with guest permissions ===
 
Set {{ic|map to guest}} inside the {{ic|global}} section of {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}:
 
 
  map to guest = Bad User
 
  map to guest = Bad User
  
Line 541: Line 471:
 
A known Windows 7 bug that causes "mount error(12): cannot allocate memory" on an otherwise perfect cifs share on the Linux end can be fixed by setting a few registry keys on the Windows box as follows:
 
A known Windows 7 bug that causes "mount error(12): cannot allocate memory" on an otherwise perfect cifs share on the Linux end can be fixed by setting a few registry keys on the Windows box as follows:
  
*{{ic|HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management\LargeSystemCache}} (set to {{ic|1}})
+
* {{ic|HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management\LargeSystemCache}} (set to {{ic|1}})
*{{ic|HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters\Size}} (set to {{ic|3}})
+
* {{ic|HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters\Size}} (set to {{ic|3}})
  
 
Alternatively, start Command Prompt in Admin Mode and execute the following:
 
Alternatively, start Command Prompt in Admin Mode and execute the following:
 +
 
  reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management" /v "LargeSystemCache" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
 
  reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management" /v "LargeSystemCache" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
 
  reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters" /v "Size" /t REG_DWORD /d 3 /f
 
  reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters" /v "Size" /t REG_DWORD /d 3 /f
  
 
Do one of the following for the settings to take effect:
 
Do one of the following for the settings to take effect:
 +
 
* Restart Windows
 
* Restart Windows
 
* Restart the Server service via services.msc
 
* Restart the Server service via services.msc
Line 557: Line 489:
 
[http://alan.lamielle.net/2009/09/03/windows-7-nonpaged-pool-srv-error-2017 Original article].
 
[http://alan.lamielle.net/2009/09/03/windows-7-nonpaged-pool-srv-error-2017 Original article].
  
=== Trouble accessing a password-protected share from Windows ===
+
=== Windows 10 1709 and up connectivity problems - "Windows cannot access" 0x80004005 ===
  
{{Note|This needs to be added to the '''local smb.conf''', not to the server's smb.conf}}
+
This error affects some machines running Windows 10 version 1709 and later. It is not related to SMB1 being disabled in this version but to the fact that Microsoft disabled insecure logons for guests on this version for some, but not others.
  
For trouble accessing a password protected share from Windows, try adding this to {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}:[http://blogs.computerworld.com/networking_nightmare_ii_adding_linux]
+
To fix, open Group Policy Editor ({{ic|gpedit.msc}}). Navigate to ''Computer configuration\administrative templates\network\Lanman Workstation > Enable insecure guest logons'' and enable it.
 +
Alternatively,change the following value in the registry:
  
  [global]
+
  [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanWorkstation\Parameters]
  # lanman fix
+
  "AllowInsecureGuestAuth"=dword:1
client lanman auth = yes
 
client ntlmv2 auth = no
 
  
=== Getting a dialog box up takes a long time ===
+
=== Error: Failed to retrieve printer list: NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL ===
  
I had a problem that it took ~30 seconds to get a password dialog box up when trying to connect from both Windows XP/Windows 7. Analyzing the error.log on the server I saw:
+
If you are a home user and using samba purely for file sharing from a server or NAS, you are probably not interested in sharing printers through it. If so, you can prevent this error from occurring by adding the following lines to your {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}:
  
[2009/11/11 06:20:12,  0] printing/print_cups.c:cups_connect(103)
+
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|2=
Unable to connect to CUPS server localhost:631 - Interrupted system call
+
[global]
 
+
  load printers = No
This keeps samba from asking cups and also from complaining about /etc/printcap missing:
+
  printing = bsd
 +
  printcap name = /dev/null
 +
  disable spoolss = Yes
 +
}}
  
printing = bsd
+
[[Restart]] the samba service, {{ic|smb.service}}, and then check your logs:
printcap name = /dev/null
 
  
=== Error: Failed to retrieve printer list: NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL ===
+
# cat /var/log/samba/smbd.log
  
If you are a home user and using samba purely for file sharing from a server or NAS, you are probably not interested in sharing printers through it. If so, you can prevent this error from occurring by adding the following lines to your {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}:
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
load printers = No
 
printing = bsd
 
printcap name = /dev/null
 
disable spoolss = Yes
 
</nowiki>}}
 
[[Restart]] the samba service, {{ic|smbd.service}}, and then check your logs:
 
{{bc|cat /var/log/samba/smbd.log}}
 
 
and the error should now no longer be appearing.
 
and the error should now no longer be appearing.
  
