Difference between revisions of "Samsung N140"

From ArchWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(72 intermediate revisions by 16 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Category:Samsung (English)]][[Category:Getting and installing Arch (English)]]
#redirect [[ArchWiki:Archive]]
[[Category:HOWTOs (English)]]
This article provides information about installing and setting up Arch Linux on the Samsung N140. It is also relevant for the Samsung N130 which is identical except for the omission of Bluetooth and stereo speakers (and possibly a different battery capacity). There are versions of the N130 which include a 3G cellular modem, available from Vodafone and China Mobile. The [[Samsung NC10]] is similar but not identical to the N140, so you may or may not find useful information on that page.
==BIOS Issues==
===SATA exception, freeze, reset===
A BIOS problem causes a SATA hardreset shortly after boot. This is unresolved up to Samsung N140 BIOS 05CU, and Samsung N130 BIOS 06CM, although a kernel patch is being investigated.
http://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14314, http://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=13416,
http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0911.3/01604.html .
A summary of the status as currently understood:
About 5 minutes after boot or resume, the BIOS switches on some power saving features which were not enabled at boot. It enables additional (sleepier) processor C-states, and sends power management instructions to the HDD. It does these behind the operating system's back -- not using ACPI, which would be handled correctly by Linux. Instead the sudden change results in a SATA exception at the first disk access following the switch.
At that point the SATA driver resets the disk to resolve the problem. The result: the user sees a complete system freeze for about 30 seconds, after which operation of the machine continues normally. This can occur during the periodic fsck at boot if it is running at switch time. Either Samsung needs to be convinced to fix the BIOS, or the Linux kernel needs to be modified to behave more gracefully (Windows doesn't freeze noticeably if at all).
It has been reported that some OpenSUSE kernels [http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/Moblin:/Base/openSUSE_11.1/src/kernel-source-] do not freeze and testing is progress in the [http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=86454 Arch Forums]. The patch [http://marc.info/?l=linux-ide&m=122724081603679&w=2 libata-ata_piix-clear-spurious-IRQ] has been reported to resolve the freezing problem (Hint: to look at the rpm use [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/extra/i686/rpmextract/ rpmextract], and then untar config.tar.bz2 and patches.*.tar.bz2). Until a final kernel patch is created this patch offers an interim solution to the problem and details are given below on how to include it in a custom kernel.
The N140 and N130 BIOSes have Phoenix FailSafe (you have been warned). It's not clear if the SATA problem has any relation to this.
Version 01CM of the N130 BIOS has been reported to not cause freezes, unlike all later ones which do.
Reports about the N130 02II and 02HI BIOSes (for the cellular modem versions) are not yet available.
This problem is hazardous for your filesystem so take precautions. For example use ext3 (not ext4) with option data=journal and install backup software.
===No backlight setting via ACPI===
A workaround is to use "setpci" as shown below.
Alternatively there is a kernel patch (unrelated to the SATA freeze problem) available which changes the backlight brightness using SMI instead of poking PCI config space. It provides a kernel module called "samsung-laptop". Interestingly we see from a version of this patch which is included in OpenSUSE 11.1 that a special (as yet unreleased?) BIOS for the N130 can be informed that the OS is Linux. The effect of this hasn't been published. Suggestion: run the samsung-laptop module with its debug parameter set to 1 to check whether it does anything at all.
===No key releases for some Fn keys===
Some of the Fn keys give key press events but no key releases. This problem was also seen on the NC10 and NC20. A workaround is given below. For kernels 2.6.32 and later this can be done from userspace.
==Software issues==
===Frequent wireless disconnects===
With kernel 2.6.31 ath9k wifi exhibits frequent disconnects and reconnects. See http://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14267. Earlier and later kernels are better.
