- 1 服务器
- 2 客户端配置
- 3 Tips and tricks
- 4 Troubleshooting
- 4.1 Failed to start Samba SMB/CIFS server
- 4.2 Permission issues on AppArmor
- 4.3 No dialect specified on mount
- 4.4 Unable to overwrite files, permissions errors
- 4.5 Windows clients keep asking for password even if Samba shares are created with guest permissions
- 4.6 Windows 7 connectivity problems - mount error(12): cannot allocate memory
- 4.7 Windows 10 1709 and up connectivity problems - "Windows cannot access" 0x80004005
- 4.8 Error: Failed to retrieve printer list: NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL
- 4.9 Sharing a folder fails
- 4.10 "Browsing" network fails with "Failed to retrieve share list from server"
- 4.11 Protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_INVALID_NETWORK_RESPONSE
- 4.12 Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL)
- 4.13 Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_REFUSED)
- 4.14 Protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_RESET
- 4.15 Password Error when correct credentials are given (error 1326)
- 4.16 Mapping reserved Windows characters
- 4.17 Folder shared inside graphical environment is not available to guests
- 4.18 Mount error: Host is down
- 5 See also
安装 软件包 。
这里 可以获取到示例文件。软件包没有提供此文件，启动 smb.service 前需要先创建这个文件。从
log file设置到一个不能写的地方, 这会引起错误。下面的办法可以解决这个问题:
log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log
logging = syslog配合
syslog only = yes, 或者使用
logging = systemd
workgroup 需要对应windows工作组的名称 (默认是
Samba 需要 Linux 账户才能使用 - 可以使用已有账户或 创建新用户.
虽然用户名可以和 Linux 系统共享，Samba 使用单独的密码管理，将下面的
samba_user 替换为选择的 Samba 用户:
# smbpasswd -a samba_user
要让新创建的用户仅能访问 Samba 远程文件服务器，可以禁用其它登录选项
- 禁用 shell -
usermod --shell /usr/bin/nologin --lock username
- 禁用 SSH logons - /etc/ssh/sshd_conf, option
# pdbedit -L -v
更改 samba 用户的密码
smbpasswd 修改 samba 用户的密码:
# smbpasswd samba_user
map to guest = Bad Userin the
/etc/samba/smb.conf. A different
guest accountmay be used instead of the default provided
请确保 smb.conf.default 的 Share Definitions 部分正确设置了共享。
"Usershare" 让不具有 root 权限的用户可以进行添加、修改和删除自己的文件夹的操作。
/var/lib/samba 添加 usershares 目录：
# mkdir -p /var/lib/samba/usershare
以下操作将会建立 sambashare 用户组：
# groupadd sambashare
以下操作将会将刚刚建立的文件夹的权限：拥有者更改为 root，群组更改为 sambashare：
# chown root:sambashare /var/lib/samba/usershare
以下的操作将会让 sambashare 群组中的用户拥有读取，写入和执行此文件夹中内容的权限：
# chmod 1770 /var/lib/samba/usershare
... [global] usershare path = /var/lib/samba/usershare usershare max shares = 100 usershare allow guests = yes usershare owner only = yes ...
将用户添加到群组 sambashare 中。其中，替换
# usermod -a -G sambashare your_username
注销后重新登陆，此时您应该就可以使用 GUI 程序配置您的 samba 共享服务了。例如，在 Thunar 中您可以右键点击任何一个文件夹将它在局域网中共享。如果你想共享自己主目录内的路径，需要主目录的内容让其它用户可以列出。
要使用类似 ftp 的命令行界面，请安装软件包。常用命令请参考 。
$ smbclient -L hostname -U%
$ smbtree -b -N
提供了一个用 WINS 解析主机名的驱动，要启用它，将 “wins” 添加到 /etc/nsswitch.conf 的 “hosts” 行。
# mkdir /mnt/mountpoint
# mount -t cifs //SERVER/sharename /mnt/mountpoint -o user=username,password=password,uid=username,gid=group,workgroup=workgroup,ip=serverip,iocharset=utf8
gid 挂载选项时，请注意 文件权限，否则会出现 I/O 错误。}}
- 详情请参考 .
vers=设置不同的 SMB 协议版本。例如， 挂载 Vista 用
- 如果挂载了 cifs 机器上出现关机超时，请参考 WPA supplicant#Problem with mounted network shares (cifs) and shutdown.
# chmod 600 /path/to/credentials/share
NetworkManager-wait-online.service(depending on your setup) to proper enable booting on start-up.