Line 599: Line 523:
 
  ‘net usershare’ returned error 255: net usershare: usershares are currently disabled
 
  ‘net usershare’ returned error 255: net usershare: usershares are currently disabled
  
To fix it, enable usershare as described in [[#Creating usershare path]]{{Broken section link}}.
+
To fix it, enable usershare as described in [[#Enable usershares]].
  
 
=== "Browsing" network fails with "Failed to retrieve share list from server" ===
 
=== "Browsing" network fails with "Failed to retrieve share list from server" ===
And you are using a firewall (iptables) because you do not trust your local (school, university, hotel) local network.  This may be due to the following: When the smbclient is browsing the local network it sends out a broadcast request on udp port 137.  The servers on the network then reply to your client but as the source address of this reply is different from the destination address iptables saw when sending the request for the listing out, iptables will not recognize the reply as being "ESTABLISHED" or "RELATED", and hence the packet is dropped.  A possible solution is to add:{{bc|
+
 
iptables -t raw -A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns
+
And you are using a firewall (iptables) because you do not trust your local (school, university, hotel) network.  This may be due to the following: When the smbclient is browsing the local network it sends out a broadcast request on udp port 137.  The servers on the network then reply to your client but as the source address of this reply is different from the destination address iptables saw when sending the request for the listing out, iptables will not recognize the reply as being "ESTABLISHED" or "RELATED", and hence the packet is dropped.  A possible solution is to add:
}}
+
 
 +
iptables -t raw -A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns
 +
 
 
to your iptables setup.
 
to your iptables setup.
  
=== You are not the owner of the folder ===
+
=== Protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_INVALID_NETWORK_RESPONSE ===
 +
 
 +
The client probably does not have access to shares.  Make sure clients' IP address is in {{ic|1=hosts allow =}} line in {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}.
 +
 
 +
Another problem could be, that the client uses an invalid protocol version. To check this try to connect with the {{ic|smbclient}} where you specify the maximum protocol version manually:
  
Simply try to reboot the system.
+
$ smbclient -U <user name> -L //<server name> -m <protocol version: e. g. SMB2> -W <domain name>
  
=== protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_INVALID_NETWORK_RESPONSE ===
+
If the command was successful then create a configuration file:
  
The client probably does not have access to shares.  Make sure clients' IP address is in {{ic|1=hosts allow =}} line in {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}.
+
{{hc|~/.smb/smb.conf|output=
 +
[global]
 +
  workgroup = <domain name>
 +
  client max protocol = SMB2
 +
}}
  
 
=== Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL) ===
 
=== Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL) ===
  
You are probably passing wrong server name to {{ic|smbclient}}.  To find out the server name, run {{ic|hostnamectl}} on the server and look at "Transient hostname" line
+
You are probably passing a wrong server name to {{ic|smbclient}}.  To find out the server name, run {{ic|hostnamectl}} on the server and look at "Transient hostname" line
  
 
=== Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_REFUSED) ===
 
=== Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_REFUSED) ===
Line 623: Line 557:
 
Make sure that the server has started. The shared directories should exist and be accessible.
 
Make sure that the server has started. The shared directories should exist and be accessible.
  
== 参阅 ==
+
=== Protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_RESET ===
 +
 
 +
Probably the server is configured not to accept protocol SMB1. Add option {{ic|1=client max protocol = SMB2}} in {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}}.
 +
Or just pass argument {{ic|-m SMB2}} to {{ic|smbclient}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Password Error when correct credentials are given (error 1326) ===
 +
 
 +
[https://www.samba.org/samba/history/samba-4.5.0.html Samba 4.5] has NTLMv1 authentication disabled by default. It is recommend to install the latest available upgrades on clients and deny access for unsupported clients.
 +
 +
If you still need support for very old clients without NTLMv2 support (e.g. Windows XP), it is possible force enable NTLMv1, although this is '''not recommend''' for security reasons:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|2=
 +
[global]
 +
  lanman auth = yes
 +
  ntlm auth = yes
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
If NTLMv2 clients are unable to authenticate when NTLMv1 has been enabled, create the following file on the client:
 +
{{hc|/home/user/.smb/smb.conf|2=
 +
[global]
 +
  sec = ntlmv2
 +
  client ntlmv2 auth = yes
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
This change also affects samba shares mounted with '''mount.cifs'''. If after upgrade to Samba 4.5 your mount fails, add the '''sec=ntlmssp''' option to your mount command, e.g.
 +
 
 +
mount.cifs //server/share /mnt/point -o sec=ntlmssp,...
 +
 
 +
See the {{man|8|mount.cifs}} man page: '''ntlmssp''' - Use NTLMv2 password hashing encapsulated in Raw NTLMSSP message. The default in mainline kernel versions prior to v3.8 was '''sec=ntlm'''. In v3.8, the default was changed to '''sec=ntlmssp'''.
 +
 