===Screen flickering and blackouts===
Some problems have been reported with [[KMS]] enabled for some 2.6.32 kernels. This problem is not specific to the Samsung N130/N140 -- it also affects others using Intel graphics drivers. Until the software is fixed a workaround is to[[Samsung_N140#Kernel_Mode_Setting|  disable powersave mode]]. It expected that this issue will be resolved in kernel 2.6.33.
Do the standard Arch installation procedure from the ARCH CD ISO using an external USB CDROM drive. Alternatively boot the Arch installer from a USB flash drive.
For initial installation and testing you should use the standard Arch kernel.
However a number of users are currently using a custom kernel for the following reasons:
* to investigate/resolve the SATA problem described above
* to boot with a minimal kernel containing just the required modules and without an initial ramdisk.
Method A below compiles a minimal kernel without initrd. Method B stays as close as possible to the standard kernel.
==Custom kernel installation (A) ==
An AUR package [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=32042 kernel26-n130] has been created for this.
{{Warning|To include the open-source driver for the '''Realtek RTL8192E''' wireless card, before compiling the kernel please change the ''config file'' and the ''PKGBUILD'' with [http://www.nakamura-gebiet.de/config config RTL8192E] and [http://www.nakamura-gebiet.de/PKGBUILD PKGBUILD RTL8192E] }}
In this kernel most drivers are compiled in and there is no initial ramdisk. The cpu frequency scaling, wifi and webcam modules (acpi-cpufreq, ath9k and uvcvideo) are '''not''' compiled in, so they can be inserted or removed from the kernel to enable or disable those features. MODULES in /etc/rc.conf can be used to enable or disable loading at boot.
Prepare the directory
$ mkdir ~/builds
$ mkdir ~/builds/kernel26-n130
$ cd ~/builds/kernel26-n130
Get the AUR package and untar it
$ wget http://aur.archlinux.org/packages/kernel26-n130/kernel26-n130.tar.gz
$ tar zxvf kernel26-n130.tar.gz
$ cd kernel26-n130
At this point you can edit the PKGBUILD file if you need to (i) change the name or version number,
(ii) change options or (iii) add additional patches. We will change one option.
Edit PKGBUILD and make sure _USE_LIBATA_PATCH is set to 1. This patch prevents the SATA problem described above.
Compile it (this will take some time...):
$ makepkg -s
Install the created .pkg.tar.gz file in the normal pacman way
$ sudo pacman -U kernel26-n130-  (or whatever the created .pkg.tar.gz file is called)
Then, assuming you are using [[GRUB]], insert a new item in your {{Filename|/boot/grub/menu.lst}} to boot the new kernel "kernel26-N130". Note that no initrd line is necessary for this kernel.
# (0) Arch Linux N130
title  Arch Linux Custom N130 Kernel
root  (hd0,YOURROOT-1)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz26-N130 root=/dev/sdaYOURROOT resume=/dev/sdaYOURSWAP ro quiet
And reboot. If you have problems the standard Arch kernel is still installed and selectable from the GRUB menu.
For [[GRUB2]] {{Filename|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}} the syntax looks like this (sda1 = your root partition; sda2 = your swap partition)
menuentry "Arch Linux N130" {
        set root=(hd0,1)
        linux /boot/vmlinuz26-N130 root=/dev/sda1 resume=/dev/sda2 ro quiet
{{Note|The kernel26-n130 has the i915 module compiled in with KMS enabled by default. There is no need to set up KMS as described below unless you wish to disable it.}}
==Custom kernel installation (B)==
An alternative approach is to compile a custom kernel which is as close as possible to the standard Arch kernel. The only required change is to apply the patch
[http://aur.archlinux.org/packages/kernel26-n130/kernel26-n130/libata-ata_piix-clear-spurious-IRQ libata-ata_piix-clear-spurious-IRQ] to address the SATA problem discussed above.