As mount entry
This is a simple example of a
cifs mount entry that requires authentication:
//SERVER/sharename /mnt/mountpoint cifs username=myuser,password=mypass 0 0
\040(ASCII code for space in octal). For example,
//SERVER/share nameon the command line should be
x-systemd.automountif you want them to be mounted only upon access. See Fstab#Remote filesystem for details.
As systemd unit
Create a new
.mount file inside
mnt-myshare.mountcan only be used if are going to mount the share under
/mnt/myshare. Otherwise the following error might occur:
systemd: mnt-myshare.mount: Where= setting does not match unit name. Refusing..
Requires= replace (if needed) with your Network configuration.
What= path to share
Where= path to mount the share
Options= share mounting options
Wants. This might avoid mount errors at boot time that do not arise when testing the unit.
[Unit] Description=Mount Share at boot Requires=systemd-networkd.service After=network-online.target Wants=network-online.target [Mount] What=//server/share Where=/mnt/myshare Options=credentials=/etc/samba/creds/myshare,iocharset=utf8,rw,x-systemd.automount Type=cifs TimeoutSec=30 [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
First, check if you can see all the shares you are interested in mounting:
$ smbtree -U remote_user
If that does not work, find and modify the following line
domain master = auto
If everything works as expected, install from the official repositories.
Then, add the following line to
Now copy the directory
/etc/smbnetfs/.smb to your home directory:
$ cp -a /etc/smbnetfs/.smb ~
Then create a link to
$ ln -sf /etc/samba/smb.conf ~/.smb/smb.conf
If a username and a password are required to access some of the shared folders, edit
to include one or more entries like this:
auth "hostname" "username" "password"
It is also possible to add entries for specific hosts to be mounted by smbnetfs, if necessary.
More details can be found in
When you are done with the configuration, you need to run
$ chmod 600 ~/.smb/smbnetfs.*
Otherwise, smbnetfs complains about 'insecure config file permissions'.
Finally, to mount your Samba network neighbourhood to a directory of your choice, call
$ smbnetfs mount_point
The Arch Linux package also maintains an additional system-wide operation mode for smbnetfs. To enable it, you need to make the
said modifications in the directoy
Then, you can start and/or enable the
smbnetfs daemon as usual. The system-wide mount point is at
See Autofs for information on the kernel-based automounter for Linux.
File manager configuration
GNOME Files, Nemo, Caja, Thunar and PCManFM
In order to access samba shares through GNOME Files, Nemo, Caja, Thunar or PCManFM, install the official repositories.package, available in the
Ctrl+l and enter
smb://servername/share in the location bar to access your share.
The mounted share is likely to be present at
~/.gvfs in the filesystem.
KDE has the ability to browse Samba shares built in. To use a GUI in the KDE System Settings, you will need to install thepackage.
If you get a "Time Out" Error when navigating with Dolphin, you should uncomment and edit the following line in smb.conf:
name resolve order = lmhosts bcast host wins
as shown in this page.
Other graphical environments
There are a number of useful programs, but they may need to have packages created for them. This can be done with the Arch package build system. The good thing about these others is that they do not require a particular environment to be installed to support them, and so they bring along less baggage.
- is available in the official repositories.
- LinNeighborhood, RUmba, xffm-samba plugin for Xffm are not available in the official repositories or the AUR. As they are not officially (or even unofficially supported), they may be obsolete and may not work at all.
Tips and tricks
If nothing is known about other systems on the local network, and automated tools such as smbnetfs are not available, the following methods allow one to manually probe for Samba shares.
1. First, install the and packages.
nmap checks which ports are open:
# nmap -p 139 -sT "192.168.1.*"
In this case, a scan on the 192.168.1.* IP address range and port 139 has been performed, resulting in:
$ nmap -sT "192.168.1.*"
Starting nmap 3.78 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2005-02-15 11:45 PHT Interesting ports on 192.168.1.1: (The 1661 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed) PORT STATE SERVICE 139/tcp open netbios-ssn 5000/tcp open UPnP Interesting ports on 192.168.1.5: (The 1662 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed) PORT STATE SERVICE 6000/tcp open X11 Nmap run completed -- 256 IP addresses (2 hosts up) scanned in 7.255 seconds
The first result is another system; the second happens to be the client from where this scan was performed.