 +
=== Mapping reserved Windows characters ===
 +
 
 +
Starting with kernel 3.18, the cifs module uses the [https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit/?id=2baa2682531ff02928e2d3904800696d9e7193db "mapposix" option by default].
 +
When mounting a share using unix extensions and a default Samba configuration, files and directories containing one of the seven reserved Windows characters {{ic|: \ * < > ? |}} are listed but cannot be accessed.
 +
 
 +
Possible solutions are:
 +
 
 +
* Use the undocumented {{ic|nomapposix}} mount option for cifs
 +
 
 +
  # mount.cifs //server/share /mnt/point -o nomapposix
 +
 
 +
* Configure Samba to remap {{ic|mapposix}} ("SFM", Services for Mac) style characters to the correct native ones using [https://www.mankier.com/8/vfs_fruit fruit]
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|2=
 +
[global]
 +
  vfs objects = catia fruit
 +
  fruit:encoding = native
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
* Manually remap forbidden characters using [https://www.mankier.com/8/vfs_catia catia]
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/etc/samba/smb.conf|2=
 +
[global]
 +
  vfs objects = catia
 +
  catia:mappings = 0x22:0xf022, 0x2a:0xf02a, 0x2f:0xf02f, 0x3a:0xf03a, 0x3c:0xf03c, 0x3e:0xf03e, 0x3f:0xf03f, 0x5c:0xf05c, 0x7c:0xf07c, 0x20:0xf020
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
The latter approach (using catia or fruit) has the drawback of filtering files with unprintable characters.
 +
 
 +
=== Folder shared inside graphical environment is not available to guests ===
 +
 
 +
This section presupposes:
 +
 
 +
# Usershares are configured following [[#Enable usershares|previous section]]
 +
# A shared folder has been created as a non-root user from GUI
 +
# Guests access has been set to shared folder during creation
 +
# Samba service has been restarted at least once since last {{ic|/etc/samba/smb.conf}} file modification
 +
 
 +
For clarification purpose only, in the following sub-sections is assumed:
 +
 
 +
* Shared folder is located inside user home directory path ({{ic|/home/yourUser/Shared}})
 +
* Shared folder name is ''MySharedFiles''
 +
* Guest access is read-only.
 +
* Windows users will access shared folder content without login prompt
 +
 
 +
==== Verify correct samba configuration ====
 +
 
 +
Run the following command from a terminal to test configuration file correctness:
 +
 
 +
$ testparm
 +
 
 +
==== Verify correct shared folder creation ====
 +
 
 +
Run the following commands from a terminal:
 +
 
 +
$ cd /var/lib/samba/usershare
 +
$ ls
 +
 
 +
If everything is fine, you will notice a file named {{ic|mysharedfiles}}
 +
 
 +
Read the file contents using the following command:
 +
 
 +
$ cat mysharedfiles
 +
 
 +
The terminal output should display something like this:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|/var/lib/samba/usershare/mysharedfiles|2=
 +
path=/home/yourUser/Shared
 +
comment=
 +
usershare_acl=S-1-1-0:r
 +
guest_ok=y
 +
sharename=MySharedFiles
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
==== Verify folder access by guest ====
 +
 
 +
Run the following command from a terminal. If prompted for a password, just press Enter:
 +
 
 +
$ smbclient -L localhost
 +
 
 +
If everything is fine, MySharedFiles should be displayed under {{ic|Sharename}} column
 +
 
 +
Run the following command in order to access the shared folder as guest (anonymous login)
 +
 
 +
$ smbclient -N //localhost/MySharedFiles
 +
 
 +
If everything is fine samba client prompt will be displayed:
 +
 
 +
smb: \>
 +
 
 +
From samba prompt verify guest can list directory contents:
 +
 
 +
smb: \> ls
 +
 
 +
If {{ic|NTFS_STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED}} error displayed, probably there is something to be solved at directory permission level.
 +
 
 +
Run the following commands as root to set correct permissions for folders:
 +
 
 +
# cd /home
 +
# chmod -R 755 /home/yourUser/Shared
 +
 
 +
Access shared folder again as guest to be sure guest read access error has been solved.
 +
 
 +
=== Mount error: Host is down ===
 +
This error might be seen when mounting shares of Synology NAS servers. Use the mount option {{ic|1=vers=1.0}} to solve it.
 +
 