* get the package files for the standard Arch kernel from [http://repos.archlinux.org/wsvn/packages/kernel26/repos/core-i686/ core-i686] or [[ABS]] or (for the 2.6.32 kernel) from [http://repos.archlinux.org/wsvn/packages/kernel26/repos/testing-i686/ testing-i686] or [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=17189 AUR/kernel26-source]
* in PKGBUILD change "pkgname=kernel26" to "pkgname=kernel26-n140"
* add an entry for the patch file to files=() and md5sums=() and a "patch" command just after the -ARCH patches line:
# Add -ARCH patches
# See http://projects.archlinux.org/linux-2.6-ARCH.git/
patch -Np1 -i ${srcdir}/${_patchname} || return 1
# Patch for Samsung N130/N140
patch -Np1 -i ${srcdir}/libata-ata_piix-clear-spurious-IRQ  || return 1
* compile, install it and add new section in {{Filename|/boot/grub/menu.lst}}, identical to the standard entry but with kernel26 replaced by kernel26-n140. Reboot.
=Configure your installation=
RTL8101e/8102e fast ethernet. Works out of the box.
The supplied wifi device is either an Atheros AR9285 (PCI ID = 168c:002b) (European markets) or a Realtek RTL8192E (US and UK markets).
===Atheros AR9285===
02:00.0 Network controller [0280]: Atheros Communications Inc. AR9285 Wireless Network Adapter (PCI-Express) [168c:002b] (rev 01)
The kernel module for this device is "ath9k" (AR9285 is supported since 2.6.29).
Kernels 2.6.30 and 2.6.32-rcN release candidates seem to work fine.
However with kernel 2.6.31 the wireless connection exhibits frequent
disconnects and reattachments,
resulting in periods of bad througput and periods of good throughput.
There is no sign of any patches for 2.6.31.y to fix this regression.
Complain to linux-wireless@vger.kernel.org. To get it working either
downgrade to 2.6.30 or preferably upgrade to 2.6.32.
The following patch was included in 2.6.32 just before the final release: http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=commit;h=54ab040d24904d1fa2c0a6a27936b7c56a4efb24 . It disables PS (power saving) mode by default, since this mode was found to have problems. See here http://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14267 . PS mode can also be disabled with the following command, which can be placed in {{Filename|/etc/rc.local}}:
iwconfig wlan0 power off
===Realtek RTL8192E===
====Open source driver====
The native Linux driver for this wireless device is still in preparation, but it is available as a kernel module "rtl8192e" in "staging" -- i.e. in preparation for inclusion in the kernel and available to try out, but likely to still have some problems. It has been reported as working [http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=86454&p=6]. Firmware is required. See
http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/gregkh/firmware.git;a=summary .
Install the firmware like this:
$ sudo pacman -S git
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/gregkh/firmware.git
$ sudo cp -a firmware/RTL8192E /lib/firmware
$ rm -fr firmware
Alternatively use a web browser on another computer to save
[http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/gregkh/firmware.git;a=snapshot;h=407f318edf3766d63bea50adcf2dd42d55bf0891;sf=tgz firmware-407f318.tar.gz]
and transfer the file (e.g. on a USB flash drive) to the Samsung N130/140. Then
$ tar zxvf firmware-407f318.tar.gz
$ sudo mkdir /lib/firmware/RTL8192E
$ sudo cp -a firmware-407f318/*.img /lib/firmware/RTL8192E
$ md5sum /lib/firmware/RTL8192E/*
should return
bb9f64de23939ec247d15dfbeb0ed91e  /lib/firmware/RTL8192E/boot.img
db83def0338769de1d4658a00b6f738d  /lib/firmware/RTL8192E/data.img
0034020e5a32571f486849aa90a389a7  /lib/firmware/RTL8192E/main.img
On rebooting, the kernel messages (visible with "dmesg") should now indicate that rtl819xE finds the firmware for loading into the device.
It has been reported as working with [[Wireless_Setup#ndiswrapper|ndiswrapper]] which makes use of the closed source Windows driver under Linux.