3. Now that systems with port 139 open are revealed, useto check for NetBIOS names:
$ nmblookup -A 192.168.1.1
Looking up status of 192.168.1.1 PUTER <00> - B <ACTIVE> HOMENET <00> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE> PUTER <03> - B <ACTIVE> PUTER <20> - B <ACTIVE> HOMENET <1e> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE> USERNAME <03> - B <ACTIVE> HOMENET <1d> - B <ACTIVE> MSBROWSE <01> - <GROUP> B <ACTIVE>
Regardless of the output, look for <20>, which shows the host with open services.
smbclient to list which services are shared on PUTER. If prompted for a password, pressing enter should still display the list:
$ smbclient -L \\PUTER
Sharename Type Comment
---- ------- MY_MUSIC Disk SHAREDDOCS Disk PRINTER$ Disk PRINTER Printer IPC$ IPC Remote Inter Process Communication Server Comment
------- PUTER Workgroup Master
------- HOMENET PUTER
Remote control of Windows computer
Samba offers a set of tools for communication with Windows. These can be handy if access to a Windows computer through remote desktop is not an option, as shown by some examples.
Send shutdown command with a comment:
$ net rpc shutdown -C "comment" -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD
A forced shutdown instead can be invoked by changing -C with comment to a single -f. For a restart, only add -r, followed by a -C or -f.
Stop and start services:
$ net rpc service stop SERVICENAME -I IPADDRESS -U USERNAME%PASSWORD
To see all possible net rpc command:
$ net rpc
Failed to start Samba SMB/CIFS server
smb.confon syntactic errors with .
- Set correct permissions for
# chmod 0755 /var/cache/samba/msg
Permission issues on AppArmor
If using a share path located outside of a home-directory, whitelist it in
No dialect specified on mount
The client is using an unsupported SMB/CIFS version that is required by the server.
See #Restrict protocols for better security for more information.
Unable to overwrite files, permissions errors
- Append the mount option
msdfs root = noto the
[global]section of the server's
map to guest inside the
global section of
map to guest = Bad User
Windows 7 connectivity problems - mount error(12): cannot allocate memory
A known Windows 7 bug that causes "mount error(12): cannot allocate memory" on an otherwise perfect cifs share on the Linux end can be fixed by setting a few registry keys on the Windows box as follows:
HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management\LargeSystemCache(set to
Alternatively, start Command Prompt in Admin Mode and execute the following:
reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management" /v "LargeSystemCache" /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f reg add "HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters" /v "Size" /t REG_DWORD /d 3 /f
Do one of the following for the settings to take effect:
- Restart Windows
- Restart the Server service via services.msc
- From the Command Prompt run: 'net stop lanmanserver' and 'net start lanmanserver' - The server may automatically restart after stopping it.
Windows 10 1709 and up connectivity problems - "Windows cannot access" 0x80004005
This error affects some machines running Windows 10 version 1709 and later. It is not related to SMB1 being disabled in this version but to the fact that Microsoft disabled insecure logons for guests on this version for some, but not others.
To fix, open Group Policy Editor (
gpedit.msc). Navigate to Computer configuration\administrative templates\network\Lanman Workstation > Enable insecure guest logons and enable it.
Alternatively,change the following value in the registry:
Error: Failed to retrieve printer list: NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL
If you are a home user and using samba purely for file sharing from a server or NAS, you are probably not interested in sharing printers through it. If so, you can prevent this error from occurring by adding the following lines to your
[global] load printers = No printing = bsd printcap name = /dev/null disable spoolss = Yes
Restart the samba service,
smb.service, and then check your logs:
# cat /var/log/samba/smbd.log
and the error should now no longer be appearing.
Sharing a folder fails
It means that while you are sharing a folder from Dolphin (file manager) and everything seems ok at first, after restarting Dolphin the share icon is gone from the shared folder, and also some output like this in terminal (Konsole) output:
‘net usershare’ returned error 255: net usershare: usershares are currently disabled
To fix it, enable usershare as described in #Enable usershares.
And you are using a firewall (iptables) because you do not trust your local (school, university, hotel) network. This may be due to the following: When the smbclient is browsing the local network it sends out a broadcast request on udp port 137. The servers on the network then reply to your client but as the source address of this reply is different from the destination address iptables saw when sending the request for the listing out, iptables will not recognize the reply as being "ESTABLISHED" or "RELATED", and hence the packet is dropped. A possible solution is to add:
iptables -t raw -A OUTPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 137 -j CT --helper netbios-ns
to your iptables setup.
Protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_INVALID_NETWORK_RESPONSE
The client probably does not have access to shares. Make sure clients' IP address is in
hosts allow = line in
Another problem could be, that the client uses an invalid protocol version. To check this try to connect with the
smbclient where you specify the maximum protocol version manually:
$ smbclient -U <user name> -L //<server name> -m <protocol version: e. g. SMB2> -W <domain name>
If the command was successful then create a configuration file:
[global] workgroup = <domain name> client max protocol = SMB2
Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_UNSUCCESSFUL)
You are probably passing a wrong server name to
smbclient. To find out the server name, run
hostnamectl on the server and look at "Transient hostname" line
Connection to SERVER failed: (Error NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_REFUSED)
Make sure that the server has started. The shared directories should exist and be accessible.
Protocol negotiation failed: NT_STATUS_CONNECTION_RESET
Probably the server is configured not to accept protocol SMB1. Add option
client max protocol = SMB2 in
Or just pass argument
-m SMB2 to
Password Error when correct credentials are given (error 1326)
Samba 4.5 has NTLMv1 authentication disabled by default. It is recommend to install the latest available upgrades on clients and deny access for unsupported clients.
If you still need support for very old clients without NTLMv2 support (e.g. Windows XP), it is possible force enable NTLMv1, although this is not recommend for security reasons:
[global] lanman auth = yes ntlm auth = yes
If NTLMv2 clients are unable to authenticate when NTLMv1 has been enabled, create the following file on the client:
[global] sec = ntlmv2 client ntlmv2 auth = yes
This change also affects samba shares mounted with mount.cifs. If after upgrade to Samba 4.5 your mount fails, add the sec=ntlmssp option to your mount command, e.g.
mount.cifs //server/share /mnt/point -o sec=ntlmssp,...
See theman page: ntlmssp - Use NTLMv2 password hashing encapsulated in Raw NTLMSSP message. The default in mainline kernel versions prior to v3.8 was sec=ntlm. In v3.8, the default was changed to sec=ntlmssp.
Mapping reserved Windows characters
Starting with kernel 3.18, the cifs module uses the "mapposix" option by default.
When mounting a share using unix extensions and a default Samba configuration, files and directories containing one of the seven reserved Windows characters
: \ * < > ? are listed but cannot be accessed.
Possible solutions are:
- Use the undocumented
nomapposixmount option for cifs
# mount.cifs //server/share /mnt/point -o nomapposix
- Configure Samba to remap
mapposix("SFM", Services for Mac) style characters to the correct native ones using fruit
[global] vfs objects = catia fruit fruit:encoding = native
- Manually remap forbidden characters using catia
[global] vfs objects = catia catia:mappings = 0x22:0xf022, 0x2a:0xf02a, 0x2f:0xf02f, 0x3a:0xf03a, 0x3c:0xf03c, 0x3e:0xf03e, 0x3f:0xf03f, 0x5c:0xf05c, 0x7c:0xf07c, 0x20:0xf020
The latter approach (using catia or fruit) has the drawback of filtering files with unprintable characters.
This section presupposes:
- Usershares are configured following previous section
- A shared folder has been created as a non-root user from GUI
- Guests access has been set to shared folder during creation
- Samba service has been restarted at least once since last
For clarification purpose only, in the following sub-sections is assumed:
- Shared folder is located inside user home directory path (
- Shared folder name is MySharedFiles
- Guest access is read-only.
- Windows users will access shared folder content without login prompt
Verify correct samba configuration
Run the following command from a terminal to test configuration file correctness:
Run the following commands from a terminal:
$ cd /var/lib/samba/usershare $ ls
If everything is fine, you will notice a file named
Read the file contents using the following command:
$ cat mysharedfiles
The terminal output should display something like this:
path=/home/yourUser/Shared comment= usershare_acl=S-1-1-0:r guest_ok=y sharename=MySharedFiles
Verify folder access by guest
Run the following command from a terminal. If prompted for a password, just press Enter:
$ smbclient -L localhost
If everything is fine, MySharedFiles should be displayed under
Run the following command in order to access the shared folder as guest (anonymous login)
$ smbclient -N //localhost/MySharedFiles
If everything is fine samba client prompt will be displayed:
From samba prompt verify guest can list directory contents:
smb: \> ls
NTFS_STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED error displayed, probably there is something to be solved at directory permission level.
Run the following commands as root to set correct permissions for folders:
# cd /home # chmod -R 755 /home/yourUser/Shared
Access shared folder again as guest to be sure guest read access error has been solved.
Mount error: Host is down
This error might be seen when mounting shares of Synology NAS servers. Use the mount option
vers=1.0 to solve it.