 +
== See also ==
  
* [http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/SambaIntro.html Samba: An Introduction]
+
* [https://www.samba.org/ Official website]
* [http://www.samba.org/ Official Samba site]
+
* [https://www.samba.org/samba/docs/SambaIntro.html Samba: An Introduction]
 +
* [https://www.samba.org/samba/docs/Samba-HOWTO-Collection.pdf Samba 3.2.x HOWTO and Reference Guide] (outdated but still most extensive documentation)
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Samba (software)|Wikipedia]]
 +
* [[Gentoo:Samba/Guide]]
 +
* [[Debian:SambaServerSimple]]

Revision as of 09:00, 13 March 2019

翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Samba翻译,最后翻译时间:2019-03-13,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

SambaSMB/CIFS 网络协议的重新实现, 可以在 Linux 和 Windows 系统间进行文件、打印机共享,和 NFS 的功能类似。本文介绍如何配置和使用 Samba.

Contents

服务器

安装

安装 软件包 samba

Samba 服务的配置文件是 /etc/samba/smb.confsmb.conf(5)提供了详细的文档。

samba 软件包没有提供此文件,启动 smb.service 前需要先创建这个文件。从 这里 可以获取到示例文件。

从上面获取的默认配置文件里把日志log file设置到一个不能写的地方, 这会引起错误。下面的办法可以解决这个问题:

  • 把日志文件放到可写的路径: log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log
    • 把日志存到非文件后端的解决方案里: logging = syslog 配合 syslog only = yes, 或者使用 logging = systemd

如果需要的话; 在[global]部份中指定的 workgroup 需要对应windows工作组的名称 (默认是 WORKGROUP).

Tip: 修改 smb.conf 文件后,运行 testparm(1) 命令看看有没有语法错误。

配置防火墙

如果使用了 防火墙,请记得打开需要的端口(通常是 137-139 + 445). 完整列表请查看 Samba 端口使用

用户管理

添加用户

Samba 需要 Linux 账户才能使用 - 可以使用已有账户或 创建新用户.

虽然用户名可以和 Linux 系统共享,Samba 使用单独的密码管理,将下面的 samba_user 替换为选择的 Samba 用户:

# smbpasswd -a samba_user

根据 服务器角色 的差异,可能需要修改已有的 文件权限和属性

要让新创建的用户仅能访问 Samba 远程文件服务器,可以禁用其它登录选项

  • 禁用 shell - usermod --shell /usr/bin/nologin --lock username
  • 禁用 SSH logons - /etc/ssh/sshd_conf, option AllowUsers

参阅Security

查询用户

pdbedit(8) 命令查询现有用户:

# pdbedit -L -v

更改 samba 用户的密码

smbpasswd 修改 samba 用户的密码:

# smbpasswd samba_user

创建共享

Note: To allow the usage of guests on public shares, one may need to append map to guest = Bad User in the [global] section of /etc/samba/smb.conf. A different guest account may be used instead of the default provided nobody.

请确保 smb.conf.defaultShare Definitions 部分正确设置了共享。

启动服务

注意: samba 4.8.0-1里, smbd.servicenmbd.service 单元被改名为 smb.servicenmb.service.

为了能够使用 SMB 进行基本的文件共享,start/enable smb.servicenmb.service 服务。更多信息参阅 smbdnmbd 的 man 手册。 nmbd.service 并不总是需要启用。

提示: 除了在启动时启动服务,可以选择启用 smbd.socket,禁用 smbd.service。这样的话会在第一次收到连接请求是启动后台进程。

高级配置

建立 Usershare 路径

Note: 此为可选功能,如无需要可以跳过。

"Usershare" 让不具有 root 权限的用户可以进行添加、修改和删除自己的文件夹的操作。

以下操作将会在 /var/lib/samba 添加 usershares 目录:

# mkdir -p /var/lib/samba/usershare

以下操作将会建立 sambashare 用户组:

# groupadd sambashare

以下操作将会将刚刚建立的文件夹的权限:拥有者更改为 root,群组更改为 sambashare:

# chown root:sambashare /var/lib/samba/usershare

以下的操作将会让 sambashare 群组中的用户拥有读取,写入和执行此文件夹中内容的权限:

# chmod 1770 /var/lib/samba/usershare

修改 smb.conf 配置文件中的以下变量:

/etc/samba/smb.conf
...
[global]
  usershare path = /var/lib/samba/usershare
  usershare max shares = 100
  usershare allow guests = yes
  usershare owner only = yes
  ...

将用户添加到群组 sambashare 中。其中,替换 your_username 为实际的用户名:

# usermod -a -G sambashare your_username

重启 smbd.servicenmbd.service 服务。

注销后重新登陆,此时您应该就可以使用 GUI 程序配置您的 samba 共享服务了。例如,在 Thunar 中您可以右键点击任何一个文件夹将它在局域网中共享。如果你想共享自己主目录内的路径,需要主目录的内容让其它用户可以列出。

客户端配置

如果不需要查询公开的共享,可以安装轻量级的 cifs-utils 软件包,使用 /usr/bin/mount.cifs 命令挂载共享.

要使用类似 ftp 的命令行界面,请安装软件包 smbclient。常用命令请参考 smbclient(1)

桌面环境 可能提供了图形界面,参考#文件管理器配置.

Note: 安装 cifs-utilssmbclient 后,请加载 cifs 内核模块 或重启以避免挂载失败。

显示可用共享

下面命令会显示服务器上的可用共享:

$ smbclient -L hostname -U%

smbtree 可用显示共享目录树,不建议再有大量计算机的网络上使用此功能。可用它检查共享名是否可用。

$ smbtree -b -N

-b (--broadcast) 使用广播模式,-N (-no-pass) 不询问密码.

WINS 主机名

smbclient 提供了一个用 WINS 解析主机名的驱动,要启用它,将 “wins” 添加到 /etc/nsswitch.conf 的 “hosts” 行。

手动挂载

创建共享挂载点:

# mkdir /mnt/mountpoint

使用 mount.cifs 作为挂载类型 type,下面列出的选项并不是全部都需要:

# mount -t cifs //SERVER/sharename /mnt/mountpoint -o user=username,password=password,uid=username,gid=group,workgroup=workgroup,ip=serverip,iocharset=utf8

要允许用户挂载到自己可以访问的目录,请使用 users 挂载选项。

Note: 请注意这里有 s,其它文件系统一般用的是 user

使用 uidgid 挂载选项时,请注意 文件权限,否则会出现 I/O 错误。}}

SERVER

服务器名.

sharename

共享目录.

mountpoint

本地的挂载点.

-o [options]

详情请参考 mount.cifs(8).
Note:
保存共享密码

不建议将密码保存在所有人都可读的文件中,一个更安全的方式是创建密码文件:

/path/to/credentials/share
username=myuser
password=mypass

username=myuser,password=mypass 替换为 credentials=/path/to/credentials/share.

修改密码文件的权限:

# chmod 600 /path/to/credentials/share

Automatic mounting

Note: You may need to enable systemd-networkd-wait-online.service or NetworkManager-wait-online.service (depending on your setup) to proper enable booting on start-up.

As mount entry

This is a simple example of a cifs mount entry that requires authentication:

/etc/fstab
//SERVER/sharename /mnt/mountpoint cifs username=myuser,password=mypass 0 0
Note: Spaces in sharename should be replaced by \040 (ASCII code for space in octal). For example, //SERVER/share name on the command line should be //SERVER/share\040name in /etc/fstab.
Tip: Use x-systemd.automount if you want them to be mounted only upon access. See Fstab#Remote filesystem for details.

As systemd unit

Create a new .mount file inside /etc/systemd/system, e.g. mnt-myshare.mount.

Note: Make sure the filename corresponds to the mountpoint you want to use. E.g. the unit name mnt-myshare.mount can only be used if are going to mount the share under /mnt/myshare. Otherwise the following error might occur: systemd[1]: mnt-myshare.mount: Where= setting does not match unit name. Refusing..

Requires= replace (if needed) with your Network configuration.

What= path to share

Where= path to mount the share

Options= share mounting options

Note: If you want to use a hostname for the server you want to share (instead of an IP address), add systemd-resolved.service to After and Wants. This might avoid mount errors at boot time that do not arise when testing the unit.
/etc/systemd/system/mnt-myshare.mount
[Unit]
Description=Mount Share at boot
Requires=systemd-networkd.service
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Mount]
What=//server/share
Where=/mnt/myshare
Options=credentials=/etc/samba/creds/myshare,iocharset=utf8,rw,x-systemd.automount
Type=cifs
TimeoutSec=30

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

To use mnt-myshare.mount, start the unit and enable it to run on system boot.

smbnetfs

Note: smbnetfs needs an intact Samba server setup. See above on how to do that.

First, check if you can see all the shares you are interested in mounting:

$ smbtree -U remote_user

If that does not work, find and modify the following line in /etc/samba/smb.conf accordingly:

domain master = auto

Now restart smb.service and nmb.service.

If everything works as expected, install smbnetfs from the official repositories.

Then, add the following line to /etc/fuse.conf:

user_allow_other

Now copy the directory /etc/smbnetfs/.smb to your home directory:

$ cp -a /etc/smbnetfs/.smb ~

Then create a link to smb.conf:

$ ln -sf /etc/samba/smb.conf ~/.smb/smb.conf

If a username and a password are required to access some of the shared folders, edit ~/.smb/smbnetfs.auth to include one or more entries like this:

~/.smb/smbnetfs.auth
auth			"hostname" "username" "password"

It is also possible to add entries for specific hosts to be mounted by smbnetfs, if necessary. More details can be found in ~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf.