==Cellular 3G Modem==
''Specifications required''
==Graphics Adapter==
The video controller is an Intel chipset that works with the xf86-video-intel driver.
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller [0300]: Intel Corporation Mobile 945GME Express Integrated Graphics Controller [8086:27ae] (rev 03)
00:02.1 Display controller [0380]: Intel Corporation Mobile 945GM/GMS/GME, 943/940GML Express Integrated Graphics Controller [8086:27a6] (rev 03)
===Kernel Mode Setting===
See also [[Intel#KMS_.28Kernel_Mode_Setting.29]].
KMS works at native 1024x600 resolution with kernel 2.6.31.
Problems have been reported for some 2.6.32 kernels (later release candidates up to release,
which results in screen flickering and blackouts about 5 minutes after resuming
from suspend-to-RAM or suspend-to-disk.
{{Note|If you encounter screen flickering or blackouts with KMS enabled, first try setting '''i915.powersave&#61;0''' as a kernel boot option. If that fails you should try disabling KMS.}}
====Method A====
If you are using a kernel with no inital ramdisk and you can simply add the required options to the GRUB kernel line:h
# (0) Arch Linux N130
title  Arch Linux Custom N130 Kernel
root  (hd0,YOURROOT-1)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz26-N130 root=/dev/sdaYOURROOT resume=/dev/sdaYOURSWAP ro quiet '''i915.powersave=0 i915.modeset=1'''
====Method B====
If you are using an initial ramdisk (either the standard kernel or the custom kernel method B above) then do the following:
Edit {{Filename|/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf}}:
        options i915 modeset=1
        options i915 modeset=0
Edit {{Filename|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}:
        MODULES="intel_agp i915"
Put keymap early in {{Filename|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} HOOKS.
Regenerate the init ramdisk for the kernel(s) you are running:
        $ mkinitcpio -p kernel26
        $ mkinitcpio -p kernel26-n140
Remove any vga= or video= from grub {{Filename|/boot/grub/menu.lst}} kernel line, and reboot.
====KMS with KDE====
With earlier versions of KDE, on logout it returned to the F1 real console instead of to [[KDM]].
Uncommenting this entry in {{Filename|/usr/share/config/kdm/kdmrc}} solved the problem:
This setting is now the default.
===Backlight Brightness===
xbacklight does not work currently.
However the brightness can be set with the following command
setpci -s 00:02.1 F4.B=hh
where hh is the level of brightness, in the range 00 to FF. Don't set it to zero
because your backlight will turn off!
Note this does not require the samsung-laptop patch mentioned above.
Use the following script to increase and decrease the brightness. Put it in
/sbin/backlight for example. Use xbindkeys to bind commands to the backlight Fn keys.
Obtain sudo permission for user to use those commands with visudo.
  # increase/decrease/set/get the backlight brightness (range 0-255) by 16
  #get current brightness in hex and convert to decimal
  var1=`setpci -s 00:02.1 F4.B`
  case "$1" in
                #calculate new brightness
                var2=`echo "ibase=10; obase=16; a=($var1d+16);if (a<255) print a else print 255" | bc`
                echo "$0: increasing brightness from 0x$var1 to 0x$var2"
                setpci -s 00:02.1 F4.B=$var2
                #calculate new brightness
                var2=`echo "ibase=10; obase=16; a=($var1d-16);if (a>15) print a else print 15" | bc`
                echo "$0: decreasing brightness from 0x$var1 to 0x$var2"
                setpci -s 00:02.1 F4.B=$var2
                #n.b. this does allow "set 0" i.e. backlight off
                echo "$0: setting brightness to 0x$2"
                setpci -s 00:02.1 F4.B=$2
                echo "$0: current brightness is 0x$var1"
                if [ $var1d -eq 0 ] ; then
                        echo "toggling up"
                        setpci -s 00:02.1 F4.B=FF
                        echo "toggling down"
                        setpci -s 00:02.1 F4.B=0
                echo "usage: $0 {up|down|set <val>|get|toggle}"
  exit 0
===External VGA===
External VGA works out of the box with xrandr / krandrtray. Tested at 1920x1080 resolution.
The audio device is an Intel HD.
00:1b.0 Audio device [0403]: Intel Corporation 82801G (ICH7 Family) High Definition Audio Controller [8086:27d8] (rev 02)
==Suspend and Hibernate==
Suspend to RAM with pm-suspend works.
It is most useful to trigger suspends using [[acpid]].
To catch the "sleep" function key, edit {{Filename|/etc/acpi/handler.sh}} so that the button/sleep) event calls /usr/sbin/pm-suspend (instead of "echo mem > /sys/power/state" which may leave wifi down after resume):
        case "$2" in
            SLPB)  logger "Sleep button pressed, suspending to RAM"
            *)      logger "ACPI action undefined: $2"
When catching the lid closure, the button/lid event will be seen twice -- once on suspend
and again on resume. So use the lid state to distinguish between these so that pm-suspend
is not triggered twice:
Enter the following lines in {{Filename|/etc/acpi/handler.sh}}:
        if [ `/bin/awk '{print $2}' /proc/acpi/button/lid/LID0/state` = closed ]; then
Hibernate works correctly (see [[pm-utils|pm-utils article]]).
If you are a KDE4 user you can take advantage of powerdevil (included in kdemod-core/kdemod-kdebase-workspace since release 4.2) to manipulate the screen brightness, cpu scaling and hibernate. Suspend
from KDE works too, but if you are using handler.sh to suspend on the button/lid and button/sleep acpi
events, then KDE only needs to lock the screen. Note that cpu scaling requires acpi-cpufreq module
to be loaded in MODULES in /etc/rc.conf.
==Fn Keys==
Firstly edit {{Filename|/usr/share/hal/fdi/information/10freedesktop/30-keymap-misc.fdi}}
and insert N140 into the list where you see NC10 already.
Now in a real console
will show presses for the function keys, but ''no releases'' for some of them.
This is a BIOS issue which was also found on the Samsung NC10. A workaround quirk was put in the
kernel in atkbd.c for the NC10. Patching this routine to apply the same
quirk also works for the N140, and is recommended for 2.6.31 and earlier.
However for 2.6.32 and later (i.e. any current Arch installation) there is a much simpler solution because this quirk can now be applied from user space. Simply edit {{Filename|/etc/rc.local}} and add the following line:
  echo 130,131,132,134,136,137,179,247,249 > /sys/devices/platform/i8042/serio0/force_release
After this is run, doing "showkey" in a real console will show key presses and releases.
===Binding Fn keys with xbindkeys===
The following has been tested with KDE, but should also work for other DEs.
To bind the Fn keys to action, read [[Extra_Keyboard_Keys#The_quick_way]] and also [[Extra_Keyboard_Keys_in_Xorg#Using_your_Desktop_Environment_tools|Extra Keyboard Keys in Xorg]].
The suspend key (Fn+ESC) and disable touchpad (Fn+F10) keys, numlock, scroll lock,
volume controls and mute work out of the box.
Note, that suspend key is handled in {{Filename|/etc/acpi/handler.sh}} (see "button/sleep" case entry) as
shown above.
1) install ''xbindkeys''
  pacman -S xbindkeys
2) check the key values with
  xbindkeys -mk
3) edit .xbindkeysrc
  "sudo /sbin/backlight up"
      m:0x0 + c:233
  "sudo /sbin/backlight down"
      m:0x0 + c:232
      m:0x0 + c:244
  "sudo /sbin/backlight toggle"
      m:0x0 + c:156
      m:0x0 + c:157
      m:0x0 + c:210
      m:0x0 + c:246
4) run xbindkeys, and try it out
For KDE4 put a link to {{Filename|/usr/bin/xbindkeys}} in {{Filename|~/.kde4/Autostart}}
  ln -s /usr/bin/xbindkeys ~/.kde4/Autostart/xbindkeys.link
The Fn+F3 ("Euro") key: here Samsung implemented what has been called
an entertaingly hilarious hack:
ROFL! Does anyone know a practical use for this key?