If you are using the Dolphin or GNOME Files, you may want to add the following to ~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf to avoid "Disk full" errors as smbnetfs by default will report 0 bytes of free space:

~/.smb/smbnetfs.conf
free_space_size 1073741824

When you are done with the configuration, you need to run

$ chmod 600 ~/.smb/smbnetfs.*

Otherwise, smbnetfs complains about 'insecure config file permissions'.

Finally, to mount your Samba network neighbourhood to a directory of your choice, call

$ smbnetfs mount_point
Daemon

The Arch Linux package also maintains an additional system-wide operation mode for smbnetfs. To enable it, you need to make the said modifications in the directoy /etc/smbnetfs/.smb.

Then, you can start and/or enable the smbnetfs daemon as usual. The system-wide mount point is at /mnt/smbnet/.

autofs

See Autofs for information on the kernel-based automounter for Linux.

File manager configuration

GNOME Files, Nemo, Caja, Thunar and PCManFM

In order to access samba shares through GNOME Files, Nemo, Caja, Thunar or PCManFM, install the gvfs-smb package, available in the official repositories.

Press Ctrl+l and enter smb://servername/share in the location bar to access your share.

The mounted share is likely to be present at /run/user/your_UID/gvfs or ~/.gvfs in the filesystem.

KDE

KDE has the ability to browse Samba shares built in. To use a GUI in the KDE System Settings, you will need to install the kdenetwork-filesharing package.

If you get a "Time Out" Error when navigating with Dolphin, you should uncomment and edit the following line in smb.conf:

name resolve order = lmhosts bcast host wins

as shown in this page.

Other graphical environments

There are a number of useful programs, but they may need to have packages created for them. This can be done with the Arch package build system. The good thing about these others is that they do not require a particular environment to be installed to support them, and so they bring along less baggage.

  • pyneighborhood is available in the official repositories.
  • LinNeighborhood, RUmba, xffm-samba plugin for Xffm are not available in the official repositories or the AUR. As they are not officially (or even unofficially supported), they may be obsolete and may not work at all.

Tips and tricks

Discovering network shares

If nothing is known about other systems on the local network, and automated tools such as smbnetfs are not available, the following methods allow one to manually probe for Samba shares.

1. First, install the nmap and smbclient packages.

2. nmap checks which ports are open:

# nmap -p 139 -sT "192.168.1.*"

In this case, a scan on the 192.168.1.* IP address range and port 139 has been performed, resulting in:

$ nmap -sT "192.168.1.*"
Starting nmap 3.78 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2005-02-15 11:45 PHT
Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1:
(The 1661 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
PORT     STATE SERVICE
139/tcp  open  netbios-ssn
5000/tcp open  UPnP

Interesting ports on 192.168.1.5:
(The 1662 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
PORT     STATE SERVICE
6000/tcp open  X11

Nmap run completed -- 256 IP addresses (2 hosts up) scanned in 7.255 seconds

The first result is another system; the second happens to be the client from where this scan was performed.

3. Now that systems with port 139 open are revealed, use nmblookup(1) to check for NetBIOS names:

$ nmblookup -A 192.168.1.1
Looking up status of 192.168.1.1
        PUTER           <00> -         B <ACTIVE>
        HOMENET         <00> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
        PUTER           <03> -         B <ACTIVE>
        PUTER           <20> -         B <ACTIVE>
        HOMENET         <1e> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
        USERNAME        <03> -         B <ACTIVE>
        HOMENET         <1d> -         B <ACTIVE>
        MSBROWSE        <01> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>

Regardless of the output, look for <20>, which shows the host with open services.

4. Use smbclient to list which services are shared on PUTER. If prompted for a password, pressing enter should still display the list:

$ smbclient -L \\PUTER
Sharename       Type      Comment

---- ------- MY_MUSIC Disk SHAREDDOCS Disk PRINTER$ Disk PRINTER Printer IPC$ IPC Remote Inter Process Communication Server Comment
------- PUTER Workgroup Master
------- HOMENET PUTER

Remote control of Windows computer

Samba offers a set of tools for communication with Windows. These can be handy if access to a Windows computer through remote desktop is not an option, as shown by some examples.

Send shutdown command with a comment:

$ net rpc shutdown -C "comment" -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD

A forced shutdown instead can be invoked by changing -C with comment to a single -f. For a restart, only add -r, followed by a -C or -f.

Stop and start services:

$ net rpc service stop SERVICENAME -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD

To see all possible net rpc command:

$ net rpc

Troubleshooting

Failed to start Samba SMB/CIFS server

Possible solutions:

  • Check smb.conf on syntactic errors with testparm(1).
  • Set correct permissions for /var/cache/samba/ and restart smb.service:
# chmod 0755 /var/cache/samba/msg

Permission issues on AppArmor

If using a share path located outside of a home-directory, whitelist it in /etc/apparmor.d/local/usr.sbin.smbd. E.g.:

/etc/apparmor.d/local/usr.sbin.smbd
/data/** lrwk,

No dialect specified on mount

The client is using an unsupported SMB/CIFS version that is required by the server.

See #Restrict protocols for better security for more information.

Unable to overwrite files, permissions errors

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: An user should set/check for server/client permissions, instead of using incorrect/possible insecure flags. (Discuss in Talk:Samba (简体中文)#)

Possible solutions:

  • Append the mount option nodfs to the /etc/fstab entry.
  • Add msdfs root = no to the [global] section of the server's /etc/samba/smb.conf.

Windows clients keep asking for password even if Samba shares are created with guest permissions

Set map to guest inside the global section of /etc/samba/smb.conf:

map to guest = Bad User

Windows 7 connectivity problems - mount error(12): cannot allocate memory

A known Windows 7 bug that causes "mount error(12): cannot allocate memory" on an otherwise perfect cifs share on the Linux end can be fixed by setting a few registry keys on the Windows box as follows:

  • HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management\LargeSystemCache (set to 1)
  • HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters\Size (set to 3)

Alternatively, start Command Prompt in Admin Mode and execute the following:

reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management" /v "LargeSystemCache" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters" /v "Size" /t REG_DWORD /d 3 /f

Do one of the following for the settings to take effect:

  • Restart Windows
  • Restart the Server service via services.msc
  • From the Command Prompt run: 'net stop lanmanserver' and 'net start lanmanserver' - The server may automatically restart after stopping it.
Note: Googling will reveal another tweak recommending users to add a key modifying the "IRPStackSize" size. This is incorrect for fixing this issue under Windows 7. Do not attempt it.

Original article.

Windows 10 1709 and up connectivity problems - "Windows cannot access" 0x80004005

This error affects some machines running Windows 10 version 1709 and later. It is not related to SMB1 being disabled in this version but to the fact that Microsoft disabled insecure logons for guests on this version for some, but not others.

To fix, open Group Policy Editor (gpedit.msc). Navigate to Computer configuration\administrative templates\network\Lanman Workstation > Enable insecure guest logons and enable it. Alternatively,change the following value in the registry:

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanWorkstation\Parameters]
"AllowInsecureGuestAuth"=dword:1

Error: Failed to retrieve printer list: NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL

If you are a home user and using samba purely for file sharing from a server or NAS, you are probably not interested in sharing printers through it. If so, you can prevent this error from occurring by adding the following lines to your /etc/samba/smb.conf:

/etc/samba/smb.conf
[global]
  load printers = No
  printing = bsd
  printcap name = /dev/null
  disable spoolss = Yes

Restart the samba service, smb.service, and then check your logs:

# cat /var/log/samba/smbd.log

and the error should now no longer be appearing.

Sharing a folder fails

It means that while you are sharing a folder from Dolphin (file manager) and everything seems ok at first, after restarting Dolphin the share icon is gone from the shared folder, and also some output like this in terminal (Konsole) output:

‘net usershare’ returned error 255: net usershare: usershares are currently disabled

To fix it, enable usershare as described in #Enable usershares.

"Browsing" network fails with "Failed to retrieve share list from server"

And you are using a firewall (iptables) because you do not trust your local (school, university, hotel) network. This may be due to the following: When the smbclient is browsing the local network it sends out a broadcast request on udp port 137. The servers on the network then reply to your client but as the source address of this reply is different from the destination address iptables saw when sending the request for the listing out, iptables will not recognize the reply as being "ESTABLISHED" or "RELATED", and hence the packet is dropped. A possible solution is to add:

iptables -t raw -A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns

to your iptables setup.

Protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_INVALID_NETWORK_RESPONSE

The client probably does not have access to shares. Make sure clients' IP address is in hosts allow = line in /etc/samba/smb.conf.

Another problem could be, that the client uses an invalid protocol version. To check this try to connect with the smbclient where you specify the maximum protocol version manually:

$ smbclient -U <user name> -L //<server name> -m <protocol version: e. g. SMB2> -W <domain name>

If the command was successful then create a configuration file:

~/.smb/smb.conf
[global]
  workgroup = <domain name>
  client max protocol = SMB2

Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL)

You are probably passing a wrong server name to smbclient. To find out the server name, run hostnamectl on the server and look at "Transient hostname" line

Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_REFUSED)

Make sure that the server has started. The shared directories should exist and be accessible.

Protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_RESET

Probably the server is configured not to accept protocol SMB1. Add option client max protocol = SMB2 in /etc/samba/smb.conf. Or just pass argument -m SMB2 to smbclient.

Password Error when correct credentials are given (error 1326)

Samba 4.5 has NTLMv1 authentication disabled by default. It is recommend to install the latest available upgrades on clients and deny access for unsupported clients.

If you still need support for very old clients without NTLMv2 support (e.g. Windows XP), it is possible force enable NTLMv1, although this is not recommend for security reasons:

/etc/samba/smb.conf
[global]
  lanman auth = yes
  ntlm auth = yes

If NTLMv2 clients are unable to authenticate when NTLMv1 has been enabled, create the following file on the client:

/home/user/.smb/smb.conf
[global]
  sec = ntlmv2
  client ntlmv2 auth = yes

This change also affects samba shares mounted with mount.cifs. If after upgrade to Samba 4.5 your mount fails, add the sec=ntlmssp option to your mount command, e.g.

mount.cifs //server/share /mnt/point -o sec=ntlmssp,...

See the mount.cifs(8) man page: ntlmssp - Use NTLMv2 password hashing encapsulated in Raw NTLMSSP message. The default in mainline kernel versions prior to v3.8 was sec=ntlm. In v3.8, the default was changed to sec=ntlmssp.

Mapping reserved Windows characters

Starting with kernel 3.18, the cifs module uses the "mapposix" option by default. When mounting a share using unix extensions and a default Samba configuration, files and directories containing one of the seven reserved Windows characters : \ * < > ? are listed but cannot be accessed.

Possible solutions are:

  • Use the undocumented nomapposix mount option for cifs
 # mount.cifs //server/share /mnt/point -o nomapposix
  • Configure Samba to remap mapposix ("SFM", Services for Mac) style characters to the correct native ones using fruit
/etc/samba/smb.conf
[global]
  vfs objects = catia fruit
  fruit:encoding = native
  • Manually remap forbidden characters using catia
/etc/samba/smb.conf
[global]
  vfs objects = catia
  catia:mappings = 0x22:0xf022, 0x2a:0xf02a, 0x2f:0xf02f, 0x3a:0xf03a, 0x3c:0xf03c, 0x3e:0xf03e, 0x3f:0xf03f, 0x5c:0xf05c, 0x7c:0xf07c, 0x20:0xf020

The latter approach (using catia or fruit) has the drawback of filtering files with unprintable characters.

Folder shared inside graphical environment is not available to guests

This section presupposes:

  1. Usershares are configured following previous section
  2. A shared folder has been created as a non-root user from GUI
  3. Guests access has been set to shared folder during creation
  4. Samba service has been restarted at least once since last /etc/samba/smb.conf file modification

For clarification purpose only, in the following sub-sections is assumed:

  • Shared folder is located inside user home directory path (/home/yourUser/Shared)
  • Shared folder name is MySharedFiles
  • Guest access is read-only.
  • Windows users will access shared folder content without login prompt

Verify correct samba configuration

Run the following command from a terminal to test configuration file correctness:

$ testparm

Verify correct shared folder creation

Run the following commands from a terminal:

$ cd /var/lib/samba/usershare
$ ls

If everything is fine, you will notice a file named mysharedfiles

Read the file contents using the following command:

$ cat mysharedfiles

The terminal output should display something like this:

/var/lib/samba/usershare/mysharedfiles
path=/home/yourUser/Shared
comment=
usershare_acl=S-1-1-0:r
guest_ok=y
sharename=MySharedFiles

Verify folder access by guest

Run the following command from a terminal. If prompted for a password, just press Enter:

$ smbclient -L localhost

If everything is fine, MySharedFiles should be displayed under Sharename column

Run the following command in order to access the shared folder as guest (anonymous login)

$ smbclient -N //localhost/MySharedFiles

If everything is fine samba client prompt will be displayed:

smb: \>

From samba prompt verify guest can list directory contents:

smb: \> ls

If NTFS_STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED error displayed, probably there is something to be solved at directory permission level.

Run the following commands as root to set correct permissions for folders:

# cd /home
# chmod -R 755 /home/yourUser/Shared

Access shared folder again as guest to be sure guest read access error has been solved.

Mount error: Host is down

This error might be seen when mounting shares of Synology NAS servers. Use the mount option vers=1.0 to solve it.

See also