Fortunately some (eurozone) models have a real Euro key as well.
===Binding Fn keys in Openbox===
In [[Openbox]] one can use the internal keybind setup instead of xbindkeys.
Here is an excerpt from rc.xml:
    <keybind key="XF86Battery">
      <action name="Execute">
    <keybind key="XF86Display">
      <action name="Execute">
    <keybind key="XF86Launch1">
      <action name="Execute">
    <keybind key="XF86Launch2">
      <action name="Execute">
        <command>nice python ~/.config/openbox/scripts/checkmail.py --update</command>
    <keybind key="XF86Launch3">
      <action name="Execute">
    <keybind key="XF86AudioMute">
      <action name="Execute">
        <command>~/.PersonalBin/volume mute</command>
    <keybind key="XF86WLAN">
      <action name="Execute">
    <keybind key="XF86AudioLowerVolume">
      <action name="Execute">
        <command>~/.PersonalBin/volume -</command>
    <keybind key="XF86AudioRaiseVolume">
      <action name="Execute">
        <command>~/.PersonalBin/volume +</command>
    <keybind key="XF86MonBrightnessDown">
      <action name="PreviousWindow">
          <action name="Focus"/>
          <action name="Raise"/>
    <keybind key="XF86MonBrightnessUp">
      <action name="NextWindow">
          <action name="Focus"/>
          <action name="Raise"/>
==Saving Power==
Read [[Laptop#Power_Management]]
Read [[Lightweight Applications]]
{{Note|Caution is advised here with hdparm settings because the issue with SATA freezing is
related to power management and spindowns. Before you tune the Samsung N130/N140 to minimize power consumption it is strongly recommended that you resolve the SATA freezing issue as discussed above.}}
The Samsung N130/N140 contains a 1.6 GHz Intel Atom ULV (ultra low voltage) N270 processor, designed for low power consumption. The power consumption of the netbook (not just the processor) can be as low as 6W on idle with HDD spun down, although a typical figure under normal usage would be considerably higher.
Obviously the battery life depends on battery capacity as well as power consumption.
The supplied battery varies in different markets. This list is a guideline only. Do not rely on this information before purchase -- check with YOUR vendor and update this wiki if it is incorrect:
Voltage 11.1V
N130            = 4000mAh [44Wh] (most markets), 5200mAh [57Wh] (Sweden)
N130 (Vodafone)  = ? [?] (Spain)
N130 (CMCC)      = ? [?] (China)
N140            = 5200mAh [57Wh] (US, Germany, France, Sweden), 5900mAh [65Wh] (UK)
Extended battery = 7800mAh [86Wh]
Install powertop which is a very useful tool for measuring and tuning power consumption, and htop which is useful for checking the CPU and memory usage of running processes
# pacman -S powertop htop
Enable CPU frequency scaling (P-states) by loading the driver module "acpi-cpufreq". This is most conveniently done in {{Filename|/etc/rc.conf}}:
MODULES=(acpi-cpufreq ... )
Select the CPU frequency governor by adding the following lines to {{Filename|/etc/rc.local}}:
# Set the CPU frequency scaling governor for each core
echo "ondemand" > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_governor
echo "ondemand" > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu1/cpufreq/scaling_governor
{{Note|Contrary to the advice in many places "hdparm -B 255 /dev/sda" does NOT necessarily turn off advanced power management. What happens depends on the disk model. With the Samsung HM160HI disk 255 results in very frequent spindowns}}

Latest revision as of 22:34, 25 November 2017

Redirect to: